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COMPRISING 



A DICTIONARY OF NAUTICAL WORDS AND PHRASES; BIOGRAPHICAL 
NOTICES, AND RECORDS OF NAVAL OFFICERS; 



SPECIAL ARTICLES ON NAVAL ART AND SCIENCE, 



WRITTEN EXPRESSLY FOR THIS WORK 



BY OFFICERS AND OTHERS OF RECOGNIZED AUTHORITY IN THE 
BRANCHES TREATED BY THEM. 



TOGETHER WITH 



DESCRIPTIONS OF THE PRINCIPAL NAVAL STATIONS AND SEAPORTS OF THE WORLD. 



COMPLETE IlSrONE VOLUME. 




PHILADELPHIA: 

L. R. HAMERSLY & CO. 

1884. 



Copyright, 1880, by L. B. HAMERSLY & Co. 



PREFACE. 



THE great abundance of encyclopaedias that distinguishes our day would, at first 
sight, seem to discourage any attempt to add to that department of literature. But 
among all the works coming properly under the name of encyclopaedia there is 
not one, at least in the English language, that supplies the want which it is the aim 
of this volume to meet. The sea is, so to speak, a world in itself. It has its own 
vegetable and animal life, and its own natural laws; while on its surface floats a 
multitude of vessels that serve either as the outlying defenses of the nations which 
border upon it, or as the carriers of the commodities which they find a profit in 
exchanging. This world of men and things, so peculiar and distinct, necessarily 
has a peculiar language, peculiar customs, and peculiar belongings. It is, more 
over, a progressive world, and the arts and sciences that have relation to it are 
moving and developing pari passu with those that relate solely to the terrene por 
tion of the globe. When to these considerations is added the fact that the sea is the 
especial field of operations of a profession which unites in itself the characteristics of 
the sailor and of the soldier, and to which is committed the high trust of maintaining 
the honor and dignity of the nation which it represents in all parts of the globe, and 
of extending over the citizens of its own country, wherever their business or pleasure 
may call them, the protecting segis of the national flag, it would certainly appear 
that sufficient warrant exists for the issuing of this work, which has for its object the 
bringing together in one view, and within convenient compass, the several kinds of 
information most useful to naval officers, and most likely to be sought for by sea 
faring men of every name and grade. Nor is it only those that are by profession, 
or calling, identified with the sea who will find profit and instruction in this volume. 
There is a large and increasing class among the gentlemen of our own and other 
countries who cultivate the sea for the pleasure that it yields, and who take a manly 
delight in the danger and excitement incident to sporting upon its surface, to whom 
a book like this must prove an auxiliary of great value. To these may be added, 
as likely to find advantage in this book, all whose business, or love of knowledge, 
prompts them to investigate the science of that world which has its habitation in, 
under, or upon the waters of the great deep. 

We have already intimated that this work claims to be unique. It embraces, 
first, a complete dictionary of marine words and phrases; second, a large number of 
original articles on special topics ; third, a copious fund of biographical data ; and, 
fourth, a gazetteer of the principal naval stations and seaports of the world. No 
other work uniting these several features exists in our language, nor, we think we 
may confidently add, in any other. 

Custom, no less than justice to those whose labors have produced the volume 



iii 



;i 



iv PKEFACE. 



now offered to the public, makes it proper to assign to the several collaborators the 
credit due for their respective shares in its preparation. 

To Mr. Lewis R. Hamersly, who saw service with the navy during the war of 
the Rebellion, and who, as the compiler of " The Records of Living Officers of the 
Navy," and as the head of the military and naval publishing house of L. R. Ham 
ersly & Co., is well known to the naval profession, credit is due for the conception 
and plan of the work, and also for the preparation of the general mass of records 
of officers which it contains. 

On Lieutenant J. W. Carlin has devolved the main burden of the editorial 
conduct of the work. Besides numerous articles in other departments, he has ex 
clusively written or compiled the astronomical articles and definitions, as also the 
entire mass of nautical definitions not herein specifically credited to others. 

Medical Director Edward Shippen, whose biographical sketches of distin 
guished naval men of our own and former times constitute a feature of the work, 
has, besides the articles bearing his signature, given it the benefit of his editorial 
assistance in ways that have contributed largely to improve and perfect it. 

Rear- Admiral George Henry Preble, besides the articles which appear over his 
signature, has contributed the definitions of naval titles, and has greatly assisted the 
work by his advice and encouragement. 

Chief Engineer Albert Aston has contributed the general mass of definitions 
relating to machinery and steam-engineering, and Passed Assistant Engineer L. W. 
Robinson has also made valuable contributions to the same department. 

To Naval Constructor S. H. Pook belongs the credit of having furnished the 
definitions of the terms pertaining to ship-building. 

Lieutenant E. T. Strong, in addition to the articles signed by him, has con 
tributed the definitions of nautical and naval terms which occur under the letters 
K, L, and T, respectively. 

Lieutenant F. S. Bassett, in addition to the articles which appear over his sig 
nature, has compiled, or written, the greater part of the definitions included under 
the alphabetical headings F, S, W, and X. 

In several departments of the work Colonel George A. Woodward, U.S.A., 
has assisted by contributions and editorial supervision. 

The following is a list of the principal works consulted in the preparation of 
this volume: Smyth s Sailor s Word-book, Falconer s Marine Dictionary, Burn s 
Naval and Military Technical Dictionary, Cooper s Naval History, Bedford s 
Sailor s Pocket-book, Luce s Seamanship, Nares s Seamanship, Totten s Naval Text 
book, Dana s Seaman s Friend, Harbord s Glossary of Navigation, Bowditch s 
Navigator, Loomis s Astronomy, Peabody s Astronomy, Proctor s Hand-book of 
the Stars, Cooke s Naval Gunnery, Ordnance Instructions (1880), Lippincott s 
Gazetteer, Wilson s Ship-building, Very s Navies of the World, King s War-ships 
and Navies of the World, Knight s Mechanical Dictionary, Sleeman s Torpedoes and 
Torpedo Warfare (Electricity), Myer s Manual of Signals, Navy Regulations, Web 
ster s Dictionary, Worcester s Dictionary, Brande s Encyclopaedia, Chambers s En 
cyclopaedia, Appleton s Encyclopaedia, Johnson s Encyclopaedia, Kent s Commen 
taries, Sharswood s Blackstone. 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS AND ARTICLES. 



AMMEN, DANIEL, Kear-Admiral U.S.N. 
Balsa. 

Canals, Interoceanie. 
Cushing, W. B. ; Commander U.S.I*. 
Life-boats and Life-rafts. 
Marine Rams. 

ASTON, ALBERT, Chief Engineer U.S.N. 
Compound Engine. 
Compound Screw. 
Condenser. 
Crank. 

Expansion of Steam. 
Marine Steam-boiler. 
Marine Steam-engine. 
Ship-building, Iron. 

BASSETT, F. S., Lieutenant U.S.N. 

Barren, James, Commodore U.S.N. 

Barry, John, Commodore U.S.N. 

Bay. 

Cape. 

Continents. 

Currents. 

Decatur, Stephen, Commodore U.S.N. 

Elliott, Jesse Duncan, Commodore U.S.N. 

Exploring Expeditions. 

Fire-ships and Bafts, Explosion-vessels and 

Booms. 
Gulf. 

Hopkins, Esek, Commodore U.S.N. 
Hull, Isaac, Commodore U.S.N. 
Islands. 
Lake. 

Lawrence, James, Commodore U.S.N". 
Oceans. 

, Perry, M. C., Commodore U.S.N. 
Perry, O. H., Commodore U.S.N. 
Bivers. 

Boutine of Duty in a Man-of-war. 
Sea. 
Ship. 
Sound. 

Stewart, Charles, Commodore U.S.N. 
Wilkes, Charles, Bear-Admiral U.S.N. 

BELKNAP, GEORGE E., Captain U.S.N. 
Deep-sea Sounding. 
Navy-yard, Pensacola. 

BLACK, C. H., Lieutenant-Commander U<S.N. 
Compass, The Mariner s. 

BLODGETT, LORIN, Esq. . 
Commerce, Modern. 

BLOODGOOD, DELAVAN. Medical Inspector 

U.S.N. 
Naval Hospital, Brooklyn. 



BROOKE, J. M., Professor Virginia Military In 
stitute. 
Ordnance. 

BROWN, B. M. G., Lieutenant U.S.N. 
Nebular Hypothesis. 
Porter, D. IX, Admiral U.S.N. 
Submarine Mines. 
Torpedo-boat. 
Torpedoes. 
Torpedo Station. 

BROWNE, J. M., Medical Director U.S.N. 
Naval Hospital, Mare Island. 

CARPENTER, JOHN T., M.D., President of the 

Pennsylvania State Medical Society. 
Hospital Gangrene. 
Scurvy. 

CHAD WICK, F. E., Lieutenant-Commander 

U.S.N. 

Coast Guard of Great Britain. 
Naval Training Systems^ Foreign. 
Beserve, Boyal Naval. 

COCHRANE, H. C., Captain U.S.M.C. 
Court-martial. 
Court-martial, Summary. 
Inquiry, Court of. 
Judge-advocate. 
Judge-advocate-general. 
Marine Corps. 
Oaths 

Pardoning Power. 
Provost-marshal. 
Witness. 

COLHOUN, E. B., Commodore U.S.N. 
Navy-yard, Mare Island. 

COLLUM, B. S., Captain U.S.M.C. 
Marine Corps, Foreign. 

COLVOCORESSES, G. P., Lieutenant U.S.N. 
Chart. 
Sketching. 

DICKINS, F. W., Lieutenant-Commander U.S.N. 
Naval Academies. 

Dow, JESSE E. 

Navy Department. 

Navy, Volunteer, of the United States. 

DULIN, JAMES C. 

Examination of Officers for Promotion and 
Betirement in the Navy, Board of. 



vi 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS AND ARTICLES. 



EMMONS, G. F., Rear-Admiral U.S.N. 
Navy of the United States, 1775-1812. 

ETTING, THEODORE M. 
Marine Insurance. 
Maritime Law. 

FARRAGUT, LOYALL. 

Farragut, David Glasgow, Admiral U.S.N. 

FRANKLIN, S. R., Captain U.S.N. 

Hydrographer to the Bureau of Navigation. 
Hydrographic Office. 

GALT, W. W., Assistant Paymaster U.S.N. 
Naval Station, Key West. 

GLASS, HENRY, Commander U.S.N. 
School-ships, Nautical. 

GREEN, F. M., Lieutenant-Commander U.S.N. 
Hydrography. 
Latitude. 
Longitude. 
Navigation. 
Sextant. 

HANFORD, F., Lieutenant U.S.N. 
Naval Lyceum. 
Navy-yard, Brooklyn, N. T. 

HILL, WALTER N. 
Explosives. 

HOFF, WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE, Lieutenant- 
Commander U.S.N. 
Bainbridge, William, Commodore U.S.N. 

HORD, W. T., Medical Director U.S.N. 
Naval Hospital, Chelsea. 

HUTCHINS, C. T., Lieutenant U.S.N. 
Anchor. 

JOHNSON, A. B., Chief Clerk Light-House 

Board. 
Light-house Establishment. 

KIDDER, J. H., Surgeon U.S.N. 
Dry Rot. 
Yellow Fever. 

KUNHARDT, C. P. 

Yachts and Yachting. 

LUCE, S. B., Captain U.S.N. 
Administration, Naval. 
Admiralty. 
Anchoring. 
Commission. 
Corvette. 

Emergencies at Sea. 
Government, Naval. 
Mooring. 
Naval Songs. 
Naval Tactics. 
Naval Training System. 
Organization. 

LULL, E. P., Commander U.S.N. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. 



LYLE, D. A., Lieutenant U.S.A. 
Wreck-artillery. 

LYON, H. W., Lieutenant U.S.N. 
Guns, Casting of. 
Projectiles. 

MANSFIELD, C. D., Paymaster U.S.N. 
Pay Corps, U.S.N. 

MASON, T. B. M., Lieutenant U.S.N. 
Diving. 

Landing-parties. 
Naval Brigade. 
Naval Institute. 
Organization. 

MASSIE, A. H. 

Navy-yard, Boston. 

McBLAIR, C. H. 

Navy of the Southern Confederacy. 

MERRYMAN, J. H., Captain U.S.R.M. 
Revenue Marine Service. 

METCALFE, HENRY, Captain U.S.A. 
Machine-guns. 
Magazine-guns. 

NELSON, THOMAS, Lieutenant-Commander 

U.S.N. 
Storms. 

NOEL, J. E., Lieutenant-Commander U.S.N. 
Lead. 
Log. 
Navigator. 

OLIVER, PAUL A. 
Gunpowder. 

PEARSE, JOHN B., Manager South Boston Iron 

Company. 
Iron and Steel. 

POOK, S. H., Naval Constructor U.S.N. 
Ship, Launching of. 

PREBLE, G. H., Rear-Admiral U.S.N, 
Admiral. 
Captain. 
Naval Titles. 
Registers, U.S.N. 
Salutes. 

SANDS, F. P. B. 

Preston, Samuel N., and Porter, Benjamin 
H., Lieutenants U.S.N. 

SIDDONS, J. H. 

Biographical Sketches. 
Great Britain, Navy of. 

SHIPPEN, E., Medical Director U.S.N. 
Asylum, Naval, of the United States. 
Bart, Jean. 
Decres, Denis. 
Doria, Andrea. 
Duguay, Tronin Rene". 
Duquesne, Abraham, Marquis. 
Exmouth, Viscount. 



LIST OF CONTKIBUTOES AND ARTICLES. 



vii 



SHIPPEN, E. Continued. 
Forbin, Claude. 
Kane, Elisha Kent. 
La Perouse. 
La Vallette. 

L Isle, Adam Phillipe de. 
Medical Corps of U. S. Navy. 
Medical Officers of U. S. Navy, Duties of. 
Quarantine. 

Euyter, Michel Adrianzoon Van. 
Sargasso Sea. 
Ship Fever. 
Sick-bay. 
Sufferin. 
Tourville. 
Tromp, Von. 
Villeneuve. 

SIMPSON, E., Commodore TJ.S.N. 
Armor. 
Ironclads. 

SOLEY, J. EUSSELL, Professor U.S.N. 
International Law. 

STEVENS, T. H. ? Eear- Admiral IT.S.N. 
Navy of the United States, 1812-80. 
Eowan, S. C., Vice-Admiral U.S.N. 

STOCKTON, H. T., Lieutenant TJ.S.N. 
Armor, Compound. 
Clubs, British Service. 

STRONG, E. T., Lieutenant U.S.N. 
Capstan. 
Dock. 



STRONG, E. T. Continued. 
Masting. 
Masts. 

Preparing for Sea. 
Eope. 
Eope-walk. 
Eudder. 
Sails. 

Small-stuff. 
Tackles. 

Telegraph-cables. 
Getting under Way. 

TODD, D. P. 

Almanac, The Nautical. 
Ephemeris, The Astronomical. 

TRUXTUN, W. T., Captain U.S.N. 
Executive-officer. 

UPSHUR, J. H., Commodore U.S.N. 
Inspection, Board of. 

VERY, EDWARD W., Lieutenant U.S.N. 
Signals. 

WHITFIELD, "W. E., Ensign U.S.N. 
Naval Station, Port Eoyal. 

WILSON, JOSEPH, Medical Director U.S.N. 
Hygiene, Naval. 

WOOD, WM. MAXWELL, Lieutenant U.S.N. 
Life-boats and Boat-detaching Apparatus. 



THE following is a summary of the contents of the book : 

I. A complete Dictionary of Nautical Terms and Phrases. 
II. Biographical Notices of Distinguished Naval Officers of our own and foreign services. 

III. Special Articles prepared expressly for this work by officers and others of recognized 

ability in their respective fields of, discussion, and comprehending the freshest and 
most authentic information attainable respecting the several subjects treated. 

IV. A Gazetteer of the Principal Naval Stations and Seaports of the World. 

V. A Supplement containing concise Kecords of Living Officers of the Navy, including 
Captains, Commanders, Lieutenant-Commanders and Lieutenants, and Staff-Officers 
of relative rank. The records of Flag-Officers are included in the body of the work. 



viii 



A NAVAL ENCYCLOPAEDIA. 



A. 




A. Abbreviation for after in the U. S. Gen 
eral Service Code of Signals. Contraction for 
at, on, or in, as, a-stern, a-shore, a-poise. 

A 1. The highest class of excellence in mer 
chant vessels. See CLASSIFICATION OF MER 
CHANT VESSELS. 

Aalborg. A city and seaport of Denmark, in 
Jutland, on the south shore of the Lymfiord, 
near its mouth, in the Cattegat. Lat. 57 2 
46" N. ; Ion. 9 55 38" E. Pop. 11,721. 

Aarhuus. A seaport of Denmark, in Jutland, 
on the Cattegat, at the mouth of the Molle-Aue, 
37 miles S.E. of Viborg. Lat. 56 9 27" N. ; 
Ion. 10 12 46" E. Pop. 15,000. 

A. B. An abbreviation signifying Able Sea 
man. See ABLE. 

Abab. A Turkish sailor who plies in coasting 
craft. 

Aback. The situation of a sail when the wind 
acts on its forward surface. The sails are laid 
aback, or thrown aback, by hauling in the weather- 
braces or by putting the helm down, or both. 
They are caught aback, or taken aback, by a shift 
of wind, or by inattention at the helm. Flat 
aback means that the wind acts nearly at a right 
angle to the forward surface of the sail. Taken 
aback is also used figuratively for being taken by 
surprise. All aback forward is the notice from 
the forecastle that the head-sails have been taken 
aback. Brace aback is the order given to swing 
the yards and lay the sails aback. 

Abaft. Behind. Abaft the beam, astern of a 
line forming a right angle with the keel. 

Abaka. "The fibre of which Manilla rope is 
made. 

Abandon. To relinquish to underwriters all 
claim to property which may be recovered from 
shipwreck, capture, or any other peril stated in 
the policy. To desert a vessel on account of the 
danger in remaining on board. 

Abatement. A demand for a reduction of 
freight when unforeseen causes have delayed or 
hindered the performance of a stipulated charter- 
party. 

Abeam. Opposite the centre of the ship s 
side ; on a line which forms a right angle with 
the keel. 

Aberration. The apparent displacement of 
the stars, caused by the motion of the earth 
combined with the motion of light. The devia 



tion of the rays of light from the principal focus 
of a lens. 

Abet. To excite, encourage, or assist. 

Able. Competent ; strong. Able Seaman, a 
rating on the ship s books. He must be compe 
tent to perform all the duties required of a sailor. 

Able-whackets. A sea game, in which the 
loser is beaten over the hands with a handker 
chief, tightly twisted. 

Aboard. On board ; inside, or upon a ship. 
Residing afloat. To keep the land aboard is to 
hug the shore. To fall aboard of is for one 
vessel to foul another. To lay an enemy aboard 
is to run into or alongside of him. To haul the 
tacks aboard is to set the courses. 

About. To go about is to change the course of 
a ship by tacking. Ready about, or boutship, is 
the order to prepare for tacking. 

Abox. The position of the head-yards when 
they are braced aback, the after-sails remaining 
full. Brace-abox, the order to lay the head-yards 
abox. This is done in boxhauling and occa 
sionally in heaving-to, but is more generally 
done to box the ship s head off from the wind 
after she has been caught aback, or after she has 
missed stays. 

Abraham-men. An English cant term for 
vagabonds who, under pretence of being desti 
tute mariners, beg about the dock. A malin 
gerer wanting to go on the sick-list is said to 
"sham Abraham." 

Abrase. To dub or smooth planks. 

Abreast. Side by side ; opposite to ; parallel 
with. Line abreast, a formation in which the 
ships are abeam of each other. 

Abri. (Fr.) Cove; shelter; under the lee; 
a safe anchorage on a weather shore. 

Abrid. A pintle-plate. 

Abroach. On tap ; in use. 

Abroad. On a foreign station ; in a foreign 
country. An old word for spread; as, all sail 
abroad, 

Abrupt. Steep ; broken ; craggy ; as, of cliffs 
and headlands. 

Absence. State of being absent. Leave of 
absence, permission of the proper authority to be 
absent from post or duty for a specified time. 
Absence without leave, with manifest intention 
not to return, is desertion. When there is a 
probability that the party intends to return, he 

13 



ABSORPTION 



14 



ACADEMIES 



is to be considered a straggler for ten days, at 
the expiration of which he is to be regarded as a 
deserter. 

Absorption. A term formerly used for the 
sinking of islands and tracts of land Subsi 
dence. 

Abstract. An abridgment of the contents 
of a book or document. 

A-burton. The situation of casks when 
stowed athwartships. 

Abut. When two planks are joined endwise 
they are said to butt or abut against each other. 
Abutting-joint is a joint where the pieces come 
together at a right angle. 

Abutment. The breech-block of a fire-arm. 

Abyme. The site of constant whirlpools, as 
the Maelstrom was supposed to be. An abyss. 

Abyss. A depth without bottom. 

Academies, Naval. The United States Naval 
Academy at Annapolis was founded and formally 
opened on October 10, 1845. On August 7, 1845, 
Mr. George Bancroft, Secretary of the Navy 
under President James K. Polk, issued instruc 
tions to Commander Buchanan for the opening 
of the school. The War Department had pre 
viously transferred to the naval authorities the 
site and buildings of Fort Severn, one of the 
defenses of Annapolis harbor, at the mouth of 
the Severn Kiver, in the State of Maryland. 
The first step was to collect the midshipmen, 
who, from time to time, were on shore, and give 
them occupation in the study of subjects essential 
to the education of a naval officer. In October, 
1849, a board of officers was convened to reor 
ganize the institution, and to make it conform, 
as nearly as possible, to the system pursued at 
the Military Academy at West Point. The 
course of instruction and the regulations were 
revised, and the title of the institution was 
changed from Naval School to U. S. Naval 
Academy. In November, 1851, the course of 
study was fixed at four years. A practice-vessel 
was attached to the Academy for summer cruis 
ing, and a Board of Visitors was provided for, 
to attend the annual examinations, and to report 
upon the condition of the school. After the 
breaking out of the civil war, in May, 1861, the 
Academy, with all its apparatus and personnel, 
was transferred to Newport, R. I., where it re 
mained until September, 1865, when it was re 
turned to Annapolis. The programme of studies 
was then rearranged to conform more closely to 
modern ideas, and remains practically unaltered 
at this date. The course of instruction embraces 
the following studies, viz. : seamanship, which 
includes naval construction, naval tactics, prac 
tical exercises, signals, swimming, gymnastics, 
etc. ; ordnance and gunnery, which includes 
infantry tactics, field-artillery and boat-howitzer 
exercise, great guns, mortar practice, and fencing; 
mathematics, which comprises algebra, geometry, 
trigonometry, analytical geometry, descriptive 
geometry, and calculus ; steam engineering, com 
prising practical exercises, theory of steam-engine, 
and fabrication and designing of machinery ; 
astronomy, navigation, and surveying; physics 
and chemistry ; mechanics and applied mathe 
matics, which includes, besides mechanics, the 
differential and integral calculus, and theoretical 
naval architecture; English studies, history and 
law ; modern languages, French and Spanish ; 
drawing, comprising right-line, free-hand and 



perspective, topographical, and chart making. 
On June 1, 1880, the personnel of the Academy 
was as follows : commanding officer and staff, 
including medical and pay officers and chap 
lain, 12; instructors, 46 commissioned officers 
and 15 civilians, 61 ; civil officers, including 
secretary, librarian, clerks, etc., 14 ; marine 
officers, 3 ; warrant-officers, 2 ; and 7 mates at 
tached to the gunnery -ship and practice-vessels ; 
total staff of the Academy, 99 ; number of cadet 
midshipmen, 253 ; of cadet engineers, 99 ; total 
of. students, 352; aggregate, 451. The list of 
successive superintendents is as follows : 1st, 
Commander Franklin Buchanan, 1845-47 ; 2d, 
Commander George P. Upshur, 1847-50; 3d, 
Captain C. K. Strihling, 1850-53 ; 4th, Captain 
L. M. Goldsborough, 1853-57 ; 5th, Commodore 
George S. Blake, 1857-65 ; 6th, Vice-Admiral 
D. D. Porter, 1865-69 ; 7th, Rear-Admiral John 
L. Worden, 1869-74 ; 8th, Rear-Admiral C. R. 
P. Rodgers, 1874-78 ; 9th, Commodore Foxhall 
A. Parker, 1878-79. In June, 1879, Commodore 
Parker died, and was succeeded by Rear-Admiral 
George B. Balch as the tenth superintendent. In 
1865 two classes of cadet engineers, not to exceed 
50 in the aggregate, were admitted into the Acad 
emy. The duration of their course was, until June 
1, 1873, two years. By act of Congress, approved 
February 24, 1874, their course was lengthened 
to four years, and the number of classes increased 
to four. The examinations of candidates for cadet 
engineers are competitive. Candidates must be 
between 16 and 20 years of age, and of sound 
body. The number of appointments that can be 
made is limited by law to 25 each year. The 
academic examination previous to appointment 
is on the following subjects, namely : arithmetic, 
algebra, through equations of the first degree, 
plane geometry, natural philosophy, reading, 
writing, spelling, grammar, composition, geog 
raphy, free-hand drawing, and the elementary 
principles governing the action of the steam- 
engine. Candidates who possess the best knowl 
edge of machinery, other qualifications being 
equal, have precedence for admission. The pay 
of cadet engineers while at the Academy is $500 
per annum. After the academic course, two 
years sea-service is required before being eligible 
to be commissioned as assistant engineers, and 
then only as vacancies occur. The studies of 
cadet engineers at the Academy consist of math 
ematics, analytical mechanics, theory and prac 
tice of steam engineering, physics and chemistry, 
French and Spanish, drawing, designing of ma 
chinery, naval architecture, and practice in the 
workshops. On March 3, 1873, Congress passed a 
law changing the duration of the course for cadet 
midshipmen from four to six years, to apply to 
the class admitted in 1873 and to all subsequent 
classes. Four years of the six are passed in 
completing the academic course, the remaining 
two years are passed at sea on board a regular 
cruising-vessel, after which they return to the 
Academy and are required to pass the following 
final graduating examination: physical, ord 
nance, naval tactics, navigation, French and 
Spanish, seamanship, and steam. The marks of 
this examination, combined with those of the 
academic course, determine the graduating num 
ber; and passing successfully, the cadet midship 
man becomes a midshipman, and he is then 
eligible to be commissioned an ensign when va- 



ACADEMIES 



15 



ACADEMIES 



cancies occur. The number of cadet midship 
men allowed at the Academy is one for every 
member and delegate of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, ten at large, and one from the District 
of Columbia, appointed by the President. The 
nomination of a candidate from any Congres 
sional district or territory is made on the recom 
mendation of the member or delegate from actual 
residents of his district or territory. Candidates 
must be of sound body, between 14 and 18 years 
of age, and present themselves to the superin 
tendent of the Academy for examination for 
admission in June and September. The exam 
ination in reading is of course conducted orally, 
all other examinations are in writing. A satis 
factory examination must be passed in arithme 
tic, geography, grammar, writing, and spelling. 
Candidates who pass the physical and mental 
examinations will be appointed as cadet mid 
shipmen and become inmates of the Academy. 
Each cadet is required to sign articles by which 
he binds himself to serve in the navy eight years, 
including the time at the Academy, unless sooner 
discharged. The pay of a cadet midshipman is 
$500 a year, commencing at the date of his 
admission. The academic year begins October 
1, and ends May 30. The year is divided into 
two academic terms, the first term extending 
from October 1 to January 30. Each of the 
classes is divided into a convenient number of 
sections of from nine to twelve members, and 
the recitation hours into three periods of two 
hours each, and no student is required to attend 
more than three recitations during the day ; so 
that besides the evening study hours, one hour 
of each period may be devoted to study. The 
system of examination comprises monthly, semi 
annual, and annual examinations, all of which 
are conducted in writing, the same questions 
being proposed to each member of a class. If 
the cadet fail to pass the semi-annual or annual 
examination he is dropped. The monthly ex 
amination-marks are combined with the daily 
marks to determine the monthly standing. These 
marks are combined with those of the semi 
annual examination to find the term standing, 
which latter are again combined to form the 
annual record. The summer months are em 
ployed in cruising at sea. The sailing-vessels 
"Santee," "Constellation," and "Dale," the 
ironclad monitor " Nantucket," and the steamers 
"Mayflower" and " Standish" are permanently 
stationed at the Academy during the two aca 
demic terms for the purpose of instruction in 
great guns, and in sails, spars, steam, etc. The 
" Constellation" is commissioned for the summer 
cruise of the first and third classes of cadet mid 
shipmen. The second class is granted leave 
during the summer, and the fourth class, ad 
mitted in June, is quartered on -board the 
" Santee" for practical instruction until the be 
ginning of the academic year. The first and 
third classes of cadet engineers are embarked on 
board the practice-steamers, and visit the United 
States navy-yards and private ship-yards, par 
ticularly those where iron ship-building is done, 
foundries, rolling-mills, machine-shops, etc. They 
are required to take notes and make sketches of 
machinery, etc., at every place visited. The 
second class of cadet engineers goes on leave. 
The officers for all the practice-vessels are detailed 
from the officers attached to the Academy. The 



academic grounds inside the walls consist of 50 
acres. The grounds outside consist of 109 acres. 
Aggregate, 159 acres. The departments of study 
and the observatory are amply supplied with 
models and apparatus. The library contains 
20,000 volumes, chiefly historical, scientific, and 
professional. At the International Exhibition 
held at Paris, France, in 1878, the United States 
Naval Academy received a diploma of the value 
of a gold medal, which was one of the four 
diplomas awarded to educational institutions in 
the United States for the best quality of educa 
tion in the group classed as superior. 

ENGLAND. The Royal Naval Academy was 
first established at Portsmouth dock-yard by order 
from the admiralty dated March 13, 1729, the age 
of admission being between 13 and 16 years. The 
young gentlemen entered the naval service either 
by nomination from the admiralty through the 
Royal Naval Academy, or by direct nomination 
to sea-going ships by flag-officers and captains 
of ships in commission. In 1806 the title of the 
establishment was changed to Royal Naval Col 
lege. In 1816 the college was united to the 
School of Naval Architecture, and the age of 
admission fixed at from 12 to 14 years. In 1821 
the age was again altered, from 12J to 13J years, 
and so continued until the college was closed, in 
1837. The number of cadets allowed after 1806 
was 70, mainly selected from the nobility and 
gentry. The college was closed owing to the old 
method of appointing midshipmen directly into 
the navy without any conditions of previous 
preparation existing at the same time, which, 
being short and easy, was commonly preferred. 
After passing an easy entrance examination, the 
course of instruction at the college was not much 
more than elementary, and extended over a period 
of two years. After a year s sea-service the stu 
dent was eligible to be rated as midshipman. In 
the year 1839 the Royal Naval College was re 
opened for the purpose of establishing further 
means of scientific education for a certain num 
ber of commissioned officers, who were allowed 
to remain at the college for one year. In the 
beginning of 1857 the experience of twenty 
years since the abolition of the old naval college 
as a seminary for boys having meanwhile fully 
demonstrated the necessity for some kind of pre 
liminary training for cadets on their first entry 
into the service the admiralty established a new 
system of instruction on board a training-ship, 
to which the cadets were to be appointed after 
passing into the service by a moderate test exam 
ination, with some modification of detail on cer 
tain points. The system of educational training 
established in 1857 still continues in force. In 
1868 a sea-going ship was established supple 
mentary to the stationary one. Under the regu 
lations at present in force the candidate must not 
be under 12 nor above 13 years of age. The 
principle of limited competition has also been 
introduced. Candidates must pass a strict phys 
ical examination, and afterwards undergo a pre 
liminary test examination in reading, writing, 
dictation, French, arithmetic as far as vulgar 
and decimal fractions, and Scripture history. 
Those who successfully pass this examination 
are allowed to compete in a further examination 
in arithmetic, algebra to simple equations, Book 
I. of Euclid, French, Latin, English history, 
geography, German, Italian or Spanish, and 



ACADEMIES 



16 



ACADEMIES 



drawing, the candidates selecting not more 
than three of these subjects, or four, if drawing 
be one. Successful competitors are then appointed 
to the " Britannia," at Dartmouth, as naval 
cadets. The course of instruction there lasts 
two years, and is supplemented by a year s fur 
ther training on board a special sea-going train 
ing-ship. On leaving the " Britannia" the cadets 
are classed according to their merits in study 
and conduct. Cadets having obtained one year s 
sea-time on leaving the training-ship, are rated 
as midshipmen. During the three years on board 
the training-ships the cadets study the following 
subjects : mathematics, consisting of a partial 
course in arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and 
trigonometry, with a short course in steam, ele 
mentary surveying, English, French, geography, 
history, and drawing. After completing five 
years service, including the time on board the 
training-ships, and having attained the age of 19 
years, they are eligible to pass for lieutenant. 
The Koyal Naval College at Greenwich was re 
organized and opened February 1, 1874, for the 
instruction of officers of all branches of the naval 
service, including captains and excluding mid 
shipmen. 

FRANCE. Students are admitted to the Naval 
School on board the " Borda," at Brest, once in 
each year, by competitive examination. Candi 
dates of respectable parentage are eligible for ad 
mission, provided they are native Frenchmen or 
have been naturalized, and are not less than 14 or 
more than 17 years of age on the 1st of January 
of the year in which they compete. Their parents 
are obliged to pay the equivalent of $140 a year 
to support them while at the school. The exam 
inations are held in July at Paris and at seven 
other large cities in France, and in Corsica and 
Algiers. The examination, partly written and 
partly oral, is on the following subjects: written 
French and English composition ; numerical 
calculation of plane trigonometry, and descrip 
tive geometry ; oral French and English, gen 
eral history, geography, arithmetic, algebra, ge 
ometry, trigonometry, and descriptive geometry. 
To these is added drawing from nature. If the 
candidate pass the oral examination, he under 
goes a further examination, more searching in the 
same subjects, for competition. A committee in 
Paris selects the prescribed number of candidates 
in order of merit. Those selected join the train 
ing-ship " Borda" on October 1, and remain there 
two years. The subjects of instruction are liter 
ary, scientific, and professional. An examination 
is held at the end of each year, and those that fail 
to pass in either branch of instruction are dis 
missed. At the end of two years those who pass 
successfully are sent on board the cruising-ship 
1 "Jean Bart, where the course is strictly practical. 
The cruise lasts about one year, and on their 
return an examination is held in the following 
subjects : naval architecture, steam, seamanship, 
naval gunnery, infantry tactics, navigation and 
surveying, naval regulations, literature, English, 
drawing, naval book-keeping, international and 
maritime law, and naval hygiene, which finishes 
the course. There are also a certain number of 
students who pass directly from thePolytechnique 
School into the "Jean Bart," and during their 
subsequent service they are in no way distin 
guished from those who have been trained in 
the " Borda." The " Jean Bart" also receives a 



few students from the corps of naval constructors, 
and takes them to sea. 

GERMANY. The officers corps of the Imperial 
navy is made up from young men that enter the 
service as cadets, and from sailors that are granted 
such a chance for advancement. Applications for 
admission as cadet must be made to the admiralty 
at Berlin during the months of August and Sep 
tember of the year preceding the examination for 
admission. The application must be accompanied 
by a number of papers giving a detailed account 
of the candidate s family, his intellectual training 
and physical condition. The examination is held 
every year, in the month of April, before an ex 
amining board at Kiel, appointed by the chief 
of the admiralty. The candidate must first pass 
a physical examination, and not be more than 17 
years of age, except a graduate of a high school, 
who must not be more than 19 years of age. The 
examination for admission is in the following 
subjects : Latin, grammar, arithmetic, geometry, 
trigonometry, elements of physics, geography, 
history, French and English, and free-hand 
drawing. If the candidate has a certificate of 
graduation from a high school, or a school of 
equal rank, he is freed from an examination if 
his record in mathematics be good; if not, he 
must pass an examination in that branch. The 
results of this examination are sent to the chief 
of admiralty, who decides which ones shall be 
admitted. The cadets must pay their own ex 
penses. The cadets selected for admission are 
embarked on board a practice-ship. They cruise 
during the summer and return to the station in 
September. Those cadets that show a want of 
aptitude for the service are then dismissed by 
order of the admiralty. The remaining cadets 
receive certificates signed by the commanding 
ofScer and other officers of the practice ship, and 
are ordered to attend the cadets class of the 
naval school after taking the oath of allegiance. 
The instruction in the cadets class is intended to 
prepare the cadets for the Naval Cadets 1 exami 
nation, and lasts about six months. This ex 
amination embraces the following subjects : navi 
gation, seamanship, artillery, infantry tactics, 
arithmetic, trigonometry, geometry, chemistry, 
official reports, topography, English and French. 
Those failing to pass are either turned back or 
dismissed. Those cadets that have passed are 
embarked on board a practice-ship, and sent on 
a cruise for two years. During that time they 
receive practical training, and are also instructed 
in those branches of science more strictly pro 
fessional. At the end of the cruise, those receiv 
ing a satisfactory report from the commander of 
a vessel are ordered to attend the first officers 
examination at Kiel in the following subjects : 
navigation, seamanship, naval tactics, artillery, 
marine engines, naval architecture, knowledge 
of the duties of officers, French and English. 
Those that pass the examination are appointed 
second lieutenants without commissions, and are 
made to attend the officers class of the Naval 
Academy. The course of instruction commences 
in October and closes the following August, and 
is intended to complete the theoretical education, 
and prepare the members for the second officers 
examination, which takes place each year, in 
September, at Kiel, and in the following sub 
jects : navigation, infantry tactics, artillery, 
naval architecture, marine engines, fortification, 



ACADEMIES 



ACCOST 



drawing, geometry, trigonometry, mechanics, 
and physics. Full reports of the examination 
are submitted to the admiralty, the relative 
standing of those that have passed finally de 
termined, and commissions as second lieutenant 
are issued. Sailors are admitted on the recom 
mendation of their superior officers after a ser 
vice of at least twelve months on board a man- 
of-war, and must not be over 20 years of age. 
The regulations for admission and examinations 
are the same for sailors as for those persons enter 
ing from civil life. 

ITALY. The candidates enter at Naples on the" 
15th of June in each year ; they must be of 
sound body, not less than 13 nor over 17 years 
of age, and must give security that their expenses 
will be paid. The examination for admission is 
competitive, and is in arithmetic, elementary 
algebra, geometry, ancient history, grammar, 
French, and geography. The Royal Naval 
School is composed of two divisions, the first 
at Naples, and the second at Genoa. The course 
at Naples is two years, and comprises the follow 
ing subjects : algebra, geometry, trigonometry, 
descriptive geometry, navigation, French and 
English, drawing, calculus, physics, descriptive 
and political geography, and Italian literature. 
The last two years of the course are passed at 
Genoa, and the following subjects taught: me- 
chanicsj astronomy, hydrography, history, politi 
cal geography, Italian literature, French and 
English, theory of ships, naval construction, 
naval tactics, fortification, artillery and infantry 
tactics, torpedoes, and practical exercises, includ 
ing fencing, gymnastics, swimming, and dancing. 
The practice-cruises are made each year from. 
June to November, and the examinations take 
place before the cruise begins. Those who grad 
uate are recommended for nomination to the 
grade of midshipmen, and go directly into active 
service. 

RUSSIA. Those who are desirous of entering 
the naval service must pass into the Naval 
School at St. Petersburg. Candidates eligible 
for admission must be sons of hereditary noble 
men, of superior civil or military officers, or of 
hereditary honorable citizens. The age of can 
didates must not be under 15 nor over 18 years. 
Those candidates who may wish it are allowed, 
before entering the school, to go through a trial- 
cruise to test their aptitude for the service. If 
the trial-cruise be satisfactory the candidate must 
pass a physical and mental examination. The 
examination is held yearly, in the month of Sep 
tember, embracing the following subjects : re 
ligion, grammar, geography, history, arithmetic, 
algebra, geometry, and French. The course of 
instruction lasts four years, at the expense of 
the government. At the end of four years the 
students are examined in the subjects mentioned 
as follows: religion, navigation and pilotage, 
astronomy, seamanship, naval history, naval 
tactics, gunnery, surveying, steam, theoretical 
and practical naval architecture, fortification, 
jurisprudence, and Russian and French lan 
guages. Having passed this examination the 
student is made a naval cadet, and is embarked 
on board a training-ship to cruise for two years, 
at the end of which he is subjected to a final ex 
amination in practical seamanship. 

SPAIN. The Naval College for midshipmen 
was created by royal decree, September 18, 1844> 
2 



in order that young men who desire to become 
naval officers may learn, theoretically and prac 
tically, their profession. It is situated in San 
Carlos, department of Cadiz. The personnel is 
composed of, besides the commanding officer and 
staff, 11 professors of mathematics, 1 of physics, 
and 10 for drawing, seamanship, ship-building, 
English and French, fencing, gymnastics, and 
dancing, 2 chaplains, and 8 lieutenants, who, 
besides their duties as officers, give military in 
struction to the cadets. By a royal decree of 
February 20, 1864, only 60 can enter yearly. 
The candidate must be between 13 and 16" years 
of age. All the vacancies, except four, are filled 
by competitive examination in the following sub 
jects : religion, reading, writing, grammar, arith 
metic, algebra, geometry, French and English, 
geography, and drawing. By the last-mentioned 
decree the time in the college has been reduced 
from two and a half years to one year and a half, 
and the students study the following subjects : 
trigonometry, geometrical analysis, astronomy, 
navigation, physics, meteorology, chemistry, 
gunnery, French and English, naval tactics, in 
fantry tactics, seamanship, geography, history 
(sacred, profane, and naval), religion and morals, 
drawing, fencing, gymnastics, swimming, and 
dancing. F. W. Dickins, Lieutenant- Commander 
UJS.N. 

Academite. A graduate of the Royal Naval 
Academy at Portsmouth, England. 

Acairlphuill. A safe anchorage. 

Acalephse. A class of marine animals of low 
organization, having a translucent jelly-like 
structure, and frequently possessing the property 
of stinging; as, the Portuguese man-of-war 
(Physalia), and the common jelly-fish (Medusa}. 

Acapulco. A seaport of Mexico, on the Pa 
cific. Lat. 16 50 N. ; Ion. 99 48 W. It has 
a magnificent landlocked harbor, and is 302 
miles "S.S.W. of Mexico. Pop. 5000. 

Acast. An old word for lost or cast away. 
Abox ; as, the head-yards were said to be braced 
acast. 

Acater. Purveyor of victuals, whence ca 
terer. 

Acatium. A word used by the Romans for a 
small boat, and also for the mainmast of a ship. 

Acceleration. The increase of velocity in a 
moving body. A planet is said to be accelerated 
when its actual diurnal motion exceeds its mean. 
In the fixed stars this acceleration is the mean 
time by which they anticipate the sun s diurnal 
motion. Acceleration of the moon is the increase 
of her mean motion, caused by a slow change in 
the eccentricity of the terrestrial orbit. 

Access. Means of entry or approach. Ac 
cessible, approachable by land or sea. 

Acclivity. The upward slope of an inclined 
cliff. 

Accoil. To coil together. 

Accommodations. Fittings, conveniences. 
Accommodation ladder, a convenient flight ot 
steps shipped at the gangway. When shipped 
on both sides, the starboard ladder is reserved for 
the use of commissioned officers and their visit 
ors. 

Accompany. To sail together ; to convoy. 

Accon. (Fr.) A flat-bottomed Mediterranean 
boat for carrying cargoes over shoals. _ 

Accost. To hail ; to pass within hail ; to sail 
coastwise ; to draw near. 



ACCOUNT 



18 



ADJUSTMENT 



Account. Going upon account, a phrase for 
buccaneering. 

Accounts. The several books and registers 
of money, stores, clothing, and provisions. See 
PAYMASTER. 

Accouplement. A timber tie or brace. 

Accoutrements. Equipments of soldiers and 
marines. 

Accul. An old term for the end of a deep 
bay ; from cul-de-sac. 

Accuse. To charge with an offense. 

Accused. The designation of the party on 
trial before a court-martial. See COURT-MAR 
TIAL. 

Achernar. a Eridani, a star of the first 
magnitude in the constellation Eridanus, called 
by navigators the u Spring of the Kiver." 

Achromatic. A term applied to optical in 
struments in which aberration and the colors de 
pendent thereon are partially corrected. Achro 
matic condenser, a lens used to concentrate the 
rays of light on an object in a microscope. 

Achronical. An old term signifying the rising 
of a heavenly body at sunset, or its setting at 
sunrise. 

Acker. An eddying ripple on the surface of 
flooded waters. A tide swelling above another 
tide. See EAGRE, BORE. 

Ackmen, or Ack-pirates. Fresh- water thieves. 

A-cockbill. A yard is a-cockbill when by acci 
dent or design one yard-arm is topped up more 
than the other. (See MOURNING.) The anchor is 
a-cockbill when it hangs from the cat-head by the 
ring-stopper ready for letting go. In the navy 
the anchor is not cockbilled except in special 
cases. 

Acolyte. The smaller component of a double 
star. 

Acorn. A cone-shaped piece of wood attached 
to the vane. 

Acoustics. The science of sound. The acous 
tic telegraph is one which makes audible instead 
of visible signals 

Acquit. To discharge from an accusation ; to 
free or exonerate from blame or suspicion ; to 
clear from imputation. The word is also used to 
express personal bearing ; as, to acquit one s self 
well. 

Acquittance. A release or discharge in writing 
for a sum of money, or duty, which ought to be 
paid, or done, on the ship s account. 

Acre. A city and seaport of Syria, on a prom 
ontory at the foot of Mt. Carmel. Lat. 32 55 
N. ; Ion. 35 5 E. Pop. 4800. The Bay of Acre 
is much frequented by French, Italian, and Aus 
trian vessels. 

Acrostolium. A symbolical ornament on the 
prows of ancient vessels ; the origin of the modern 
figure-head. 

Act. Deed, performance, edict, decree, or law. 
Overt act, an open act done in pursuance of a 
criminal design, the mere design not being pun 
ishable without such act. Act of God compre 
hend? all accidents arising from physical causes. 
Act of Court, the decision of the judge on the 
verdict or on a point of law. Act and Intention 
must be united, in admiralty law. 

Acting. A prefix to denote that a rank is held 
temporarily. 

Action. Exertion of power or force. Double 
action denotes that the motor acts positively in 
producing the backward and forward movement. 



An engagement ; a battle. Clear ship for action, 
to prepare for battle by removing everything that 
obstructs the working of the battery or hinders 
the handling of the ship ; by removing all fix 
tures and appliances, not needed for action, but 
which might cause the enemy s shot to create 
havoc and confusion ; by removing articles liable 
to injury by exposure ; and by providing articles 
necessary to the security of rigging and spars. 

Active. Requiring or implying action or ex 
ertion ; practical ; operative, 

ACTIVE LIST. The list of officers liable to be 
called upon for active duty, in contradistinction 
to the Retired List (which see). 

ACTIVE SERVICE. Duty before the enemy, or 
operations in his presence. Any duty under the 
orders of the Navy Department. 

Actuaire. (Fr.) An open transport pro 
pelled by oars and sails. 

Actuairole. (Fr.) A small galley propelled 
by oars. 

Acumba. Oakum ; the hards or coarse parts 
of flax and unplucked wool. 

Acuna, Christopher. Jesuit and explorer, b. 
Burgos, 1597, d. Lima about 1675. He was one 
of the early explorers of the river Amazon, and 
was sent to report the incidents of the expedition 
of 1639. On his return to Spain he published at 
Madrid, in 1641, " Nuevo Descubrimiento del 
gran Rio de las Amazonas." He subsequently 
went to the East Indies, returned to South Amer 
ica, and died on the way from Panama to Lima. 

Adamant. The loadstone ; the magnet : the 
sense in which it was held by early voyagers. 

Adapter. A ring or tube to adapt or fit any 
accessory apparatus to an instrument. 

Addel, or Addle. The putrid water in casks. 

Addice. An adze. The addled eggs of sea- 
fowl. 

Addlings. Accumulated pay. 

Address. Bearing. To consign or intrust to 
another as an agent. 

Adelaide, Port, six miles from the capital of 
South Australia. Lat. 34 49 S. ; Ion. 138 38 
E. It is a free port, and accessible for vessels 
drawing 18 feet of water. 

Adit. An air-hole or drift. The aperture by 
which a mine is dug and charged. The aperture 
by which a ship in ancient times was entered. 

Adjourn. To put off to another day ; to dis 
continue a while ; to intermit proceedings ; as, of 
a court-martial, a board of examination, etc. 
When no certain day is fixed to which the ad 
journment is to extend, it is said to be sine die. 

Adjudication. The act of adjudging prizes 
by legal decree. Captors are compelled to sub 
mit the adjudication of their prizes to a compe 
tent tribunal. 

Adjust. To set the frame of a ship. To regu 
late an instrument for use. To adjust the com 
passes is to ascertain the deviation of the needle 
due to local attraction. 

Adjustment, in marine insurance, is the as 
certaining and settling of the amount of in 
demnity, whether of average or salvage, which 
the insured is entitled to receive. The nature 
and amount of damage being ascertained, an en 
dorsement is made on the back of the policy, de 
claring the proportion of loss falling on each un 
derwriter ; and when this endorsement is signed 
by the latter, the loss is said to have been ad 
justed. After an adjustment has been made, it 



ADJUTANT 



19 



ADMINISTRATION 



is usual for the underwriter at once to pay the 
loss. As a question of law, however, it does not 
appear how far the adjustment is conclusive and 
binding on the underwriters. In the opinion of 
some lawyers the adjustment is merely presump 
tive evidence against an insurer, and it is, not 
withstanding, open to the underwriter to show 
facts which, if proved, would have the effect of 
relieving him from liability. 

ADJUSTMENTS OF INSTRUMENTS. All nauti 
cal instruments are liable to get out of order, 
their several parts not retaining their relative 
positions, owing to unequal expansion, violence, 
or like causes. To guard before observing against 
resulting errors, there are methods of testing 
whether the instrument is in order in the several 
points subject to be affected ; and the instrument 
is provided with means of adjustment, chiefly in 
the form of screws or sliding weights, by which 
it may be restored to its correct state. Adjust 
ing screws and weights ought not to be touched 
more than is absolutely necessary, and then with 
great care. When two such screws work oppo 
sitely to each other, one must not be tightened 
without the other being at the same time loosened. 
Sometimes, instead of making the adjustment, 
the error may be acknowledged and allowed for 
in observing. The term " adjustments" is often 
loosely applied to all sources of incorrectness, 
and means of obviating their effects, in using 
instruments. These are, however, properly of 
three distinct kinds : imperfections in the instru 
ment, which should cause its rejection ; adjust 
ments for parts of the instrument liable to tem 
porary derangement, but which can be restored 
to order by the machinery attached ; and errors 
of the instrument, which are acknowledged, de 
termined by experiment, and allowed for. See 
COMPASS and SEXTANT. 

Adjutant. See MARINE CORPS. 

Admeasurement. The calculation of the pro 
portions of a ship according to assumed rules. 

Administration, Naval (Lat. ad, "to," and 
ministro, ministratum, "to serve," manage 
ment, conduct of business), relates to the man 
agement of that part of the executive branch 
of the government which includes the navy, or 
military marine. The Chief Executive is gen 
erally the constitutional or hereditary head of 
the navy. James I., of England, assumed the 
title of Lord High Admiral and Lord Gen 
eral; in other words, he declared himself to 
be the commander-in-chief of the army and 
navy. This was subsequently confirmed to the 
reigning sovereign by act of Parliament (13 
Car. II., c. 6). In the United States the Presi 
dent is the Commander-in-Chief of the Army 
and Navy, " and he may require the opinion in 
writing of the principal officer in each of the 
executive departments upon any subject relating 
to the duties of their respective offices." (Con 
stitution of the United States, Art. II., Sec. 2.) 
One of these "executive departments" is styled, 
by the act of April 30, 1798, which creates the 
office, the Department of the Navy, and the 
"principal officer" the Secretary of the Navy, 
whose duty it is " to execute such orders as he 
shall receive from the President of the United 
States relative to the procurement of naval stores 
and materials, and the construction, armament, 
equipment of vessels of war, as well as all other 
matters connected with the naval establishment 



of the United States. From the language of the 
act it will be seen that the Secretary of the Navy 
is, in all matters pertaining to his branch of the 
public service, the exponent of the President ; and 
his acts are to be considered the acts of the Presi 
dent, and have full force and effect as such. The 
official duties of the heads of executive depart 
ments, however, are not merely ministerial ; they 
involve the exercise of judgment and discretion. 
(Decatur v. Paulding, 14 Pet., 515.) The Secre 
tary of the Navy is appointed by the President, 
by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
from civil life, and is one of the members of his 
Cabinet. He is authorized by law to prescribe 
regulations, not inconsistent with law, for the 
government of his department, the conduct of 
its officers and clerks, the distribution and per 
formance of its business, and the custody, use, 
and preservation of the records, papers, and prop 
erty appertaining to it. He is required to make 
an annual report to Congress of the operations 
of the navy for the preceding year, its general 
condition, etc. The business of the Department 
is distributed among eight bureaus, to wit: (1) 
Bureau of Yards and Docks, (2) Equipment 
and Recruiting, (3) Navigation, (4) Ordnance, 
(5) Construction and Repair, (6) Steam Engi 
neering, (7) Provisions and Clothing, (8) Medi 
cine and Surgery. The chiefs of bureaus are 
appointed by the President, by and with the 
advice and consent of the Senate. All the duties 
of the bureaus are performed under the authority 
of the Secretary of the Navy, and " their orders 
are considered as emanating from him and have 
full force and effect as such" (act of August 31, 
1842). There are 63 clerks, draughtsmen, etc., 
in the Department, 17 of whom belong to the 
Secretariat, the remainder to the several bureaus. 
The chiefs of four bureaus (1, 2, 3, and 4) are 
selected from the line-officers not below the rank 
of commander. During the time of holding 
office they have the relative rank of commo 
dore, if below that grade. The chiefs of the 
other bureaus are selected from the several corps 
which they represent, and while holding office 
have the relative rank of commodore, with the 
title respectively of surgeon-general, paymaster- 
general, engineer-in-chief, and chief construc 
tor. Chiefs of bureaus hold their offices for the 
term of four years. Any staff officer who has 
performed the duty of a chief of a bureau for a 
full term is exempt thereafter from sea-duty, ex 
cept in time of war, and retires with the relative 
rank of commodore. 

It will be perceived from the foregoing that 
the Navy Department, and consequently the 
navy itself, is without a professional head. The 
civil branch is well provided for in the constitu 
tional commander-in-chief and his constitutional 
adviser, the Secretary of the Navy. But regard 
ing the navy in its true character of a sea army, 
there is no professional head in our naval admin 
istration to govern its purely military operations. 
This is a great, and, in time of war, would be 
likely to prove a fatal, defect. It would be diffi 
cult, indeed, to find a civilian in whom were com 
bined the political training essential to a Cabinet 
officer and the technical knowledge necessary to 
an intelligent and energetic administration of 
naval affairs even in times of profound peace. 

The history of our naval administration is 
curious. The infant navy was ushered into ex- 



ADMINISTRATION 



20 



ADMINISTRATION 



istence by spasmodic resolutions of the Conti 
nental Congress. On the 5th of October, 1775, a 
resolution directed the fitting out of two armed 
schooners to cruise for a vessel known to have 
left England with munitions of war for the 
enemy. A week later another resolution directed 
the equipping of a swift vessel of 10 guns, and 
three members of Congress Messrs. Deane, 
Langdon, and Gadsden were chosen a com 
mittee to superintend this " naval force." Oc 
tober 20 four members Hopkins, Hewes, Lee, 
and John Adams were added, when it was re 
solved that "these seven be a committee to carry 
into execution with all possible expedition the 
resolutions of Congress for fitting out armed 
vessels." The committee immediately procured 
a room in a public-house in Philadelphia, and 
agreed to meet every evening at 6 o clock for the 
dispatch of business. January 25, it was resolved 
that the direction of the fleet fitted out by order 
of Congress be left to the Naval Committee. In 
subsequent resolutions this committee was styled 
the Marine Committee, and was empowered to 
give names to ships, to order them on service, 
purchase materials, etc. June 9, 1779, it was 
resolved that the management of all business re 
lating to the marine of the United States be vested 
in commissioners. October 28, 1779, a Board of 
Admiralty was established to superintend the 
naval and marine affairs. February 7, 1781, the 
office of a Secretary of Marine was created. Au 
gust 20, on the report of a committee, it was re 
solved that a for the present an agent of marine be 
appointed," who should absorb all the duties that 
had devolved upon the Board of Admiralty. On 
the termination of the war of the Revolution 
(1783) the navy was disbanded. The present 
government went into operation under the Con 
stitution March 4, 1789, and on the 7th of August 
following an act was passed establishing the^De- 
partment of War, the Secretary of which was 
to have a general supervision of the land and 
naval forces. April 30, 1798, the act was passed 
creating the Department of the Navy, a Secretary 
of the Navy, a principal clerk and such other 
clerks as he (the Secretary) thought necessary. 
The act of February 7, 1815, added to the De 
partment a Board of Navy Commissioners, con 
sisting of three officers of the navy not below 
the rank of post-captain. The act provided that 
" the board so constituted should be attached to 
the office of the Secretary, and under his super 
intendence discharge all the ministerial duties of 
that office relative to the procurement of naval 
stores and materials, and the construction, arma 
ment, equipment, and employment of vessels of 
war, as well as other matters connected with the 
naval establishment." The act of August 31, 
1842, abolished the naval commissioners and 
substituted five bureaus, since increased, by act 
of July 5, 1862, to eight. By act of July 31, 
1861, the office of Assistant Secretary of the 
Navy was authorized, the exigencies of war 
showing its necessity. The office was abolished 
soon after the war (March 3, 1869). 

The act of March 2, 1865, created the office of 
Solicitor and Judge-Advocate-General. June 
22, 1870, it was transferred to the Department of 
Justice, as Naval Solicitor (Sec. 249, Revised 
Statutes). For that important factor of the navy, 
the Marine Corps, see article under that head. 

GREAT BRITAIN. Immediately after the rev 



olution of 1688 Parliament passed an act (2 Sess. 
William and Mary) establishing a Board of 
Admiralty ; thus giving the sanction of law to 
the practice that had long prevailed, of placing 
the control of the navy in the hands of experi 
enced officers. By this act it was " declared and 
enacted that all and singular authorities, juris 
dictions, and powers which, by any act of Par 
liament or otherwise, have been and are lawfully 
vested ... in the Lord High Admiral of Eng 
land for the time being, have always appertained 
to, and may be exercised by, the Commissioners 
for executing the office of High Admiral of Eng 
land for the time being according to their com 
missions." Two years later, it was resolved in 
the House of Commons that "His Majesty be 
advised to constitute a commission of the Ad 
miralty of such persons as are of known experi 
ence in maritime aifairs ; that for the future all 
orders for the management of the fleet do pass 
through the Admiralty that shall be so con 
stituted." 

The Admiralty patent, as it is called, places 
in the hands of " Our Commissioners for execut 
ing the office of Our High Admiral" full power 
to administer the affairs of the navy. It enjoins 
upon all persons belonging to the navy to observe 
all such orders as " Our said Commissioners, or 
any two or more of them, give," . . . " as if Our 
High Admiral had given it." According to the 
patent, all the members are equal, with co-ordi 
nate powers, and with joint responsibility. Ac 
cording to usage the responsibility rests almost 
entirely with the First Lord. He nominates the 
other members " at his pleasure." He is, there 
fore, practically supreme ; if opposed by the other 
members he may break up the board. Besides 
the First Lord, who is a cabinet officer appointed 
almost invariably from civil life by the Prime 
Minister, there are three naval members, and 
one other, who is always taken from among the 
members of the House of Commons. The board 
meets every week-day at noon, except Saturdays, 
and two lords and a secretary form a quorum for 
business. Certain orders may be signed by the 
secretary of the board alone, and are regarded 
as the order of the board collectively ; but an 
order that authorizes the payment of money re 
quires the signatures of two lords. The secre 
taries have jointly charge of the Secretariat, and 
the First Secretary has important duties in Par 
liament in connection with the board. See AD 
MIRALTY. 

It will be seen from the foregoing that the 
First Lord has general control of the navy in the 
name of his sovereign, to whom he is responsible 
for its management. But he represents the civil 
power, and concerns himself more immediately 
with the civil affairs of the navy. Associated 
with this civil office, but subordinate to it, is the 
military branch of the establishment. This is 
presided over by professionals, the senior Sea 
Lord and his coadjutors, the other Sea Lords and 
the Naval Secretary. 

No form of naval administration can hope for 
entire immunity from public criticism ; the Board 
of Admiralty forms no exception to the rule. 
The slightest mishap in the navy is sufficient to 
call down the thunders of the press on the heads 
of the Lords of the Admiralty. Discussions in 
Parliament led (March, 1861) to the appoint 
ment of a committee " to inquire into the con- 



ADMINISTRATION 



21 



ADMIRAL 



stitution of the Board of Admiralty and the 
various duties devolving thereon;" also "as to 
the general effect of such system on the navy." 
No material change took place, however, till 
January 14, 1869, when Mr. Hugh C. E. Childers, 
then First Lord, reorganized the board. On the 
19th of March, 1872, the order of 1869 was re 
scinded, and the board restored very much to 
its old organization and as it now stands. See 
ADMIRALTY. 

FRANCE. The Minister of Marine (Secretary 
of the Navy) in France is generally selected from 
the list of admirals, and represents both the civil 
and military power. He is assisted in his im 
mediate office by a staff of about seven officers, 
ranking from rear-admiral to lieutenant. The 
chief of staff is a rear-admiral (chef d etat-major 
et chef du cabinet). Next comes a Board of Ad 
miralty, of which the Minister of Marine is presi 
dent. It consists of, 1, a vice-admiral, who is 
vice-president of the board ; 2, a vice-admiral ; 3, 
a general of marine artillery ; 4, a vice-admiral ; 
5, a vice-admiral ; 6, a rear-admiral ; 7, a director 
of naval construction; 8, a commissary-general. 
The Secretariat is divided into two bureaux, each 
of which has its chief. The second bureau takes 
cognizance of the "movements of the fleet and 
military operations," and is presided over by a 
naval officer of rank. Next we have the Navy 
Department proper, which is divided into five 
directions (a direction corresponding to a bureau 
in our Navy Department), each direction having 
two or more bureaux ; each bureau having two or 
more sections. Among these several directions, 
bureaux, and sections are distributed with much 
precision all the duties of an extensive and 
thorough naval administration. The Minister 
of Marine alone is responsible to the chief mag 
istrate for his acts. The Board of Admiralty, of 
which he is president, is but an advisory body, 
its chief and only important duty being to pre 
pare the annual lists of officers from which the 
selections for promotion are made. It has, in 
fact, but little, if anything, to do with the ad 
ministration of the affairs of the French navy. 

It may be said, in general, that under a lib 
eral form of government, like that of the United 
States or Great Britain, where the civil power 
predominates, the head of the navy will always 
be a civilian. In countries where the military 
spirit prevails the head of the navy will always 
be a naval officer of rank. In all maritime 
countries the work of the navy department must 
be distributed among a number of experts and a 
certain clerical force. 

AUSTRIA. The Minister of National Defense 
presides over both war and navy departments. 
Under his general supervision a vice-admiral 
administers the affairs of the navy. 

DENMARK. The Minister of Marine is a cab 
inet officer and a naval officer of rank. 

GERMANY. Has a Board of Admiralty, with 
an admiral for " Inspector-General of the Navy," 
and a commander-in-chief of all the ships in 
commission. 

ITALY. Has a Minister of Marine, at present 
a rear-admiral, assisted in his duties by a Board 
of Admiralty. 

RUSSIA. The Minister of Marine is an ad 
miral, and communicates directly with the sov 
ereign. He has sole charge of the administra 
tive department of the navy, while the executive 



branch is in charge of the High Admiral of the 
fleet. In other respects the organization is simi 
lar to that of the French. 

SPAIN. Has a Board of Admiralty. 

The navy departments of other European gov 
ernments do not vary in any important point 
from those already given. S. B. Luce, Captain 
U. S. iv. 

Admiral. Sir Wm. Monson, writing about 
1600, says, "There have been often disputes 
whether the title of Admiral or General were 
more proper to a sea commander ; and though I 
dare not presume to conclude of either, yet I 
think it is as unproper to call an Admiral General 
by Sea as to call a General Admiral by Land, 
though I confess their authorities are like in 
command of men s persons, yet is the jurisdic 
tion of the Admiral by sea greater than the 
other, in that he ruleth and guideth a fleet of 
ships, which are of more importance to the King 
and State than the lives of men that are to serve 
in them." 

The English title of admiral, in French and 
Danish, amiral; German, ammiral ; Dutch, ad 
miral, or ammrael ; Italian, ammiraglio ; Span 
ish, almirante, evidently in all modern lan 
guages derived from the same source, is yet of 
doubtful etymology. Most of the old writers 
trace it to the Arab emir or amir, a prince or 
ruler, and a Greek word signifying the sea ; but 
Spelman, who condemns this " Centaur" deriva 
tion, thinks the term was first in use among the 
Saracens, and from thence brought to England 
about the time of Richard I. or Henry III. ; " for 
I find," he says, " that not only Amera but Al 
mirante was the ordinary title of the Governors 
of countries through all the territories of the 
Saracens, even from Spain when they possessed 
it, unto the uttermost parts of Lesser Asia, and 
Mahomet was so called as king, a name of dig 
nity and estimation." In the great ship or 
dromond taken by Richard I. from the Saracens 
there were seven admirals. 

The Earl of Berkeley is said to be the only in 
dividual not of royal blood who has ever won the 
flag of Lord High Admiral of Great Britain at 
sea. At the age of 20, then known as Lord 
Dursley, he was captain of the " Lichfield," 60, 
his second command. When 23 he commanded 
the " Boyne," 80. At 27 he was vice-admiral of 
the blue, and the next year vice-admiral of the 
red. March 29, 1719, at the age of 38, he hoisted 
his flag on the " Dorsetshire" as Lord High Ad 
miral, being actually Vice-Admiral of England 
and First Lord of the Admiralty. 

The first English admiral on record is Richard 
de Lacy, to whom, 1216-72, Henry III. granted 
Maritimam Angles. Some, however, assert that 
the honor belongs to Roger de Ley burn, who 
was appointed by Edward I. Admirallus Marifi 
Regis A.D. 1297. During the reign of Edward I. 
there were three admirals in contemporary com 
mand of the three coasts of England, one having 
jurisdiction from the mouth of the river Thames 
northward, another from the same point west 
ward, and another of the west coast, including 
the shores of Wales and Ireland. 

All admirals in the Royal navy were wont 
anciently to carry St. George s flag at the head 
of the topmast, but on the accession of James I. 
he added to it the cross of St. Andrew, as due to 
Scotland. The Lord High Admiral alone was 



ADMIKAL 



22 



ADMIKAL 



permitted to wear " the cross of the arms of Eng 
land," that is, the standard of England at the 
main. He had also the power in the sixteenth 
century to permit another man to wear the bare 
English flag in the main-top in his presence. 
Sir Wm. Monson speaks of the Rear-Admiral as 
a recent invention, and says, " The Vice- Admiral 
wears his flag in the fore-top, being Vice- Ad 
miral, so he is to wear what colored flag he 
pleases in the main-top as Admiral of a squadron. 
The Rear- Admiral wears his flag in the mizzen, 
and every ship besides is to wear a streamer of 
the same color in the forehead or mizzen-yard to 
be distinguished from other squadrons." 

The Sicilians or Genoese are said to have been 
the first who, at the beginning of the Crusades, 
conferred the rank on the commander of a squad 
ron of ships. 

" St. Louis" introduced the title into France. 
The rank of Admiral was formerly equivalent to 
that of a Marshal of France, and a decree of 
Phillippe-le-Bel ordains tha t " each wing of our 
army must be commanded by a Prince, an Ad 
miral, or a Marshal." It also constituted the 
fourth dignity of the order of Malta. The ad 
mirals of France possessed such great preroga 
tives that Richelieu suppressed the title, and in 
vested himself with their functions, under the 
name of " Grand Master, Chief and Superin 
tendent-General of Navigation and Commerce." 
Louis XIV. revived the title of Grand Admiral 
in 1669, but he reserved to himself the nomina 
tion of the officers and the right of giving orders 
direct to flag-officers. Notwithstanding these 
restrictions the privileges attaching to this post 
were enormous, comprising the nomination of 
the officers belonging to the naval courts of jus 
tice, the delivery of passports, permissions, and 
furloughs, the countersigning of royal decrees, 
and the receipt of a tithe of all prize-money and 
fines levied in admiralty courts. So valuable 
were these privileges, that when the Due de Pen- 
thierre abandoned his claims to them in 1759, he 
received in compensation an annual grant of 
about $30,000, which was regularly paid until 
the revolution. 

The first " Admiral of France" was Florent de 
Varennes, who, appointed by St. Louis, accom 
panied his sovereign in the expedition to Tunis ; 
and since his day down to 1791, when the title 
was abolished by the National Assembly, it was 
conferred upon 59 different persons. 

The most celebrated of these naval commanders 
were 

Nicolas Beluchetj who seized Portsmouth, Eng 
land, in 1339 ; 

Jean de Vienne, Seigneur de Clairveaux, who 
was killed in the battle of Nicopolis ; 

Gaspard, Comte de Coligny, a victim of St. Bar 
tholomew ; 

Anne de Joyeusq, a devoted adherent of Henry 
III., killed at the battle of Contras ; 

Francois de Coligny, the eldest son of the mur 
dered admiral ; 

Charles de Gontaut, Due de Biron, the trustiest 
counselor of Henry IV., who was afterwards be 
headed for high treason ; and 

Francois de Vendome, Due of Beaufort, nick 
named "Le Roy des Halles," who, appointed 
Grand Master of Navigation, was killed at the 
siege of Candia. 

The Comte de Vermendois and the Comte de 



Toulouse were also appointed "Admirals of 
France," one at the age of two, and the other at 
the age of five, years. 

Napoleon, in 1805, conferred the dignity of 
" Grand Admiral" on Murat ; but the post, abol 
ished at the revolution, was merely honorary, 
and as such was held by the Due de Angouleme 
after the Restoration. The title of " Grand Ad 
miral" was finally suppressed after the revolu 
tion of 1830. 

The French have now the titles of admiral, 
vice-admiral, and rear-admiral in their navj r . 

On the establishment of the Continental navy, 
or a few months later, viz., November 15, 1776, 
having established the rank and command of 
the captains the month previous, Congress re 
solved that an " admiral should rank as a gen 
eral ; a vice-admiral as a lieutenant-general ; a 
rear-admiral as a major-general;" evidently 
looking to the addition of those ranks to the 
navy. The prejudices of the people, however, 
prevented the establishment of such high-sound 
ing titles (?), and, until 1862, no officers were 
commissioned in the United States navy of higher 
rank than captain, except in 1859, when, in spe 
cial compliment to his services, Charles Stewart 
was commissioned as " Senior Flag-Officer." 

The act of July 16, 1862, reorganizing the 
navy, was the first to recognize the necessity of 
the grade, and authorized the commissioning of 
not more than nine rear-admirals on the active 
list, and nine on the retired or reserved list, the 
former "to be selected, during the war, from 
those commanders who have distinguished them 
selves, or shall hereafter eminently distinguish 
themselves, by courage, skill, and genius in their 
profession ; Provided, That no officer shall be 
promoted to this grade unless, upon recommen 
dation of the President, by name, he has received 
the thanks of Congress for distinguished ser 
vice. During times of peace vacancies to this 
grade shall be filled by regular promotion from 
the list of commodores, subject to examination 
as to mental, moral, physical, and professional 
qualifications." " The three senior rear-admirals 
were to wear a square blue flag at the mainmast- 
head, the next three at the foremast-head, and 
all others at the mizzen." Rear-admirals to have 
relative rank with major-generals. 

The same law authorized nine rear-admirals 
on the retired list, ranking relatively with major- 
generals, who were to be selected by the Presi 
dent, by and with the consent of the Senate, 
" from those captains who have given most faith 
ful service to the country." After these were 
commissioned, promotion to rear-admiral on the 
retired list was to be by seniority, subject to an 
advisory board. 

Under this law David G. Farragut, Louis M. 
Goldsborough, Samuel F. Dupont, and Andrew 
H. Foote were commissioned July 16, 1862, 
Charles H Davis and John A. Dahlgren, Febru 
ary 7, 1863, David D. Porter, July 4, 1863, on 
the active list, and Charles Stewart, William B. 
Shubrick, Joseph Smith, George W. Stone, 
Francis H. Gregory, Elias F. Lavallette, S. H. 
Stringham, Samuel L. Breese, Hiram Paulding, 
George C. Read, on the retired list. Rear- Ad 
miral George C. Read died on the 22d of August, 
1862, the first rear-admiral to die in our navy, 
and Rear- Admiral Lavallette died on the 18th of 
November following. Of all the above-named 



ADMIRAL 



23 



ADOKNINGS 



rear-admirals, in 1880 all were dead excepting 
Rear-Admiral David D. Porter, then the admiral 
of the navy. 

Under this law, as senior rear-admiral, Far 
ragut hoisted his plain square blue flag at New 
Orleans, on the mainmast-head of the " Hart 
ford." He received his commission August 12, 
1862, and the next morning, on the hoisting of 
the colors, his flag was run up for the first time 
at the main, when it was saluted by the whole 
squadron ; soon after which the flag-ship " Hart 
ford," accompanied by the " Brooklyn," pro 
ceeded down the river, the remaining ships of 
the squadron dipping their ensigns as the " flag 
ship" passed. This was the first admiral s flag 
hoisted at the main in our navy. Subsequently 
the law was amended, and Farragut, as a rear- 
admiral, retrograded his flag to the mizzen, 
thence, on his promotion to vice-admiral, ad 
vanced it to the fore, and on his promotion to 
admiral, July 25, 1866, raised it again high up 
on the main. 

On the 21st of December, 1864, the grade of 
vice-admiral was first introduced into our navy, 
and Farragut was our first vice-admiral. On 
his promotion to a full "admiral," July, 1866, 
Rear- Admiral David D. Porter was made a vice- 
admiral, and on the death of Farragut, August, 
1870, he was made admiral of the navy, and 
Stephen C. Rowan vice-admiral. Under existing 
laws, on the death of the present admiral and 
vice-admiral those grades become extinct in our 
navy, and rear-admiral will be the highest rank. 

At present there are in the United States navy 
one admiral, one vice-admiral, and eleven rear- 
admirals on the active list, and forty-two on the 
retired list, who have been retired for long and 
faithful service. 

An admiral may command a fleet or fleets. 

A vice-admiral may command a fleet, or a 
division of a fleet under the admiral ; be com- 
rnander-in-chief of a squadron ; or may com 
mand a naval station. 

A rear-admiral may command a fleet or squad 
ron, a squadron or division under an admiral or 
vice-admiral ; be chief of staff of a naval force 
under an admiral or vice-admiral ; or may com 
mand a naval station. George H. Preble, Rear- 
Admiral U.S.N. 

Admiral. The epithet of admiral was for 
merly applied to any large or leading ship, with 
out regard to flag, and is still used in the whale- 
and cod-fisheries. The first vessel to arrive in 
any port in Newfoundland retains this title 
during the season, the second becomes the vice- 
admiral, and the third the rear-admiral. 

Admiral. A shell of the genus Conus. The 
varieties are designated as the grand-admiral, 
the vice-admiral, the orange-admiral, and the 
extra- admiral. 

Admiralty. The Admiralty" means the Lord 
High Admiral of England, or the commission 
ers for executing his office, commonly called the 
Board of Admiralty. It dates from 1512, when 
Henry VIII. appointed a board of commission 
ers to examine into and report upon the state of 
the navy. In 1660, James, Duke of York, be 
came the first Lord High Admiral. On his ac 
cession to the throne (1685) the office was put 
in commission. On the accession of William 
and Mary (1689) Parliament passed an act legal 
izing and rendering permanent the board of ex 



perts that had from time to time been called 
upon to administer the affairs of the navy. The 
office remained in commission till 1702, when 
George, Prince of Denmark, became Lord High 
Admiral. The office was again in commission 
from 1708 to 1827, when William, Duke of Clar 
ence, the " Sailor Prince," became Lord High 
Admiral. He resigned August 12, 1828. Since 
then the office has been in commission, and will 
probably remain so, till the present Duke of 
Edinburgh is appointed to fill it. 

The Board of Commissioners is thus constituted, 
under Orders in Council, 19th March, 1872 : 

(1) First Lord of the Admiralty, First Naval 
Lord, Second Naval Lord, Junior Naval Lord, 
Civil Lord. 

(2) The Parliamentary Secretary, Permanent 
Secretary, Naval Secretary. 

(3) The Comptroller of the Navy, assisted by a 
Deputy Comptroller, and Director of Dock- Yards. 

(4) The First Lord to be responsible to the 
Crown and to Parliament for all the business 
of the Admiralty, divided as follows : (a) The 
First Naval Lord, Second Naval Lord, and Ju 
nior Naval Lord to be responsible to the First 
Lord of the Admiralty for the administration of 
so much of the business relating to the personnel 
of the navy, and to the movement and condi 
tion of the fleet, as shall be assigned to them 
from time to time by the First Lord, (b) The 
Comptroller to be responsible to the First Lord 
for the administration of so much of the business 
as relates to the materiel of the navy, the Comp 
troller to have the right to attend the board, and 
to explain his views, whenever the First Lord 
shall submit to the board for their opinion de 
signs for ships, or any other matters emanating 
from the- Comptroller s department, (c) The 
Parliamentary Secretary to be responsible to the 
First Lord for the finance of the department, and 
for so much of the other business of the Ad 
miralty as may be assigned to him. (d) The 
Civil Lord, the Permanent Secretary, and the 
Naval Secretary to have such duties as shall be 
assigned to them by the First Lord. The First 
Lord is nearly always appointed from civil life. 

THE ADMIRALTY, the Navy Office, Whitehall, 
London. S. B. Luce, Captain U.S.N. 

Admiralty Courts (in law). The Constitution 
declares that the judicial power of the United 
States shall extend ... a to all cases of admiralty 
and marine jurisdiction." By act of Congress a 
district court of the United States is empowered 
to sit as an admiralty court for the trial of all 
ordinary causes originating on the high seas, or 
on rivers, ports, or harbors communicating with 
the sea. The more serious cases are referred to 
the circuit courts, sitting as courts of admiralty. 

Admiralty Droits. The revenue arising from 
enemies ships detained in prospect of war ; from 
enemies ships coming into port in ignorance 
of hostilities ; from ships captured by non-com 
missioned captors ; from the proceeds of wrecks 
and goods of pirates. 

Admiralty Midshipman. (Eng.) Formerly 
one who, having served his time and passed 
his examination, was appointed to a ship by the 
admiralty, in contradistinction to those who were 
rated by the captain. 

Adonis. An anguilliform fish. 

Adornings. The ornamental work on the 
quarter and stern galleries, 



ADOWN 



24 



AFT 



Adown. The bawl of privateersmen for the 
crew of the captured vessel to go below. 

Adreamt. Dozing. 

Adrift. Floating at random. The state of a 
vessel or boat broken from her moorings and 
driven to and fro by the wind, sea, or tide. Also 
used of a thing that has broken from its place ; 
as, a gun from the ship s side, etc. 

Ad Valorem. In its application to custom 
duties signifies a duty or tax on importations 
that is levied with reference to the value of the 
goods. 

Advance. An amount of an officer s salary 
which he is allowed to receive in advance when 
ordered on sea-duty. If ordered to the Asiatic 
Station he may draw three months pay in ad 
vance, and on other sea-duty two months pay. 
The advance is paid by navy pay agents, on presen 
tation of the officer s orders, upon which the pay 
agent must indorse the payment. This indorse 
ment is notice to the paymaster of the vessel to 
which the officer is ordered, and it is his duty to 
deduct the advance from the officer s future earn 
ings. Officers ordered to a vessel in a United States 
port are entitled to receive their current pay up 
to the date of sailing, without regard to the ad 
vance received from the pay agent. Officers re 
ceiving an advance are required to give notice 
thereof in writing to the paymaster of the vessel 
to which they are ordered. Failure to do so will 
be deemed scandalous conduct and a violation 
of general orders. 

Advance. To move forward. Advance, or 
vanguard, is that portion of a force which moves 
in front of the main body. Advance list is the 
list on which are registered the names of those 
who receive advance money. Advance note is a 
note issued by owners of ships, promising to pay 
a specified sum to a seaman within a specified 
number of days after he has sailed on a voyage. 

Advancement. Promotion to a higher rank 
or grade. 

Advantage, or Vantage-ground, is that which 
affords the greatest facility in attack or defense. 

Adventure. An undertaking involving haz 
ard ; used in a commercial sense to signify a spec 
ulation in goods sent abroad to be sold or bartered 
for profit. A bill of adventure is one signed by 
the merchant, in which he takes the chances of 
the voyage. 

Adversary. A term applied to an enemy, but 
strictly confined to an opponent in single combat. 

Adverse. The opposite of favorable ; as, an 
adverse wind or tide. 

Advice. Counsel ; suggestion. Advices, in 
telligence ; news. 

Advice-boat. A vessel to carry dispatches. 
They were first used in 1692, previous to the bat 
tle of La Hogue. 

Advocate. A counselor ; one who pleads the 
cause of another. See JUDGE ADVOCATE. 

Adze, or Addice. A tool for dubbing flat or 
circular work. It is much used in the East, 
where it takes the place of axe, plane, and 
chisel. 

IE,. See CLASSIFICATION OF MERCHANT VES 
SELS. 

.ffiinautae. Senators of Miletus, who held 
their deliberations on board ship. 

./Eratae. Ancient ships with brazen prows. 

Aerator. An apparatus for aerating water. 
Distilled water has an insipid taste unless it is 



subjected to the action of the air before being 
used. The same effect maybe obtained by throw 
ing calcareous substances into water confined in 
an air-tight vessel. An apparatus for fumigating 
grain. 

Aerography. The description of the atmos 
phere, its nature, properties, limits, etc. 

Aerolites. Solid bodies which descend to the 
earth s surface from beyond the atmosphere. 
They are composed principally of iron and a 
small percentage of nickel and cobalt. 

Aerolites, meteors, fire-balls, and shooting-stars 
are classed together as being merely varieties of the 
same phenomenon. There is but little doubt that 
aerolites are bodies revolving about the sun like 
the planets, and are encountered by the earth in 
its annual motion around the sun. The comets, 
like the earth, must encounter an immense num 
ber of these bodies, and a part of their motion 
must be thereby destroyed. This effect may be 
appreciable in the case of periodic comets, though 
thus far it is inappreciable in the case of the 
earth and the other planets. 

Aerology. The doctrine of air ; generally 
applied to medical discussions respecting its salu 
brity. 

Aeromancy. Formerly, the art of divining by 
the air. In modern times it means the foretelling 
of the weather by experience or by instruments. 

Aerometer. An instrument for making cor 
rections in pneumatic experiments. 

Aerometry. The science of measuring the 
air, its power, pressure, and properties. 

Aeronaut. A navigator of the air. 

Aeronautics. The art of navigating the air. 

Aerostatics. The science that treats of the 
equilibrium and pressure of the air and other 
gases. 

^Estuary. See ESTUARY. 

/Ewul. A basket for catching fish. 

Afeard. Afraid. 

Afer. The southwest wind of the Latins. 

Affair. An engagement of minor importance. 
An affair of honor, a duel. 

Affidavit. A written statement attested by 
the oath of the person making it and subscribed 
by him. To give the oath legal effect it must be 
administered by a person thereunto authorized 
by law, who appends his certificate, technically 
called a "jurat." An affidavit differs from a 
deposition in being ex parte, the person making 
it not being subject to cross-examination. 

Affirm. To make a solemn promise to tell the 
truth under the pains and penalties of perjury. 
To confirm. 

Affirmative. The signal, the hoisting of which 
implies assent. 

Affluent. A stream flowing directly into 
another stream ; a more specific term than tribu 
tary. 

Affreightment. A contract for the letting of 
a vessel, or a part of her, for freight. See CON 
TRACT OF AFFREIGHTMENT. 

Afloat. Buoyed up and supported by the 
water ; on board ship. 

Afore. Farther forward, the same as before. 

Afoul. See FOUL. 

Africa. See CONTINENTS. 

Aft. Abbreviation of abaft. Right aft, ex 
actly astern. To haul a sheet aft, to p ull the 
rope attached to the clew more towards the stern 
of the ship. 



AFT-CASTLE 



25 



AIK-FUNNEL 



Aft-castle. In ancient days, a tower erected 
aft, on the upper deck. See FORECASTLE. 

After. Comparative adjective applied to any 
object in the rear part of a vessel. After-sails, 
-yards, -braces, -bowlines, those on the main- and 
mizzen-masts. After-body, that portion of the 
ship s body abaft dead flat. After-clap, a subse 
quent unexpected event. After-end^ the rear 
end. After-face, the rear face. 

Afterguard. The men who are stationed on 
the quarter-deck and poop to man the gear. It 
is generally composed of landsmen, and they are 
not required to go aloft except to loose and furl 
the mainsail. 

After-Hood. The aftermost plank in a strake, 
outside or inside. 

Afternoon-watch. The period of time from 
noon till four o clock. The men on duty during 
that time. 

After-peak. The contracted part of the hold 
which lies in the vessel s run ; the aftermost por 
tion of the hold. 

After-rake. The overhang of the stern. 

After-timbers. The timbers abaft the mid 
ship section. 

Aftmost, Aftermost. The objects nearest the 
stern. 

Aftward. Towards the stern. 

Aga. A superior Turkish officer. 

Against the Sun. See WITH THE SUN. 

Agal-Agal. One of the sea fuci. It derives 
its name from Tanjong Agal, on the coast of 
Borneo. It is thought the material for edible 
birds -nests is derived from this fucus. 

Agare. The American aloe from which cord 
age is made. 

Age. In chronology, a period of a hundred 
years. 

AGE OF THE MOON. The time elapsed since 
the last conjunction. 

AGE OF THE TIDE. The interval between 
the transit of the moon at which a tide originates 
and the appearance of the tide itself. Called 
also Retard of the Tide. See TIDE. 

Agea. The horse-block or grating on ancient 
boats from which the captain gave his orders. 

Agent. One intrusted with the business of 
another. See LLOYD S AGENTS. 

COMMERCIAL AGENT, a United States consu 
lar officer. These officers are peculiar to the 
United States, and are not regarded by other 
powers as entitled to the rank and privilege of 
consuls. 

Agent, Navy Pay. An officer of the pay 
corps in charge of a navy pay office. His duties 
are to advertise for and purchase all supplies re 
quired by the Navy Department and its bureaus 
for the use of every branch of the navy ; to pay 
mileage and traveling expenses of officers travel 
ing under orders ; to make advances to officers 
ordered to sea ; to pay allotments ; to furnish 
transportation for enlisted men ; to pay certifi 
cates of indebtedness issued by the Fourth Audi 
tor to claimants, and to act as a general disburs 
ing agent for the Navy Department. He renders 
complete quarterly returns to the Fourth Auditor. 
Navy pay offices are established in Boston, New 
York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, 
Norfolk, and San Francisco. 

Aggression. The first act in provoking hos 
tilities. 

Agon. A Chinese cymbal. See GONG. 



Agreement. (Eng.) In vessels of more than 
eighty tons the master must enter into an agree 
ment with every seaman on board, and that 
agreement must be in the form sanctioned by the 
Board of Trade. 

KUNNING AGREEMENT is an agreement ex 
tending over several voyages when they are less 
than six months in duration. 

Aground. The situation of a ship when she 
touches or rests on the bottom. 

Aguada. The Spanish and Portuguese term 
for a watering-place. 

Ahead. Farther onward, or immediately be 
fore the ship. 

AHEAD OF THE BECKONING. Beyond the 
position as determined by logging. 

Ahold. To lay a ship ahold is to bring her to 
lie as close to the wind as possible. 

Ahoo. Awry, aslant, lopsided. 

Ahoy. An exclamation used in hailing a ship ; 
as, ship ahoy ! It means literally stop. 

Ahull. A ship under bare poles, with her 
helm lashed a-lee, lying nearly broadside on to 
the wind and sea. 

Aich s Metal. See GUN-METAL. 

Aid. Assistance. 

Aid. (See EXECUTIVE OFFICER.) An officer 
not above the rank of lieutenant on the personal 
staff of the commander-in-chief, and under the 
immediate direction of the chief of staff to per 
form such duties as may be assigned him, includ 
ing that of secretary. 

The commanding officer of a vessel is em 
powered to detail a junior officer to act as his 
personal aid. 

There is attached to each navy-yard or station 
an officer not above the grade of commander, 
who is called senior aid to the commander, who 
acts as his principal aid in regard to the duties 
of the yard. 

Aigre. The sudden flowing of the sea. See 
BORE. 

Aiguade. (Fr.) Water for ship s use. 

Aiguilletes. (Fr.) Tagged points or cords 
worn across the breast on some uniforms. 

Ailettes. Small plates of metal placed on the 
shoulders on mediaeval armor, the prototype of 
the modern epaulet. 

Aim. The pointing of a weapon at the target. 
An order to point the weapon at the object. 

Aim-frontlet. (Obsolete.) A piece of wood 
hollowed out to fit the muzzle of a gun so as to 
give a line of sight parallel with the axis of the 
bore. 

Air. The atmosphere; the fluid which we 
breathe. 

To AIR. To dry ; to ventilate. 

Air-bladder. A peculiar organ in some kinds 
of fishes by which they maintain their equi 
librium in the water. 

Air-blast. A current of air induced by a 
blower. See BLOWER. 

Air-casing. A sheet-iron casing around the 
smoke-stack to protect the deck. 

Air-chamber. A cavity containing air to act 
as a spring for equalizing the flow of a liquid in 
a hydraulic machine. See ORDNANCE. 

Air Engine. An engine put in motion by hot 
air instead of steam ; a caloric engine. 

Air-funnel. A cavity formed by the omission 
of a timber in the upper works to admit fresh 
air into a ship s hold and convey the foul air out. 



AIR-FURNACE 



26 



A-LEE 



Air-furnace. A furnace with a natural draft 
and 110 blast. 

Air-gun. A pneumatic machine for propel 
ling projectiles. They have been constructed to 
carry as far as an ordinary musket. 

Air-hole. A cavity in a casting formed by 
bubbles in the molten liquid. A vent-hole in a 
mold. A hole in the ice. A draft-hole in a 
register. A small hole in a cask to admit air 
when the faucet is turned on. 

Airing Stage. A platform on which gun 
powder is aired and dried. 

Air-jacket. A garment capable of being in 
flated and used as a life-preserver. 

Air-pipe. Funnels for clearing ships holds of 
foul air. A small pipe leading from the hot well 
outboard. 

Air-port. A scuttle cut in the bow, stern, or 
sides of a ship to admit air and light. 

Airs. Light breezes. 

Air-scuttle. A scuttle cut in the deck or grat 
ing for the admission of air. 

Air-thermometer. An instrument in which 
the contraction and expansion of the air meas 
ure the temperature. 

Air-tube. A small tube suspended in the 
coal-bunker for the purpose of ascertaining the 
temperature of the coal, as a precaution against 
spontaneous combustion. 

Air-valve. See VACUUM-VALVE. 

Akreyri. A town of Iceland, on the Eyiafiord. 
Lat. 65 40 N. ; Ion. 18 W. It has an excellent 
harbor. 

Akyab. A town and seaport of British Bur- 
mah, in Aracan, on the E. side of the island of 
Akyab. It has an excellent harbor. Pop. 15,281. 

Alamak. 7 Andromedte. 

Alamottie. Mother Gary s chicken ; the storm 
finch ; the stormy petrel. 

Aland. An old word for ashore, or to land. 

Alarcon, Hernando de. A Spanish naviga 
tor of the 16th century, to whom we owe the 
first precise knowledge of California. He sailed 
May 9, 1540, in the service of Spain, missed a 
junction with the expedition of Coronado on the 
western coast of America, and, returning to New 
Spain in 1541, drew up his maps and observa 
tions. His discoveries, and those of Ulloa, were 
so complete that the map of California of 1541 
differs little from that made in our own day. 

Alarm. Any sound or information intended 
to give notice of approaching danger. 

FALSE ALARM. An alarm which had no 
foundation in fact, being given through misap 
prehension, or through design, in order to exer 
cise the men at their duties. 

Alarm-gauge. A contrivance in the steam- 
engine for showing when the pressure of steam 
is too high or the water in the boiler too low. 

Alarm-gun. A gun fired to give an alarm. 

Alarmist. One who habitually excites alarm ; 
one who is given to finding causes for alarm. 

Alarms, Marine. Fog-bells, trumpets, horns, 
and whistles operated by the waves, winds, tides, 
currents, or by clock-work. 

Alarms, Nautical. Contrivances on board 
ship to indicate a leak or the accumulation of 
bilge-water. 

Albany-beef. A name for the sturgeon. 

Albatross. A large sea-bird belonging to the 
genus Diomeda. 

Alberton. A seaport town of Prince Edward 



Island. The port, called Cascumpeque, or Hol 
land Harbor, is the best on the northern side of 
the island. Pop. 600. 

Albion. A name for England, from the white 
ness of the cliffs. 

Alburnum. The slab-cuts of timber ; the sap- 
wood. 

Alcatraz. The pelican. 

Aldebaran. A star of the first magnitude, 
popularly known as the Bull s-eye. It is the 
bright star in the group of five called the Ifyades, 
and is conspicuous by its ruddy color. See 
TAURUS. 

Alden, James, Rear-Admiral U.S.N. Born 
in Maine. Appointed midshipman from same 
State, April 1, 1828. 

Promoted to passed midshipman, June 14, 
1834 ; navy-yard, Boston, 1835 ; exploring expe 
dition around the world, 1838-42. 

Commissioned as lieutenant, February 25, 
1841 ; naval station, Boston, 1843 ; frigate " Con 
stitution around the world, second time, 1844- 
46; while attached to this vessel, commanded a 
boat expedition and cut out several war junks 
from under the guns of the fort at Zuron Bay, 
Cochin-China; home squadron during Mexican 
war ; present at the capture of Vera Cruz, Tus- 
pan, and Tobasco ; naval station, Boston, 1847; 
coast survey, 1848-60 ; made a reconnoissance of 
all the West coast. In the winter of 1855-56, 
during the Indian war in Puget Sound, volun 
teered with the surveying steamer " Active" to 
co-operate with the army, and rendered important 
aid in bringing the war to a close ; by his timely 
arrival in the spring of the same year at San 
Juan Island, prevented a collision between the 
British naval forces and the United States troops ; 
assisted in landing troops enough to hold the 
island in dispute against the threatened attack 
of the British. 

Commissioned as commander, September 14, 
1855; commanding the steamer "South Caro 
lina" at the commencement of the rebellion, 
May, 1861; reinforced Fort Pickens, while block 
ading Galveston, Texas ; had a fight with the 
batteries in the rear of the city ; while there, 
captured thirteen schooners laden with merchan 
dise ; commanded sloop " Richmond" at the 
passage of Forts Jackson and St. Philip and the 
engagement with Chalmette batteries and de 
fenses of New Orleans ; passage of Vicksburg 
batteries twice ; Port Hudson, 1862-63. 

Commissioned as captain, January 2, 1863; 
commanded steam-sloop " Brooklyn" in the 
action with Forts Morgan and Gaines and the 
rebel gunboats in Mobile Bay ; commanded two 
attacks on Fort Fisher. Capt. Alden took a 
prominent part in all the great naval battles of 
the war, and was handsomely mentioned in the 
official reports. 

Commissioned as commodore, July 25, 1866 ; 
commanding steam-sloop "Susquehanna," spe 
cial service, 1867 ; commanding steam-frigate 
"Minnesota," special service, 1867-68; com 
mandant navy-yard, Mare Island, California, 
1868-69; Chief of Bureau of Navigation and 
Detail, Navy Department, 1869-71 ; promoted 
to rear-admiral, 1871 ; commanding European 
Squadron, 1872 ; retired, 1873 ; died, 1877. 

A-lee. The contrary of a-weather. The po 
sition of the helm when the tiller is put over to 
the lee side of the ship. 



ALEKT 



ALIEN 



HELM S A-LEE. The order to let go the head- 
sheets when the helm is down. 

Alert. Watchful ; vigilant ; on the look-out, 
and ready for any emergency. 

Alewife. A fish of the herring kind. 

Alexandria. A celebrated city and seaport of 
Egypt, near the westernmost branch of the Nile, 
on the Mediterranean, 112 miles N.W. of Cairo. 
Alexandria has a large naval arsenal, naval and 
military hospitals. The city has an excellent 
new artificial harbor, formed by a breakwater, 
mole, and quays. It has regular steam commu 
nication with all the great Mediterranean ports, 
and is the great emporium of Egypt. Pop. 
220,000. 

Alexandria. A city and port of entry in Vir 
ginia, on the right bank of the Potomac, 7 miles 
below Washington. The river here is a mile 
wide, and forms a commodious harbor sufficiently 
deep for the largest ships. Pop. 14,000. 

Alexiacus. An appellation of Neptune. 

Alfondiza. The custom-house at Lisbon. 

Alga. A species of millepora. 

Algae. Flowerless, cryptogamic plants, cel 
lular, found chiefly as sea- weeds, but also in 
rivers, marshes, springs, hot and cold, and moist 
places everywhere. About 2000 species are known 
and have been described, and among these there 
is a great variety of forms. Some are attached 
to rocks, and others are entirely free. None of 
them have proper roots, but merely processes for 
their attachment to the surfaces on which they 
are fixed. They derive their sustenance exclu 
sively, it would seem, from the medium sur 
rounding them, in which respect, as well as in 
their composition, they differ from fungi. Their 
substance consists chiefly of vegetable gelatine, 
soluble in boiling water ; the harder parts of 
their fronds are sometimes leathery, or horny, or 
cartilaginous, but never really ligneous. They 
are composed entirely of cells, some consisting 
of one cell only ; the composite ones are easily 
separable, and the individual cells are generally 
capable of independent existence, as in the case 
of the proto-coccus, or red snow plant. The 
spores and fronds of algae are frequently of the 
same color, the most common colors being brown, 
or orange-brown, rose color approaching red, or 
green. Algae are multiplied by division of cells 
and by spores. Fertilization is effected by con 
jugation or union of cells, the contents of one 
passing into another and giving rise to germi 
nating spores. This is seen in the confervse 
of stagnant ponds. Other algae are fertilized 
by moving filaments or spermatozoids. Others 
contain a rudimentary cell which, by contact 
with spermatozoids, becomes a spore and then a 
new plant. There are also zoospores which 
move about in the water, the cells ultimately 
bursting and scattering them, and the cilia by 
which they moved disappearing as the spores be 
come fixed. Many of the algae supply nutritious 
food, others are of value as yielding barilla, an 
impure carbonate of soda largely used in manu 
facturing, and all are useful as manure. Some 
species are of immense length and size, such as 
Macrocystis pyrifera, Lessonia fuscescens, and 
D lnvillea utilis, which are found hundreds 
of feet long and as thick as the human body. 
More frequently, however, they are small, vary 
ing from a few inches to several feet in length, 
while some species are visible only through the 



microscope. The distribution of algse as to 
depth varies; their actual depth is still a dis 
puted point with naturalists. It is impossible in 
the present state of knowledge to estimate their 
extreme limit, but vegetation, as usually under 
stood, is practically limited to depths under 100 
fathoms. Very few of the higher algse live, 
even occasionally, on the surface of the sea ; a 
notable exception is the gulf-weed, so called 
(Sargassumbacciferum), which see. 

Algeciras. A seaport town of Spain, on the 
W. side of the Bay of Gibraltar, opposite to and 
6 miles W. of Gibraltar. Pop. 14,000. 

Algenib. y Pegasi. 

Algere. A spear used by fishermen in olden 
times. 

Algiers. A city of North Africa, on the W. 
side of a bay of its own name. Lat. 36 47 3 X/ 
N. ; Ion. 3 4 5" E. The harbor has a mole 
580 feet in length by 140 in width, extending 
from the mainland to an inlet, on which are a 
strong castle with batteries and a light-house. 
Pop. 54,000. 

Algol. A variable star in Perseus. 

Algorab. a Corvi, but its brightness of late is 
rivalled by ft Corvi. 

Alibi. The Latin word meaning elsewhere. 
Before courts-martial, as well as in those of civil 
jurisdiction, when an accused person proves that 
at the time of the commission of the alleged of 
fense he was somewhere else than at the scene 
of the offending, he is said to have proven an 
alibi. 

Alicante. A city and seaport of Spain, lo 
cated at the head of an extensive bay. Lat. 
38 27 1" N. ; Ion. 26 W. The harbor is 
onl} 7 a roadstead in a deep bay, small vessels 
alone being able to approach the quay. Pop. 
30,000. 

Alidade. The movable arm of an instrument 
fitted with sights or a telescope. 

Alien. (Lat. alienus, belonging to another, 
foreign.) In England, by the common law, an 
alien was one born out of the king s dominions or 
allegiance. The only exceptions to this rule 
were such children of the king as might be born 
abroad, and the children of his ambassadors so 
born. By several statutes, to wit : 25 Edw. 
III., passed in 1350; 29 Charles II., 1676; 7 
Anne, 1708; 10 Anne, 1711; 4 Geo. II., 1731; 
13 Geo. III., 1773 ; 7 and 8 Viet., 1844, the com 
mon law rule has been altered, so that now all 
children born out of the king s allegiance whose 
fathers (or grandfathers by the father s side) or 
whose mothers were natural-born subjects, are 
deemed to be natural-born subjects themselves, 
unless their said ancestors were attainted or 
banished beyond sea for high treason, or were at 
the birth of such children in the service of a 
prince at enmity with Great Britain. 

In this country an alien is one born out of the 
limits and jurisdiction of the United States. The 
children of fathers, however, who at the time of 
such children s birth were citizens of the United 
States, and had resided in the United States, are, 
notwithstanding the fact of being born abroad, 
citizens. An alien becomes a citizen by natural 
ization (which see). In time of war a valid con 
tract cannot be made between a citizen and an 
alien enemy, nor can such a contract be enforced 
after peace has been declared During a war an 
alien enemy cannot prosecute an action of any 



ALIGNMENT 



28 



ALMAFADAS 



kind in the courts of the United States ; his right 
of action, however, revives on the declaration of 
peace. See INTERNATIONAL LAW. 

Alignment. An imaginary line to regulate 
the formation of a squadron. 

Alioth. The star e Ursce Majoris. 

All. The whole ; quite. 

ALL AGOG. In a flurry of excitement. 

ALL AHOO. Confused ; awry ; aslant. 

ALL-A-TAUNT-O. Fully rigged with masts 
an-end, yards crossed, and rigging rove. 

ALL HANDS. The whole ship s company. 

ALL HANDS! The boatswain s summons for 
the whole crew, in distinction from the watch. 

ALL KEADY FORWARD, ALL KEADY THE 
MAIN, etc. The notice that a particular part 
of the ship is ready for the next order. . 

ALL STANDING. Fully equipped. To be 
brought up all standing is to be suddenly stopped 
without any preparation. 

ALL S WELL. The sentry s call as each bell is 
struck, from tattoo to reveille. 

ALL TO PIECES. Out-and-out ; excessively. 

ALL WEATHERS. All times and all seasons. 

ALL IN THE WIND. The sails shivering. 

ALL OF A HEAP. Dumfounded; confused. 

STERN ALL. The shout of the harpooner 
when the fish is struck. 

HAUL or ALL. To swing all the yards at 
the same time. 

ALL UP AND AFT. The report of the officer 
of the deck when the oificers and men are assem 
bled on the quarter-deck ready for muster. 

Allan. A piece of land nearly surrounded by 
water. 

Allege. (Fr.) A ballast-boat. 

Allegiance. The tie which binds the citizen 
to his sovereign or country. Its full considera 
tion involves an examination of the right of a 
citizen to expatriate himself, a matter about 
which there is a conflict of theories. The com 
mon law of England denies the right of the 
subject to throw off his allegiance to the country 
of his birth, and European nations generally 
have taken the same position, while in the 
United States we require of persons seeking 
naturalization the renunciation of their former 
allegiance. The inherent difficulties of the sub 
ject make it improbable that any solution will 
ever be attained by legislative action, but it may 
be assumed that the sense of humanity of en 
lightened nations at this day will prevent being 
treated as criminals, persons who, by the silent 
acquiescence, and, therefore, the presumed con 
sent ,of the country of their birth, have removed 
to other countries and assumed a new allegiance, 
even if they should be taken in arms against 
their native country. Many of the questions 
growing out of the subject have been disposed 
of by treaties between the United States and 
foreign nations. See NATURALIZATION. 

Alley. A passage-way between the tiers of 
tanks in a magazine. (See MAGAZINE.) A 
passage-way affording means of access to the 
propeller-shaft. 

Alliance. A league between two or more 
friendly powers, either offensive and defensive, 
or defensive only. 

Alligator. The American crocodile. 

Alligator Water. The muddy, brackish water 
near the mouth of tropical rivers. 

Allision. Synonymous with collision, but is 



sometimes used to mark a distinction between 
one vessel running into another, and two vessels 
striking each the other. 

Allotment. That part of the pay of a person 
on duty in a United States vessel which is paid 
during his absence to some person on shore. Al 
lotments may be granted by any officer, or, 
with the approval of the commanding officer, by 
any man or petty officer in a vessel in commis 
sion. They are paid by navy pay agents to the 
allottees on the last day of every month, and the 
paymaster of the vessel at the same time deducts 
the amount of the allotment from the allottor s 
pay. The allottee must be a member of the 
allottor s family, or some person who receives 
the money for the benefit of said family. Allot 
ments cannot exceed one-half the allottor s 
monthly pay. It is the duty of the paymaster 
having charge of the allottor s account to deduct 
as much from his pay as is paid on the allotment, 
and, in case of death, desertion, or discharge of 
the allottor, to give notice to the navy pay agent 
to cease payments to the allottee. The Fourth 
Auditor keeps a register of all allotments, the 
amounts paid to the allottees, and the amounts 
checked from the pay of the allottors. In case 
more is deducted from the pay of an allottor 
than is paid to the allottee, the difference will be 
paid to the former on application to the Fourth 
Auditor. 

Allowance. Reimbursement of incidental ex 
penses or losses incurred in the performance of 
duty ; as, traveling allowance, allowance to pay 
masters for loss on clothing, small stores, etc. 
A gratuity or bounty ; as, allowance of additional 
pay on re-enlistment. A commutation ; as, allow 
ance for the subsistence of pilots in officers 
messes. A ration or fixed quantity of food. It 
is double, full, two-thirds, half, or short, accord 
ing to circumstances. (Commercial.} A cus 
tomary deduction from the gross weight of goods, 
varying in different countries. 

Alloy. A combination of metals by fusion. 
The term is also applied to the metal that is 
mixed with gold or silver. The properties of 
the alloy are very different from the mean of 
the properties of the constituents, the alloy being 
harder, more tenacious, less ductile, fusing at a 
lower temperature, and more easily oxidized. 
Its density may be either greater or less than 
this mean, and its power of conducting electricity 
is less. If mercury enter into a combination, it 
is known as an amalgam. 

Alluvion, or Alluvium. A deposit of earth, 
gravel, etc., along shores or banks, caused by 
the washing of the water, or by the precipitation 
of substances held in solution. " Sea alluvions dif 
fer from those of rivers in that they form a slope 
toward the land. 

Ally. A confederate. A prince or state united 
to another by treaty. See ALLIANCE. 

Almacantars. Circles parallel to the horizon, 
and passing through every meridian. 

ALMACANTARS STAFF. An old instrument of 
15 of arc to observe the amplitude. 

Almady. A canoe made of bark, used by the 
natives of Africa for war purposes. The name 
is also applied to a boat in use at Calcutta, often 
measuring from 80 to 100 feet in length, and 
generally from 6 to 7 feet in breadth. 

Almafadas. Large dunnage cut on the coast 
of Portugal. 



ALMANAC 



29 



ALMY 



Almanac. A calendar of the days and months 
of the year, to which is generally added a record 
of the feast-days and celestial phenomena. 

Almanac, The Nautical. As the astronomi 
cal ephemeris had its origin in the necessity for 
easy and accurate prediction of the phenomena 
and configurations of the heavenly bodies, so the 
nautical almanac originated in connection with 
the necessity for safe and speedy navigation. 
So soon as out of sight of land the navigator has 
but one sure means of information as to his posi 
tion at sea ; his compass gives him only the di 
rection in which his ship lies or is sailing ; he 
must rely upon the heavens alone for the precise 
determination of his position ; and the problem 
of longitude and latitude is capable of solution 
only in connection with some prediction (a suit 
able period in advance) of the absolute positions 
of the bodies observed at the time when the ob 
servations are made upon them. This annual 
volume of such predictions of the positions of 
the heavenly bodies as are necessary in the navi 
gation of ships constitutes the nautical almanac. 
In general, these predictions are given for equi 
distant intervals of time, so that by interpolation 
the position of a single body, or the relative posi 
tion of two bodies, may be readily computed for 
any intermediate epoch. Long before the pub 
lication of the first nautical almanac, books of 
predictions, known as ephemerides, had been 
issued from time to time, at irregular intervals, 
mostly for the convenience of astronomers. It 
required simply a regulation and extension of 
the idea of these volumes to make up a nautical 
almanac. The nautical almanac proper had its 
origin with the English nation about the middle 
of the 18th century. It owes its existence to a 
memorial presented to the Commissioners of 
Longitude, on February 9, 1765, by Dr. Maske- 
lyne, in which, after stating many facts and ex 
periments to prove the utility of the lunar method 
of obtaining the longitude at sea, he concludes, 
that "nothing is wanting to make this method 
generally practicable at Sea but a Nautical 
Ephemeris." Dr. Maskelyne proposed the con 
struction of such a "Nautical Ephemeris" from 
the " New and Correct Tables of the Motions of 
the Sun and Moon," by Tobias Mayer. The 
first volume issued was that for the year 1767. 
Gradually additions were made to the nautical 
almanac, and improvements introduced, mostly, 
however, in the direction of such predictions and 
ephemerides as were of more service to the as 
tronomer than to the navigator, and the volume 
assumed the name of " The Nautical Almanac 
and Astronomical Ephemeris," which title it re 
tains to the present day. The most important 
era in the history of the nautical almanac is 
marked by the " Report of the Committee of 
the Astronomical Society of London relative to 
the Improvement of the Nautical Almanac," 
adopted November 19, 1830. One very great 
improvement consisted in the abolition of the 
use of apparent time in all the computations of 
the nautical almanac, and the substitution of 
mean time therefor. (See EPHEMERIS, THE 
ASTRONOMICAL.) The entire almanac was re 
modeled by this committee ; and the new ar 
rangement of the several ephemerides therein 
contained has formed the basis of all subsequent 
nautical almanacs, and has remained unchanged 
in the " British Nautical Almanac" up to the 



latest volume, that for the year 1883. " The 
American Nautical Almanac" had its origin 
nearly a century after the " British Nautical 
Almanac." On March 3, 1849, an act of Con 
gress was approved providing for the prepara 
tion of such a work. The preparation of the 
first volume that for the year 1855 was begun 
in the latter part of 1849, and the series of vol 
umes is unbroken down to the present time, the 
volume for 1883 having just been issued. By 
act of Congress, " The meridian of the observa 
tory at Washington shall be adopted and used 
as the American meridian for astronomical pur 
poses, and the meridian of Greenwich shall be 
adopted for all nautical purposes." This law 
was the occasion of the subdivision of "The 
American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac" 
into two distinct parts, and the publication of 
,two separate volumes. Part the first is sub 
stantially identical with that portion of the 
"British Nautical Almanac" intended for the 
special use of navigators, and is likewise com 
puted for the meridian of Greenwich. This part 
contains all the data necessary in the navigation . 
of ships, and is published three years in advance 
of the year for which it is computed. " The Amer 
ican Nautical Almanac" likewise contains ac 
counts of the transits of Mercury and Venus, and 
of eclipses of the sun and moon, with engraved 
diagrams of the solar eclipses. Each volume 
contains also an article on the arrangement and 
use of the various ephemerides, and a selection 
of subsidiarv tables, of frequent use to the navi 
gator. D. P. Tod. 

Almath. The star in Aries whence the first 
mansion of the moon takes its name. 

Almeria. A city and port of Spain, in An 
dalusia, on the Mediterranean, 104 miles E. of 
Malaga. In the bay there is a good anchorage, 
in 12 and 14 fathoms. Pop. 30,000. 

Almirante. (Sp.) Admiral. 

Almury. The upright part of an astrolabe. 

Almy, John J., Rear-Admiral U.S.N. Born 
in Rhode Island in the year 1815. Appointed 
from that state as midshipman, February 2, 1829 ; 
attached to the " Concord," Mediterranean, 1830- 
32; "Ontario," coast of Brazil, 1833-34; pro 
moted to passed midshipman July 3, 1835; re 
ceiving-ship at New York, 1836-37; " Cyane," 
Mediterranean, 1838-41. 

Commissioned as lieutenant, March 8, 1841 ; 
brig "Bainbridge," West Indies, 1842; frigate 
"/Macedonian," coast of Africa, 1843-45; line- 
of-battle ship "Ohio," Gulf of Mexico and Pa 
cific Ocean during the Mexican war and after the 
war, 1846-50; participated in the siege and cap 
ture of Vera Cruz and the capture of Tuspan ; 
latter part of the war 1848 on the Pacific 
coast, and commanded one of the forts at Ma- 
zatlan during the naval occupation of that place; 
coast survey in 1851-56, on the survey of Chesa 
peake Bay and the sea-coast of Virginia and 
North Carolina ; commanding " Fulton," on the 
coast of Central America, in 1857, when General 
Walker and his filibustering party surrendered 
to Rear-Admiral Paulding, on board of that ves 
sel, at Nicaragua. Commanded the " Fulton" 
in the expedition to Paraguay in 1858-59 ; at 
navy^yard, New York, 1860-61. 

Commissioned as commander, April 24, 1861 ; 
commanded " South Carolina," South Atlantic 
Squadron, 1862-63 ; "Connecticut," North At- 



ALNUS 



30 



ALTITUDE 



lantic Squadron, 1864 ; " Juniata," South Atlan 
tic Squadron, 1865. 

While in command of the "Connecticut," 
captured and sent in four noted blockade-running 
steamers with valuable cargoes ; ran ashore and 
destroyed four others. 

Commissioned as captain, March 3, 1865 ; com 
manded " Juniata" in a cruise to the South At 
lantic (coast of Brazil and south coast of Africa), 
1865-67. While on the coast of Brazil rescued 
the Brazilian brig " Americo" and crew from 
shipwreck, attended with great danger, for which 
service received the thanks of His Imperial Ma 
jesty the Emperor of Brazil. Ordnance duty at 
the navy-yard, New York, 1868-69. 

Commissioned as commodore, December 30, 
1869 ; chief signal-officer of the navy at Wash 
ington, 1870-72. 

Commissioned as rear-admiral, August 24, 
1873, and the following month took command 
of the United States naval forces in the Pacific 
Ocean. While at Panama, in October, 1873, a 
serious and violent revolution broke out, charac 
teristic of that country, which continued for 
three weeks. The city of Panama and the 
Panama Railroad were in imminent danger of 
being destroyed. A force of seamen and marines 
numbering 200, under competent officers, was 
landed from the ships and kept on shore until the 
revolution terminated, affording efficient pro 
tection to the railroad, to American and to 
European interests. Two United States ves 
sels, the flag-ship " Pensacola" and the " Be- 
nicia," were the only men-of-war in port. Pas 
sengers, freight, and specie continually passed 
over the road in safety and without interruption. 

For these services Rear- Admiral Almy received 
the thanks of the Panama Railroad Company, 
the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, and of all 
the consuls and the foreign merchants at Pa 
nama. 

Was in command of the United States naval 
forces in the Pacific for two years and ten months. 

Has performed altogether twenty-seven years 
and ten months sea service ; shore, or other duty, 
fourteen years and eight months. 

In April, 1877, was retired, having reached 
the age prescribed by law for retirement. 

Alnus Caver. Early English transports, so 
called from the wood of which they were made. 

Aloft. Overhead ; on high ; anywhere about 
the upper masts, yards, or rigging. See ALOW. 

LAY ALOFT ! "The command to the men to 
run up to their stations. 

ALOFT THERE ! The hail to men on the yards 
and in the rigging. 

ALOFT is used in a figurative sense for heaven. 

Alonde. An old word for ashore ; on land. 

Along. Lengthwise. 

ALONG OF. With. 

LYING ALONG. Heeling over to leeward under 
a press of sail with a beam wind. 

LYING ALONG THE LAND. Skirting the shore. 

Alongshore. A nautical phrase signifying 
along the coast, or a course which is in sight of 
the shore. See LONGSHORE. 

Alongst. In the middle of the stream, moored 
head and stern. 

Aloof. At a distance. 

Alow. Below. All sail alow and aloft is all 
plain sail and stun -sails. 

Alphabet Telegraph. An apparatus which 



marks symbols on paper, in contradistinction to 
those whose signals are made by a needle, mirror, 
or sound. 

Alphard. The star a Hydros. 

Alpheratz. a Andromedce. 

Altair. a Aquilce. 

Altar. A step of a dry-dock. 

Alternate. To happen or act by turns. 

ALTERNATING WINDS. Blow for a time in 
one direction, and suddenly, from an alteration 
of the temperature, change and blow in the op 
posite directions. See MONSOON and BREEZE. 

Altiscope. An instrument which enables an 
observer to look over an intervening object. 
This instrument has been applied, not very suc 
cessfully, to pointing guns, the observer being on 
the deck below. 

Altitude. Height. Angular distance of a 
heavenly body above the horizon measured on a 
great circle. 

ALTITUDE, CIRCLES OF. Great circles of the 
celestial concave perpendicular to the horizon, 
and so called because "altitudes" are measured on 
them. They all pass through the poles of the 
horizon, of which the superior is the "vertex" 
of the visible heavens, and hence they are also 
called " Vertical Circles," or simply " Verticals." 
In a polar system of horizon co-ordinates they 
are termed " Circles of Azimuth" as marking out 
all points that have the same "azimuth." 

ALTITUDE, CIRCLES OF EQUAL. Circles on the 
earth s surface, from every point of each of which 
a given heavenly body is observed to have the 
same altitude at any given time. The circle of 
equal altitude is a great circle of the sphere when 
the body is in the horizon, or its altitude ; the 
circle is reduced to a point when the body is in 
the zenith, or its altitude 90 ; and between these 
two limits the parallels are small circles whose 
radii correspond to the complements of the alti 
tude. A small arc of a circle of equal altitude, 
when projected on a Mercator s chart, will be 
approximately a straight line, especially if the al 
titude of the body be low. Such a line is called 
"A Line of Equal Altitude." The determina 
tion of one or two such lines intersecting each 
other forms the basis of what is called " Sum- 
ner s Method" of finding a ship s position at sea. 

ALTITUDE, CORRECTION IN. The total correc 
tion to be applied to the apparent altitude to de 
duce the true altitude. In the case of the stars, 
it is due solely to refraction, but for appreciably 
near bodies to the combined effects of refraction 
and parallax. 

ALTITUDE, A DOUBLE. Two altitudes taken 
for the solution of the same problem. The ordi 
nary problems for which the method furnishes the 
data are finding the latitude, and rating a chro 
nometer. These altitudes may 1 e of the same 
body, taken at different times, either both on the 
same side or on opposite sides of the meridian ; 
or of different bodies similarly situated jobserved 
at the same time ; or, lastly, of different bodies 
similarly situated observed at different times. 

ALTITUDE, MERIDIAN. The altitude of a ce 
lestial body when on the meridian. In the case 
of a circumpolar star, whose whole diurnal circle 
is completed above the horizon, the body comes to 
the meridian twice, when its altitudes are spoken 
of respectively as "the Meridian Altitude below 
the Pole," and " the Meridian Altitude above the 
Pole" ; the former is the lowest altitude the body 



ALTITUDE 



31 



AMMEN 



has in its revolution, the latter the highest. 
The meridian altitude is easily observed at sea 
with a sextant, and furnishes the simplest and 
most satisfactory method of determining the 
latitude, the declination of the body only being 
required in addition. 

ALTITUDE, MOTION IN. An instrument is said 
to move " in altitude" when it is turned on a 
horizontal axis ; in contradistinction, it is said to 
move "in azimuth" when it is turned on a ver 
tical axis. An azimuth and altitude instrument 
admits of both motions. 

ALTITUDE, OBSERVED, APPARENT, AND 
TRUE. The altitudes of heavenly bodies are ob 
served from the deck of a ship at sea with the sex 
tant. Such an altitude is called the " Observed 
Altitude." There are certain instrumental and 
circumstantial sources of error by which this is 
affected : the sextant (supposed otherwise to be 
in adjustment) may have an index error; the 
eye of the observer being elevated above the sur 
face of the sea, the horizon will appear to be de 
pressed, and the consequent altitude in reality 
too great ; and one of the limbs of the body may 
be observed instead of its centre. When the 
corrections for these errors and method of ob 
serving are applied the "index correction," 
"correction for dip," and "semi-diameter" 
the observed is reduced to the " Apparent Alti 
tude." But again, for the sake of comparison 
and computation, all observations must be trans 
formed into what they would have been had the 
bodies been viewed through a uniform medium, 
and from one common centre, the centre of the 
earth. The altitude supposed to be so taken is 
called the " True Altitude" ; it may be deduced 
from the apparent altitude by applying the cor 
rections called "correction for refraction" and 
"correction for parallax." " Correction for re 
fraction" : when a body is viewed through the 
atmosphere, refraction will cause the apparent 
to be greater than the true altitude ; hence the 
correction for refraction is subtractive in finding 
the true from the apparent altitude. " Correc 
tion for parallax" : the position of the observer 
on the surface, especially for near bodies, will 
cause the apparent to be less than the true alti 
tude ; hence the correction for parallax is addi 
tive in finding the true from the apparent al 
titude. 

ALTITUDE, PARALLELS OF. Lesser circles of 
the celestial sphere parallel to the horizon. They 
mark all the points of the heavens which have 
the same altitude. The Arabic term for this 
system was "Almacantars. " 

ALTITUDE, REDUCTION OF, TO ANOTHER 
PLACE OF OBSERVATION. See RUN. 

ALTITUDES, CIRCUMMERIDIAN. When the 
body is near the meridian, and altitudes are ob 
served with a view of solving problems by first 
finding from these the meridian altitude, such 
altitudes are conveniently distinguished as Cir- 
cummeridian Altitudes. 

ALTITUDES, EQUAL. Double altitudes of the 
sun, when at the same altitude in the forenoon 
and afternoon. 

ALTITUDES, EQUATION OF EQUAL. In equal 
altitudes of the sun, its declination changes 
slightly in the interval between the forenoon and 
afternoon observation, and therefore the hour- 
angles corresponding to the two altitudes are not 
exactly equal. Hence half the interval added 



to the time of the first observation requires a cor 
rection in order to give the time shown by chro 
nometer when the sun is on the meridian. This 
correction is called " The Equation of Equal 
Altitudes." It is given in tables. 

ALTITUDES, SIMULTANEOUS. Double alti 
tudes of different bodies taken at the same time. 

Altometer. The theodolite. 

Altona. A city and free port of Prussia, in 
Holstein, on the right bank of the Elbe, a little 
below Hamburg. It is accessible to sea-going 
vessels, and has a large trade. Pop. 90,000. 

Aluffe, or Aloof. A very old form for luff. 

Alveus. An ancient boat made of a single 
trunk ; a dug-out. 

Amadas (or Amidas), Philip, b. Hull, 1550; 
d. England, 1618. A commander of one of the 
vessels sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh, with 
Barlow, to take possession of lands on the east 
ern shore of America. He discovered Ocracoke 
Inlet, and landed on Wocoken Island, in Flor 
ida, subsequently exploring Pamlico and Albe- 
marle Sounds arid Roanoke Island. The title of 
admiral was conferred upon him, and he was 
united with Lane in the settlement of North 
Carolina, afterwards called Virginia. 

Amain. With force or vigor ; all at once ; as, 
lower amain. An old word for yield. The low 
ering of the topsail was called striking amain, 
and it was demanded by the wave amain, or the 
brandishing of a sword. 

Amain. A city and seaport of Italy, in the 
Gulf of Salerno, and 23 miles S.E. of Naples. 
Lat. 40 38 N. ; Ion. 14 37 10" E. A naval 
school is located at Amalfi. Pop. 6500. 

Amalgam. A compound of mercury with 
another metal. See ALLOY. 

Amalphitan Code. The oldest code of modern 
sea laws, compiled during the first Crusade by 
the people of Amalfi, in Italy. 

Amaye. Sea-marks on the French coast. 

Ambassador. A diplomatic officer of the 
highest rank. A practical joke, in which the 
victim is unmercifully ducked. 

Amber. A hard, resinous, vegetable sub 
stance, generally of a bright yellow color, and 
translucent. 

Ambergris. A fragrant substance, the origin 
of which was long a matter of dispute. It is 
now known to be a morbid product developed in 
the intestines of the sperm whale. It is of a 
grayish color, very light, and fusible, and is used 
as a perfume and as a cordial. 

Amelioration. An allowance made to the 
neutral purchaser, on reclaiming a ship improp 
erly condemned, for the repairs she has under 
gone at his expense. 

America. See CONTINENTS. 

Americus Vespucci. See VESPUCCI. 

Amidships. The middle part of a ship, 
whether in regard to her length or breadth, but 
more generally applied to the axis or fore-and- 
aft line. 

Ammen, Daniel, Rear-AdmiralU.S.N. Born 
in Ohio, May 15, 1820. Appointed midshipman, 
July 7, 1836; attached to the Exploring Expedi 
tion, 1837-38 ; sloop " Levant" and " Vandalia," 
in the West Indies, 1838-39; sloop "Preble," 
on the coast of Labrador and in the Mediterra 
nean, 1840-41 ; returned to the United States on 
board ship-of-the-line "Ohio," 1841, and to 
Naval School ; passed examination, June, 1842, 



AMMUNITION 



32 



AMPLITUDE 



and received warrant of passed midshipman ; 
store-ship " Lexington," as navigator, 1843-44, 
to the Mediterranean; sloop "Vincennes," as 
navigator, East India Squadron, 1845-47 ; coast 
survey, 1848-49. 

Commissioned as lieutenant, November 4, 
1849; frigate "St. Lawrence," Mediterranean 
Squadron, 1850; coast survey, 1851 ; attached 
to a commission for selecting a naval station in 
the Bay of San Francisco, Cal., 1852; scientific 
expedition of steamer "Water Witch," Para- 

uay Kiver, 1853-54 ; brig " Bainbridge," Brazil 
quadron, 1854-55; Naval Observatory, Wash 
ington, 1856-57; steam-sloop "Saranac," Pa 
cific Squadron, 1858; steam-frigate " Merrimac," 
Pacific Squadron, 1859-60; steam-frigate " Ro- 
anoke," as executive-officer, North Atlantic 
Blockading Squadron, 1861 ; commanding " Sen 
eca," South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, 
1861-62, at battle of Port Royal, November 7, 
1861 ; the day following hoisted our flag over 
Fort Beauregard, and made formal delivery to 
the army, by order of Rear-Admiral Du Pont ; 
Tybee Island, December, 1861 ; commanded 
forces entering by way of Whale Branch in 
attack on Port Royal Ferry, January 1, 1862; 
engaged in the operations against Fernandina 
through St. Andrew s Sound and in St. John s 
River. 

Promoted to commander, February 21, 1863; 
commanding monitor "Patapsco," South At 
lantic Blockading Squadron, against Fort McAl 
lister, March, 1863, and in the attack on Fort 
Sumter, April 7, 1863 ; had charge of a draft of 
220 seamen on board of the California passenger 
steamer " Ocean Queen, "May, 1864, bound to As- 
pi n wall ; two days after leaving New York sup 
pressed an open and organized mutiny, with the 
assistance of Boatswain Thomas G. Bell, who 
was the only aid assigned, receiving in doing so 
the excellent co-operation of Captain Tinkle- 
paugh, who commanded the "Ocean Queen," 
his officers, and several of the passengers ; com 
manding steam-sloop "Mohican," North At 
lantic Blockading Squadron, 1864-65; in the 
bombardment of Fort Fisher, December, 1864, 
and again when it was carried by assault by the 
army, January, 1865 ; commanding ironclad 
"Miantonomah," special service, 1866. 

Commissioned as captain, July 25, 1866 ; spe 
cial duty, Hartford, Conn., 1866-67; command 
ing flag-ship " Piscataqua," Asiatic Squadron, 
1867-68; Chief of Bureau of Yards and Docks, 
1869-71. 

Commissioned as commodore, 1872. Chief of 
Bureau of Navigation, 1871-78. Commissioned 
as rear-admiral. 1877 ; retired at his own re 
quest, 1878. July, 1878, appointed chairman of 
a board for the re-location of the Naval Obser 
vatory. April, 1879, ordered to attend the con 
vocation at Paris, France, known as the Inter- 
oceanic Ship-Canal Congress. Had constructed 
on his design a cask " balsa," or life-boat, which 
is now at the navy-yard, Portsmouth, N. H., at 
which place are built life-boats on this design for 
all of our vessels of war. Total sea-service 21 
years and 1 month ; other duty, 17 years and 3 
months. 

Ammunition. In early times this word sig 
nified every description of warlike stores and 
provisions for attack or defense. 

In modern usage its signification is limited to 



articles in use for charging fire-arms and ord 
nance of all kinds. 

FIXED AMMUNITION. For guns of small 
calibre the charge and projectile are united for 
convenient transportation and rapidity in load 
ing. 

AMMUNITION BOXES. The boxes carried on 
the carriage of howitzers. 

AMMUNITION CHESTS. Chests stowed in the 
tops for the convenience of the riflemen stationed 
there in action. 

AMMUNITION-WIFE. A woman of doubtful 
character. 

Amnesty. An act of oblivion or general par 
don for all acts committed in time of war, or the 
proclamation of such pardon. 

Amok. Slaughter. The practice, of Malays 
under the influence of bang, of running about 
the streets, attacking anybody and everybody. 

To RUN A-MUCK. To make an indiscriminate 
assault. 

Amorce. (Fr.} Priming powder. 

Amoy. A seaport town of China, on an island 
of the same name. Lat. 24 10 3" N. ; Ion. 
118 IS 5" E. ; nearly opposite to the centre of 
the island of Formosa. The population, mostly 
employed in the coasting trade, is about 300,000. 

Amperes. An ancient vessel in which the 
rowers pulled two oars each. 

Amphibia. A class of animals which can live 
either in the water or on the land. 

Amphiprorae. Ancient vessels, both ends of 
which were prow-shaped, so that in narrow chan 
nels they need not turn ; the prototypes of the 
double-enders. 

Amphiscii. The inhabitants of the torrid 
zone are thus denominated from their shadow 
being turned one part of the year to the north 
and the other to the south. 

Amplitude. The angular distance of a heav 
enly body in the horizon from the east or west 
point. The magnetic amplitude is the angular 
distance of the body from the east or west point 
as indicated by the compass. The difference be 
tween the true and the magnetic amplitude is the 
variation of the compass. 

At a given latitude the amplitude depends on 
the declination of the object. Amplitude is 
sometimes used to denote the horizontal distance 
to which a projectile is expelled from a gun, or 
what is more frequently called the range. 

AMPLITUDE, OBSERVATION OF. The usual 
instructions for taking amplitudes are laid down 
with the view that the body shall be observed at 
the moment when its centre is really in the ra 
tional horizon. Thus the bearing of the sun is 
directed to be taken when its lower limb appears 
half-way between the horizon and its centre ; the 
bearing of a star is to be taken at an altitude of 
34 : the amplitude of the moon cannot be thus 
directly observed with accuracy, especially in 
high latitudes, by reason of her great depression 
by parallax, but may be found approximately by 
observing her bearing when her upper limb is in 
the horizon. In all cases, however, the better 
plan is to obtain by observation the bearing when 
the centre of the body appears on the horizon, 
and apply the necessary corrections (for dip, re 
fraction, and parallax) taken from a table. For 
the sun, when rising, observe the bearing of the 
upper limb as it appears on the horizon, and 
continue to take the bearings of the centre, hi- 



AMPOTIS 



33 



ANCHOR 



seating the sun s disk by keeping the upright 
wire on the upper limb until the lower limb ap 
pears. Read off each bearing. At sunset, when 
the lower limb touches the horizon, proceed in 
like manner until the upper limb disappears. 
The mean of the readings, reckoning from the 
east or west point, is the observed amplitude. 
When practicable, the moon may be observed in 
the same way. In the case of the sun and stars, 
a table (with latitude and declination for argu 
ments) gives the necessary correction for refrac 
tion, to which the requisit^ dip is added. The 
same table applied in the contrary way gives the 
correction for the moon, which is the excess of 
the effect of parallax over the combined effects 
of refraction and dip. The amplitude of a star 
should be observed at setting, to admit of the 
body being easily identified. 

Ampotis. The running out of the sea. 

Amsterdam. An important commercial city, 
one of the capitals of the Netherlands, at the 
former confluence of the Amstel with the Y, a 
lake-like river, now mostly drained, but a small 
part remains and serves as a port for the city. It 
has a new artificial harbor on the North Sea, 
with which it is connected by a ship canal 15 
miles long. Pop. 300,000. 

Amulet. A charm worn by superstitious peo 
ple as a preservative against disease or disaster. 

Amusette. A shoulder-gun fitted with a 
swivel, carrying a ball weighing from half a 
pound to two pounds. 

Anabus. A bony fish that has the power of 
living long out of water and moving considerable 
distances on land. 

Anadromous. A term applied to migratory 
fishes. 

Analemma. An orthographic projection of 
the sphere on the plane of the meridian. An in 
strument of brass or wood on which this projec 
tion is made. An old form of sun-dial. 

Anan. An old word for What did you say ? 
Also a corruption of anon. 

Anas. A genus of water-birds of the order 
Natatores, now restricted to the typical ducks. 

Anaumachion. Among the ancients the crime 
of refusing to serve in the fleet, the punishment 
for which was infamy. 

Anchiromachus. A boat of the middle ages 
for transporting anchors and naval stores. 

Anchor. A heavy iron instrument for re 
taining a ship in her place. It is attached to the 
ship by a rope or chain, and is thrown overboard 
from the bows. 

The earlier anchors were made of wood with 
an arm, and later two arms. Stones were at 
tached to give weight to sink and greater holding 
power. With all the improvements of modern 
times, the anchors now in use have undergone 
but little change of form. 

After the wooden anchor followed the iron 
anchor with a wooden stock. At the present day 
all navy anchors are fitted with iron stocks. 

Anchors are solid when the shank and arms 
are welded together. In most patent anchors the 
arms are movable and capable of being separated 
from the shank. 

The solid or common anchor consists of the 
shank, the ring (shackle, or Jew s-harp), the 
arms, and the stock. 

The shank is the main body of the anchor. 
The ring is bolted to the upper end and the arms 
3 



are welded to the other. The crown is the heavy 
end of the shank to which the arms are welded. 
It is the part which first strikes the ground when 
the anchor is let go perpendicularly. 

The stock is the iron beam at right angles to 
the shank. It has a shoulder near its middle 
part, and when this shoulder is snug up against 
the shank it is keyed on the other side. The end 
opposite to the shoulder is bent for convenience 
in stowage. 

On the ends of the stock are cast-iron balls, the 
one on the bent end being movable and the other 
riveted. 

The arm consists of the palm (or fluke), the 
bill (point, or pee), and the blade. The palm is 
shaped much like a shield, and is welded and 
riveted to the blade. The bill is the part of the 
arm which projects beyond the palm. The ring 
is that part of the anchor to which the cable is 
bent. 

The essential properties of an anchor are 
strength, holding, quick-holding, canting , facility 
of sweeping, of stowing, and of transport in boats, 
exemption from fouling, and quick-tripping. Of 
these the most important are strength, holding, 
and quick-holding. 

These qualities depend upon the weight of 
metal, size and shape of the cross-section of 
arms and shank, length of arms, shank, and 
stock, angle at which the arms are set on, size 
and shape of palm, finish of the bill, curvature 
of the arm, quality of the material, and the 
workmanship. 

The development of one of these qualities to 
an extreme degree may involve the sacrifice of 
another. For instance, the Trotman anchor is 
notably exempt from fouling, as the upper fluke 
lies down against the shank, but this peculiarity 
renders it almost impossible to pick it up by 
sweeping for it. An anchor that holds well does 
not trip quickly. The holding power of an an 
chor depends a great deal on the length of the 
arm ; but a long arm is an element of weakness. 
So there is much to be considered in the form 
and dimensions of anchors, and it has required 
a great many experiments to determine them. 
The American Anchor, designed by Mr. James 
Brown, master-smith at the Washington Navy- 
Yard, fulfills all required conditions. 

Anchors for the navy are forged under the 
steam-hammer from scrap-iron, and are gotten 
out in five parts, viz.: the shank, two arms, 
stock, and shackle (or ring). 

The scrap-iron is first hammered into blooms, 
the most convenient size being 36 inches long, 
10 inches wide, and 4 inches thick. The blooms 
being in readiness, the parts of the anchor are 
forged and put together in the following order : 

The shank. The blooms are piled on the end 
of a porter bar, heated and welded under a steam- 
hammer until the mass of iron on the end of the 
bar is of sufficient size to make the shank. The 
building-up process begins at the crown, and the 
mass is gradually drawn out towards the ring 
end, and swaged smooth under the hammer. The 
holes are punched for the ring and stock, and the 
shank is then cut off from the bar. 

The two arms are forged separately, also the 
two palms. The palms are welded on to the 
arms and riveted, and the bill is drawn out and 
finished up. The shank is then heated at the 
crown end, scarfed on one side, and the arm welded 



ANCHOR 



34 



ANCHOR 



on ; then scarfed on the other side and the second 
arm welded on. The arms are welded on straight, 
and afterwards heated and bent to the proper 
angle. 

The stock is forged from blooms in the same 
manner as the shank. The ring is forged straight, 
and afterwards heated and bent to the proper 
shape and a bolt fitted to the eyes. 

The process of annealing anchors has now 
generally gone out of use. 

The following are the proportions of a 6000- 
pound anchor : 

Shank. Length, 13 feet 8 inches ; cross-section 
at the largest part where the arms are welded on, 
10J- by 8 inches ; cross-section at the stock, 8 by 
7 inches, the greatest dimension being in the 
plane of the arms. 

Stock. The length is equal to the length of 
the shank over all, and in diameter it is about 
two-thirds the smallest width of the shank meas 
ured in the plane of the arms. 

The length of the arm is nearly one-third the 
length of the shank, and in bending them an 
equilateral triangle is formed with the length of 
the arm for one side, the same distance laid off 
on the shank from the crotch for the second side, 
and the distance from the end of this line to the 
bill completes the triangle. 

In forging anchors a great deal is done by eye 
for shape and proportions. The crown and throat 
are rounded off, and the shank has eight faces, 
with a straight taper from the crotch to the 
stock. The weight of an anchor is inclusive of 
the ring and exclusive of the stock, which is 
about one-fourth the weight of the anchor. 
C. T. Hutchins, Lieutenant U.S.N. 

PATENT ANCHORS. Many designs have been 
submitted, the most prominent of which are 
mentioned below. The oxidation of the movable 
parts of portable anchors is the great source of 
failure, as they require constant care and atten 
tion to keep them in working order. 

Isaac s Anchor has a bar of iron from each 
end of the stock to the middle of the shank, and 
the palms are connected by a flat elliptical bar of 
iron. It has great strength, and is notably ex 
empt from fouling, but is deficient in other re 
spects. 

Latham s Anchor has an arm provided with 
three flukes, and the shank is made of two pieces, 
which separate at the crown end to allow the 
midship fluke to pass. When the three flukes 
enter the ground, the flange on the crown-piece 
takes on the shank and the arms are held rigid. 
No stock is required. 

Marshall s Anchor. The arms are straight 
and move independently on a pivot, which passes 
through the crown. The arms are fitted with 
projections, which assist the flukes to enter the 
ground. 

Martin s Anchor is supplied to the turret-ships 
of the British navy. The anchor is very com 
pact, and for that reason is especially recom 
mended to rams and turret-ships, as it does not 
impede the fire nor project from the bows. 

Morgan s Anchor has a curved bar of iron, 
which passes through a slot in the shank and 
connects the two arms to each other. The arms 
are separately pivoted to the shank. When one 
fluke enters the ground the other is drawn down 
against the shank, the connecting bar serving to 
strengthen the arms. 



Porter s Anchor is the same in principle as 
Trotman s, which see. 

Rodger s Anchor has a shank with a wooden 
core, the object being to give greater strength 
with a given weight of metal. He also designed 
the pick-ax anchor, an anchor without palms. 

Trotman s Anchor. The oscillatory system is 
the principal feature of this anchor. The arms 
are in one piece and work in a slot in the shank. 
When one fluke enters the ground the other is 
drawn down against the shank. The backs of the 
arms are fitted with horns to assist the flukes to 
enter the ground. It is one of the best of the 



patent anchors. 

The BOWER-ANCHORS are so named 



from 



their being carried on the bows. In early days 
they were of different sizes ; the larger one, 
called the best bower, was carried on the star 
board bow, the other was known as the small 
bower. These designations are yet retained, 
though the anchors are now of equal size. 

The WAIST- or SHEET-ANCHORS are equal in 
weight to the bower-anchors, and are carried on 
the side, abaft the fore-rigging. They are se 
cured with the stock perpendicular, and the shank 
resting on two shores. 

The SPARE-ANCHOR, when no sheets are car 
ried, is of the same size as a bower-anchor, and 
is stowed inboard. 

The STREAM- ANCHOR is one-fourth the weight 
of the bower-anchor, and is carried inboard. 

KEDGES are small anchors, from one-sixth to 
one-fourteenth the weight of the bower. They 
are stowed in the chains. 

BOAT-ANCHORS are small anchors supplied for 
the use of the boats. They are stowed in the 
hold of the ship until needed for service. 

With reference to their position anchors are 
termed flood, ebb, weather, lee, sea, or shore 
a,nchors. 

To SHOE AN ANCHOR. To fit triangular 
pieces of wood to the palms to give greater hold 
ing power. 

To COCKBILL THE ANCHOR. To ease off the 
shank-painter, and hang the anchor by the ring- 
stopper. 

To LET Go THE ANCHOR. To release it from 
the cat-head that it may fall to the bottom and 
hold the ship. 

To DRAG THE ANCHOR. To trail it over the 
bottom by force of the wind or current. 

To BACK THE ANCHOR. To increase the hold 
ing power of an anchor by planting a smaller 
one ahead of it, and connecting the two with a 
chain. The holding power of an anchor may be 
increased by attaching a weight to the bight of 
the chain, thus bringing the strain lower down, 
and causing the fluke to bite harder. 

To TRIP THE ANCHOR. To heave it clear of 
the bottom. 

To SIGHT THE ANCHOR. To heave it up to 
the surface of the water. 

To WEIGH AN ANCHOR. To heave it up to 
the bows. 

To CAT THE ANCHOR. To hoist it up to the 
cat-head and pass the ring-stopper. 

To FISH THE ANCHOR. To hoist the flukes 
up to the bill-board and pass the shank-painter. 

To STOW AN ANCHOR. To secure it in its 
proper place. 

To TRANSPORT AN ANCHOR. To shift it from 
one position to another in the ship. 



ANCHOK 



35 



ANCHORING 



To SECURE THE ANCHOR FOR SEA. To ring 
it up close to the cat-head, and get the inner fluke 
inboard, and pass extra lashings. 

To GET THE ANCHOR OFF THE Bows. To 
take off the extra lashings, and heave the inner 
fluke up and outboard, so it will slip off the bill 
board when the shank-painter is let go. 

To SWEEP, DRAG, OR CREEP FOR AN ANCHOR. 
To endeavor to pick up an anchor or the chain 
by trailing for it with a grapnel or the bight of 
a rope. 

FOUL-ANCHOR. The ^condition of an anchor 
when the chain has taken a turn around the 
flukes, shank, or stock, or when the anchor has 
caught into some other anchor, chain, or wreck. 

The anchor is aweigh or atrip the moment it is 
disengaged from the ground. It is apeak when 
the chain is up-and-down. It comes home when 
it is trailed over the bottom as the ship drifts. 

Anchor, Drag-, or Floating-. See SEA-AN 
CHOR. 

Anchor, Jury. A temporary anchor con 
structed to supply the place of one which has 
been lost. Ships are sometimes obliged to resort 
to their guns, boilers, and other heavy articles. 

Anchor, Mushroom. Has a head shaped like 
a bowl, and no stock is required. It is used for 
moorings. 

Anchor, Screw. Large screws with broad 
flanges, used for moorings and to shoe piles. 

Anchor, Sea. A species of raft or drag formed 
of spars and canvas to keep a ship s head to the 
wind and to decrease her drift. It is attached to 
the ship by a hawser, and is generally fitted with 
a buoy and an anchor. 

Anchorage. A duty levied upon vessels upon 
coming to a port for the use of its advantages. 
The set of anchors belonging to a ship. A place 
suitable for anchoring. It is marked on charts 
by an anchor, and is described according to its 
attributes as good, snug, open, or exposed. 

Anchor-ball. A pyrotechnical combustible 
attached to a grapnel. 

Anchor-bar. A large handspike to pry the 
anchor off the bill-board. 

Anchor-chock. Pieces let into an anchor- 
stock. Pieces of wood or iron upon which an 
anchor rests when it is stowed. 

Anchor-hold. The fastness of the flukes in 
the ground. 

Anchor-hoops. Heavy iron hoops binding a 
wooden stock to the shank and over the nuts of 
the anchor. 

Anchor-ice. The ice which forms on and in- 
crustates the beds of lakes and rivers. 

Anchoring, (p. pr. of v. t. TO ANCHOR.) (Lat. 
ancora, anchor.) The mano3uvre by which a 
vessel is brought to anchor, i.e. brought to a 
state of temporary rest and security by means of 
an anchor let go from the vessel. 

The anchor, attaching itself to the bottom, is 
enabled by means of the intervening cable to 
hold the vessel in 7 "ace. A vessel may be brought 
to anchor under a great variety of conditions of 
wind, tide, and sea. 

The peculiar nature of th e anchorage itself, and 
the number of vessels occupying it, must also be 
considered. For the minor details of all that 
precede, accompany, and follow this manoeuvre, 
the reader is referred to works on Seamanship. 
The principal points to be observed are, First, 
that on approaching the anchorage both bower 



anchors (see ANCHOR) and their cables should be 
in readiness for use, always having the second 
anchor ready to let go in case the first, from any 
cause, should fail. Second, that the vessel should 
be head to tide, or nearly so, when the anchor is 
let go. Third, on approaching the anchorage, 
under favorable circumstances, the speed of the 
vessel should be gradually reduced, then stopped, 
and finally a stern-board be given her, either by 
the action of the wind or tide, or by the use of 
sails or engine. The moment of starting astern 
is that for letting go the anchor. Fourth, that 
the vessel should have sufficient stern-board to* 
lay her cable out clear and straight from the an 
chor. Fifth, that the stern-board should not be 
so great as to endanger running out too much 
cable, or of parting in attempting to check it. 
Sixth, that when the cable is finally secured there 
should be a good scope out. Seventh, that when 
anchored the vessel should be in a good berth. 

It is generally conceded that a vessel should 
never ride to a shorter scope of cable than six 
times the depth of water. That is to say, if an 
chored in ten fathoms of water she should not 
have out less than sixty fathoms of cable for or 
dinary security. In general, there are three dif 
ferent classes of vessels +hat may be treated of 
under this head : the square-rigged sailing-ves 
sel, the fore-and-after, and the steamer. To 
bring one of the former into a crowded harbor, 
to pick out a good berth and come to anchor in 
a proper manner, calls forth all the skill and 
judgment of a practical seaman, and an amount 
of knowledge which can be obtained only by long 
and varied experience. 

With a schooner we have, ordinarily, only to 
haul down the head-sails, luif up into the wind, 
and when the headway is lost and she begins to 
go astern, to drop the anchor, and then to pay 
out the necessary scope as she takes it. Or beat 
ing in with a strong windward tide (see TIDES), 
we should reverse the operation ; lower the fore 
and mainsails, wear around under the jib, and, 
when head to tide, let go the anchor. 

With a steamer the operation is still more 
simple. Steering directly for her berth, the en 
gines are first " slowed," then stopped, and finally 
backed, if necessary ; when the headway ceases 
the anchor is let go and the cable paid out as she 
takes it. If she had been steaming in against 
the tide she will, on stopping the engines, soon 
go astern and take her cable. If she has the 
tide with her, as soon as the anchor touches the 
bottom she will begin to swing to the tide. 
When head-to, pay out to the necessary scope. 

ANCHORING BY THE STERN is to have the cable 
brought in through a stern-chock, so that when 
the anchor is let go from the bow the vessel will 
ride by the stern. 

ANCHORING WITH A SPRING : to attach a hawser 
to the ring of the anchor before letting go, so 
that when the anchor is down and an equal strain 
brought upon the cable and the hawser, the ves 
sel will ride to a bridle, presenting her broadside 
to the wind or tide as either may prevail. The 
vessel s head may be then made to change direc 
tion by shortening in, or veering on the cable or 
hawser, as desired. 

The two last manoeuvres are practiced in war : 

the former when it is undesirable to swing 

| around, as when anchoring in the ordinary way ; 

! the latter when it is desired to change the ship s 



ANCHOR-LINING 



36 



ANNULAR 



head in certain directions so as to bring the bat 
teries to bear on the enemy. 

Anchoring in very deep water (as a temporary 
expedient) may be done by means of the stream- 
anchor (see ANCHOR) and a hawser. S. B. Luce, 
Captain U.S.N. 

Anchor-lining. Short pieces of plank fast 
ened to the ship s side, under the fore-channels, 
to prevent the anchor from bruising the side 

Anchor-ring. The ring to which the cable 
is bent. Now generally a shackle, or Jew s- 
harp. 

Anchor-seat. An old term for the prow. 

Anchor-shackle. The shackle in the end 
of the shank. The ring. 

Anchorsmith. A forger of anchors. 

Anchor-stock. A beam of wood or iron, 
secured to the shank at right angles to the flukes. 

Anchor-stock-fashion. The method of 
placing the butt of one plank nearly over the 
middle of another; the planks being broadest in 
the middle and tapering to the ends resemble an 
anchor-stock. 

Anchor-stocking. A method of securing 
and working planks with tapered butts. 

Anchor-watch. A small number of men 
kept on duty at night, while the ship is in port, 
to be in readiness to do any duty that may be re 
quired, especially to let go an anchor, veer cable, 
hoist head-sails, set spanker, or to man a boat. 

Anchovy. A fish of the family Clupiedce, 
caught in large numbers in the Mediterranean, 
and pickled for exportation. 

Ancon. The angle of a knee-timber. 

ANCON. (Sp.) Harbor, bay, anchorage. 

Anderson, Culjohn. A Swede. He made 
two journeys into the interior of Africa in ex 
ploration of the source of the Niger. He reached 
Lake Ngami, in the S.W. of the continent, and 
published a work on the Okevengo River. 

Andromeda. A northern constellation be 
hind Pegasus, Cassiopeia, and Perseus, repre 
senting the figure of a woman chained, a An- 
dromedce, Alpheratz. 

Anemometer. An instrument for measuring 
the force and velocity of the wind. They are of 
various forms, and indicate the force directly, as 
against a plate compressing a spring, or the ve 
locity, as by a revolution of a wheel carrying 
vanes or hemispherical cups. They are often 
self-registering. 

Anemoscope. A vane-index with pointers to 
show the change of the wind without referring 
to the vane. 

An-end. The position of a spar when erected 
perpendicularly. The topmasts are an-end when 
they are fidded. 

To STRIKE A PLANK AN-END is to drive it in 
the direction of its length. 

Anent, or Anenst. Opposite to ; over against. 

Aneroid Barometer. See BAROMETER. 

Angel-fish. The Squatina angelus, of the 
shark family. It is six or eight feet long, with 
a rough back and smooth white belly. 

Angel-head. The barb of an arrow; prob 
ably angle-head. 

Angel-shot. A projectile composed of two 
hollow half balls connected by a chain, which is 
inclosed in their cavity when they are brought 
together ; a kind of chain-shot. 

Angil. An old term for a fishing-hook, and 
also for the red worm used for bait. 



Angle. A corner. The difference in direc 
tion of two lines in the same plane, proceeding 
from the same point. 

A SPHERICAL ANGLE is formed by the inter 
section of two great circles. It is the inclina 
tion of the planes of these circles to each other. 

A SOLID ANGLE is formed by the meeting of 
three planes at one point. See ELEVATION, FIRE, 
SIGHT, MAST-HEAD, LEEWAY. 

Angon. A half-pike or javelin. 

Angosiade. An astronomical falsehood ; a 
term originating from the pretended observations 
of D Angos at Malta. 

Angra. (Sp.) Bay or inlet. 

Anguilliform. Having the appearance of 
eels. 

Angular Crab. An ugly long-armed crusta 
cean, with eyes on remarkably long stalks. 

Anilla. A commercial term for indigo. 

Animal Flowers. Actiniae, or sea-anemones 
and similar animals project a circle of tentacula 
resembling flowers. They were formerly all 
classed under Zoophytes. 

Animate. To give power or encouragement. 

To ANIMATE A NEEDLE. To magnetize it. 

To ANIMATE A BATTERY. To put the guns 
in position. 

Anker. A Dutch measure containing ten 
wine gallons. 

ANKER-FISH. A kind of cuttle-fish. 

Ankle-bone. A sailor s name for the craw 
fish. 

Anna. In the East Indies, the 16th part of a 
rupee, about three cents in United States cur 
rency. 

Annapolis. A city and port of entry in Mary 
land, on the S.W. bank of the Severn River, 3 
miles from its entrance into the Chesapeake Bay, 
30 S. by E. from Baltimore. Lat. 38 58 50" 
N. ; Ion. 76 30 W. The United States Naval 
Academy is here located. Pop. about 6000. 

Annealing. There are many substances which , 
when rapidly cooled after having been heated, 
become exceedingly brittle; this result may be 
prevented by very slow cooling, which process 
is termed annealing. By this process the sub 
stance is rendered softer and less brittle, but its 
elasticity is impaired. 

Annet. A kind of gull. 

Annex. A term used on the Mississippi and 
other Western rivers to indicate the pilot-house 
of steamboats, called also " Texas." The term 
is said to have originated about the time of the 
annexation of Texas to the United States. 

Annihilator, Fire. See FIRE-EXTINGUISHER. 

Anniversary Winds. Those which blow con 
stantly at a certain season of the year ; as, mon 
soon and etesian winds. 

Annotinae. The ancient Roman provision 
vessels. 

Annual. Yearly. 

ANNUAL ACCOUNTS. The ship s books and 
papers for the year. 

ANNUAL VARIATION. The yearly change in 
the variation of the compass. The change pro 
duced in the right ascension or declination of a 
star by the precession of the equinoxes and the 
proper motion of the star taken together. 

Annul. To revoke ; to rescind. 

Annular. Resembling a ring. 

AN ANNULAR ECLIPSE takes place when the 
apparent diameter of the moon is less than that of 



ANNULLING 



37 



APEX 



the sun, and a ring of light surrounds the moon 
while central. 

ANNULAR SCUPPER. A scupper in which the 
hole may be enlarged or diminished by a movable 
concentric ring. 

Annulling Signal. A signal which denotes 
that the previous signal is void. 

Annulus Astronomicus. A ring of brass used 
formerly in navigation. 

Anode. The positive pole of an electric bat 
tery ; or, more strictly, the path by which the 
current passes out and enters the electrolyte on 
its way to the other pole ; opposed to cathode. 

Anomalistic Revolution or Period. The pe 
riod during which a planet makes a complete 
revolution from any point in its orbit back again. 

ANOMALISTIC YEAR, or PERIODICAL YEAR. 
The time in which the earth makes its anoma 
listic revolution, which is longer than the tropi 
cal year on account of the precession of the equi 
noxes. 

Anomaly. Deviation from established rules. 

Anomoural. Irregular in the character of 
the tail or abdomen ; as, the anomoural crus 
taceans, a group between the crabs and the 
shrimps. 

Anon. Quickly ; immediately. At another 
time. 

Anonymous Partnerships. Those not carried 
on under a special name, and the particulars of 
which are known only to the parties themselves. 

Ansae. The handles of old ordnance. The 
projections of Saturn s rings in certain situations. 

Anser. A Linnaean order of natatorial birds 
swimming by means of web-feet, as the duck, or 
of lobe-feet, as the grebe. 

Anson, George, Lord. An English admiral ; 
born in Staffordshire, England, in 1697 ; entered 
the navy at an early age, and in 1724 was made 
post-captain. He was soon ordered to the Caro 
lina station, where he purchased land and built 
a town called after his own name. He was sub 
sequently appointed to the command of the South 
Sea Expedition which sailed from England in 
1740. After his return, in 1744, he was succes 
sively created rear-admiral of the blue, commis 
sioner of the admiralty, and vice-admiral. In 
1747 he commanded the Channel Fleet, and cap 
tured six French ships of war. As a reward for 
this brilliant exploit he was created a peer, with 
the title of Lord Anson, Baron of Soberton. He 
was First Commissioner of the Admiralty from 
1751 to 1756. In 1757 Anson was made ad 
miral, and in the same year was placed at the 
head of the admiralty. Died in 1762. No book 
in the English language possesses a greater 
charm for youth and the lover of adventure than 
" Anson s Voyage." 

Answer. To reply. To suit ; as, this boat will 
not answer. 

ANSWER THE HELM. A ship is said to an 
swer the helm when she obeys it readily. 

Answering Pennant. A pennant which is 
hoisted to indicate that a signal has been read 
and understood. 

Antarctic. Eelating to the South Pole or to 
the region near it. 

ANTARCTIC CIRCLE. A parallel 23 28 from 
the South Pole. 

ANTARCTIC POLE. The South Pole. 

ANTARCTIC OCEAN. The portion of the ocean 
included within the Antarctic Circle. 



Antares. A star of the first magnitude, popu 
larly known as the Scorpion s heart (a Scorpionis). 

Antecians. Those inhabitants of the earth 
who live on the same meridian, but in opposite 
hemispheres. 

Antelucan. Before daybreak. 

Ante-meridian. Before noon. 

Anthelion. A luminous appearance on a cloud, 
over against or opposite to the sun. It consists 
of a circular ring or rings around the shadow 
of the spectator s own head as projected on a 
cloud or on some opposite fog-bank. 

Anthracite. See COAL. 

Anticthones. Inhabitants of countries di 
ametrically opposite to each other. 

Anti-friction Composition. See FRICTION. 

Anti-friction Metals. See FRICTION. 

Anti-gallicians. Extra backstays sometimes 
used by merchant vessels running before the 
trades. 

Anti-guggler. A straw or tube introduced 
into a bottle or cask to suck out the contents. 

Anti-parallels. Lines which make equal 
angles with two other lines but contrary ways. 

Antipathes. A kind of coral having a black, 
horny stem. 

Antipodes. The inhabitants of the earth di 
ametrically opposite to each other. The term is 
now applied to the countries which are at the 
opposite ends of any diameter of the earth. 

Antiscii. The people who dwell in opposite 
hemispheres, and whose shadows at noon fall in 
contrary directions. 

Antiscorbutic. Opposed to, or counteracting 
scurvy. See SCURVY. 

Antiseptic. Opposed to, or counteracting 
putrefaction, or tendency to putrefaction, in the 
system. 

Antlia. A constellation known as the Air- 
Pump. 

Antwerp. A city of Belgium, on the right 
bank of the Scheldt. Lat. 51 IS 2 N. ; Ion. 
4 24 2" E. It is strongly fortified, the walls 
and other defenses completely incompassing the 
city on the land-side, having more than 12 miles 
of solid ramparts. Of the stocks, dock-yard, and 
basins, constructed by Napoleon at an expense 
of $10,000,000, the last only remain. The har 
bor is one of the finest in the world ; it admits 
vessels of any size, and can easily hold 1000. 
Pop. 150,000. 

Anvil. The massive block of iron on which 
shipsmiths hammer forge-work. A streamer at 
the end of a lance. 

Any Port in a Storm. A phrase signifying 
contentment with one s lot. The best practicable 
way out of a difficulty. 

Ape, or Sea-Ape. The long-tailed shark. An 
active American seal. 

Apeak. Near the perpendicular. An anchor 
is apeak when the chain is up-and-down. The 
oars are apeak when the blades are thrown for 
ward and the crew is waiting for the order to 
" give way" in racing. With an awning spread 
in a boat it is impossible to " up oars." When 
they are raised as high as the awning permits 
they are said to be apeak. 

Apertse. Ancient deep-waisted ships with 
high-decked forecastle and poop. 

Aperture. The clear diameter of the object- 
glass of optical instruments. 

Apex. The summit or vertex. 



APHELION 



38 



AQUAKIUS 



Aphelion. The point in a planet s orbit which 
is at the greatest distance from the sun. 

Aphelian. Castor, a Geminorum. 

Aphracti. Ancient vessels with open waists. 

Aplanatic. Having two or more lenses of 
different curvatures so combined that their re 
spective aberrations neutralize each other, and 
the resulting compound lens is free from spheri 
cal aberration. 

Aplets. Nets for the herring fishery. 

Aplustre. An old word for the ornament at 
the bow and for the ensign at the stern. 

Aplysia. A sea-hare of the genus of mol- 
lusks of the order Tectibranchiata, Some of the 
species have the power of throwing out a deep 
purple liquor, which colors the water for a con 
siderable distance and serves to conceal the ani 
mal. 

Apobathrse. Ancient gang-boards from the 
ship to the wharf. 

Apogee. That point of the moon s orbit which 
is at the greatest distance from the earth. For 
merly, on the supposition that the earth was the 
centre of the system, this name was given to the 
point in the orbit of the sun, or of a planet, which 
was at the greatest distance from the earth. 

A-poise. Balanced ; properly trimmed. 

Apostle. A knight-head or bollard timber. 
A paper sent up on appeals in the admiralty 
courts. 

Apothecary. The chief assistant of the medi 
cal officer. He is appointed by the surgeon for 
the cruise. Familiarly known as u Pills." 

Appalachicola. A port of entry of Florida, 
on the Gulf of Mexico, at the mouth of the Ap 
palachicola Eiver. Pop. 1200. 

Apparatus. Ammunition and equipage for 
war. 

Apparel. In marine insurance, the furniture 
of a ship ; as, masts, sails, ground-tackle, guns, 
etc. It is a more comprehensive term than ap 
paratus. 

Appareled. Fully equipped. 

Apparent. (Lat. apparere^ to appear.) An ad 
jective indicating that which appears to the 
senses phenomenal. 

11 Apparent" is sometimes equivalent to true or 
real, when contrasted with fictitious or imaginary. 
Thus the " apparent sun" is the true sun we see, 
as opposed to the imaginary u mean sun" ; " ap 
parent time" is reckoned by the hour-angles of 
the same sensible body opposed to " mean time," 
which is defined by the movement of the fictitious 
mean sun; "apparent noon" is when the true 
sun is on the meridian, and is distinguished from 
the " mean noon," which is marked by the transit 
of the mean sun. 

" Apparent" is sometimes used as a qualifica 
tion, distinguishing on the one hand from ob 
served, and on the other from true. It is in this 
sense applied to elements corrected for instru 
mental and circumstantial sources of error, but 
not yet reduced to the common standard for com 
parison and computation. We thus have the 
" apparent altitude" of a heavenly body, and the 
" apparent distance" of two heavenly bodies, 
distinguished on the one hand from the "ob 
served," and on the other from the " true" alti 
tude and distance. So also there is the " appa 
rent place" of a heavenly body in the celestial 
concave, and the " true place." 

" Apparent" is sometimes opposed to proper, to 



distinguish the phenomenal diurnal motion of 
the heavenly bodies resulting from the earth s 
rotation on her axis, from that which is due to 
the annual revolution of the earth in her orbit, 
and to the motion of each body in its orbit. 

Apparition. The first appearance of a star 
after occultation. 

CIRCLE OF PERPETUAL APPARITION. A 
circle whose distance from the elevated pole is 
equal to the latitude of the place of observation. 
Within this circle the stars never set. 

Appearance. The first making of a land-fall ; 
formerly astronomically used for phenomenon 
and phase. 

Appendages. The valves, gauges, etc., of a 
boiler. The comparatively small portions out 
side the main body of the ship ; as the keel, 
rudder, etc. Their volume is computed sepa 
rately and added to the main calculation to de 
termine the displacement of a ship. 

Apple-pie-order. In excellent condition ; neat 
and trim. 

Appoint. To assign or designate by authority. 

APPOINTED OFFICERS are petty officers shipped 
for the cruise for special service, and not entitled 
to continuous-service certificates ; as, master-at- 
arms, yeomen, etc. 

An acting appointment may be issued by the 
commander-in-chief when a permanent vacancy 
occurs which cannot be filled from the super 
numerary officers of other ships. This appoint 
ment must be in writing, and subject to revoca 
tion by himself, his successor, and the Secretary 
of the Navy. An officer holding an acting ap 
pointment wears the uniform of the grade to 
which he is appointed, and annexes his acting 
rank to his official signature. 

Appointments. The various details consti 
tuting the equipment of a vessel, or the accoutre 
ments of an officer or enlisted man. 

Apportionment. The act of apportioning ; a 
dividing into just proportions or shares ; as, in 
the distribution of prize-money. 

Appraisement. A valuation. A law instru 



ment taken out by the captors of a vessel. 

To 
to punishment. 



Apprehend. To seize a person with a view 



Apprentice. See NAVAL APPRENTICE. 

Appropriation. A sum of money set apart by 
Congress for a particular purpose. 

Approve. To sanction officially. 

Appulse. The near approach of one heavenly 
body to another, so as to form an apparent con 
tact. 

Apron. A timber conforming to the shape of 
the stem, and fixed in the concave part of it, ex 
tending from the head to some distance below 
the scarf, joining the upper and lower stem- 
pieces. 

APRON OF A DOCK. The platform on which 
the sill is fastened down. 

APRON OF A GUN. The metal cover for the 
lock and vent. 

Apsides, Line of. The right line joining the 
aphelion and perihelion points of the orbit of a 
planet. The term is also applied to the line 
joining the perigee and apogee of the moon. 

Apsis. Each extremity of the line of apsides. 

Apus. A constellation known as the Bird of 
Paradise. 

Aquarius. The W^ater-carrier, the eleventh 
sign in the zodiac, which the sun enters about 



AQUATIC 



39 



ARIES 



the 21st of January ; so called from the rains 
which prevail at that season in Italy and the 
East. 

Aquatic. Inhabiting or relating to the water. 

Aquatites. The law-term for everything 
living in the water. 

Aque. Wall-sided, flat-floored boats, which 
navigate the Rhine. 

Aqueduct. A conduit or canal built for the 
conveyance of water. 

Aquila. The Eagle ; a constellation in which 
is a very bright star (Altair] much used by nav 
igators in taking observations. 

Aquilon. The northeast wind. 

Ara. The Altar ; a southern constellation, 
containing nine stars. 

Aramech. The Arabic name for the star 
Arcturus. 

Arbalist. An engine to throw stones, or the 
cross-bow used for darts and arrows. Formerly 
arbalisters formed part of the naval force. 

Arbiter. The judge to whom a matter is re 
ferred for adjustment. 

Arbitrage. The referring of commercial dis 
putes to two or more disinterested persons. 

Arbitration. The settlement of disputes out 
of court. 

Arbor. A spindle or axis. 

Arby. The thrift, or sea-lavender. 

Arc. A part of a circle. 

DIURNAL ARC. That part of a circle, paral 
lel to the equator, which a heavenly body de 
scribes from its rising to its setting. The noc 
turnal arc is the arc described by the body from 
its setting to its rising. 

THE ARC OF DIRECTION OR PROGRESSION is 
the arc which a planet appears to describe when 
its motion is direct in the order of the signs. 

ARC OF VISION. The sun s depth below the 
horizon when the stars begin to appear. 

Archangel. A town of Russia, on the Dwina, 
20 miles from its embouchure in the Bay of 
Archangel. Lat. 64 32 N. ; Ion. 40 33 E. 
This is one of the oldest ports in Russia, having 
been founded in 1584, and was long the only 
one. Pop. 20,000. 

Arch-board. The part of the stern over the 
counter, immediately under the knuckle of the 
stern-timbers. 

Arched Squall. See SQUALL. 

Archel, Archil, or Orchil. A lichen found 
on the rocks of the Canary and Cape de Verde 
Islands. Litmus is obtained from it. 

Arches. A term among seamen for the Arch 
ipelago. See GALLEY-ARCH KS. 

Archi-gubernus. The commander of the im 
perial ship in olden times. 

Archimedes Screw. An ingenious spiral 
pump invented by Archimedes B.C. 260. It is 
also used for removing grain from a lower to a 
higher level. The name is applied also to the 
screw-propeller. 

Arching. The drooping of the extremities of 
a vessel. See HOGGING. 

Archipelago. Originally the ^Egean Sea. A 
body of water interspersed with many islands. 

Architecture. See NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. 

Archives. Public records and papers, which 
are preserved as evidence of facts. 

Arch of the Cove. An elliptical moulding 
sprung over the cove of the ship, at the lower 
part of the taffrail. 



Arctic. Northern, or lying under Arktos, the 
Bear. 

AKCTIC POLE. The north pole of the globe. 

ARCTIC OCEAN. The expanse of water within 
the Arctic Circle. 

ARCTIC CIRCLE. A parallel distant 23 28 
from the north pole. It divides the north frigid 
from the north temperate zone. 

Arcturus. A star of the first magnitude close 
to the knee of Bootes, a Bootis. 

Ardent. Said of a ship when she has a tend 
ency to come to the wind, and keeps a strain on 
the weather tiller-rope. 

Ardent Spirits. Distilled liquors. They are 
not permitted to be on board a man-of-war ex 
cept as medicinal stores. 

Arenaceous. Brittle; sandy; partaking of 
the qualities of sand. 

Arenal. In meteorology, applied to a cloud 
of dust so thick as to prevent seeing a stone s- 
throw off, common in South America, being 
raised by the wind from adjoining shores. 

Arenation. The burying of scorbutic patients 
up to their neck in sand ; spreading hot sand 
over a diseased person. 

Arendal. A seaport town of Norway, 36 miles 
N.E. of Christiansand, on the Skager-Rack, at 
the mouth of the Nid-Elv. It has a custom 
house and yards for ship-building. Pop. 5800. 

Areometer. An instrument for measuring the 
specific gravity of fluids ; a hydrometer. 

Argin. An old word for embankment. 

Argo. The name of the ship which carried 
Jason and his companions on their romantic ex 
pedition to Colchis in quest of the golden fleece. 

Argol. The lees of wine adhering to the cask ; 
supertartrate of potassa. 

Argonauta. The paper-nautilus. The sail 
which it spreads is a modified arm, which invests 
the outer surface of the shell. 

Argonauts. The company that sailed in the 
"Argo." A geographical society instituted at 
Venice, to which we are indebted for the charts 
and maps of Coronelli. In the United States, 
the men who first emigrated to California on the 
discovery of gold in 1849 are sometimes styled 
Argonauts. 

Argo Navis. The constellation of the Ship, 
containing 9 clusters, 3 nebulae, 540 single and 
13 double stars, of which 64 are visible. 

Argosy. A ship of great burden, particularly 
of the Levant. 

Argozin, or Argnesys. The person who at 
tended to the shackles of the galley-slaves. 

Argument. (Lat. argumentum, a reason.) In 
astronomical tables the argument is that quan 
tity upon which the tabulated one depends, and 
with which, therefore, the table is "entered. 
Thus, in a table of correction for refraction, the 
altitude is the argument. When the element 
tabulated depends upon two given ones, then 
there are two arguments with which to enter the 
table, one at the side, the other at the top. 
Thus, for the correction for the moon s altitude, 
the arguments of the principal table are the ap 
parent altitude and the minutes of the moon s 
horizontal parallax. 

Argus-shell. A species of shell beautifully 
variegated with spots, resembling in some meas 
ure those in a peacock s tail. 

Aries, the Constellation of. (Lat. Aries, Ari- 
etis, The Ram. ) The first constellation of the 



AEIES 



40 



AEMOR 



Ancient zodiac, marking the period for the com 
memoration of the mythical golden fleece. The 
only two stars in it of any note are a and (3 near 
together in the horns, a being the more north 
erly. 

ARIES, THE SIGN OF. The division of the 
ecliptic, including the first 30 of longitude, reck 
oning from the first point of Aries. This origin, 
owing to the precession of the equinoxes, is at 
present in the constellation Pisces. Symbol 7. 

ARIES, FIRST POINT OF. The "Vernal Equi 
noctial Point," one of the points where the eclip 
tic crosses the equinoctial, so called as being the 
commencement of the sign Aries. See EQUI 
NOCTIAL POINTS. 

Aries. A battering-ram. (Roman Antiq.) 

Aris. Sharp corners of stones in piers and 
docks. 

Aris-pieces. Those parts of a made mast 
which are under the hoops. 

Ark. Noah s vessel. It was 300 cubits in 
length, 50 in breadth, and 30 in height, and it 
was payed over with bitumen. A comparison 
of its proportions with those of the " Great East 
ern" shows a considerable similarity. Reckon- 
ing the cubit at 21 inches, the length of the ark 
would be 525 feet, breadth 87 feet 6 inches, 
height 52 feet 6 inches, the " Great Eastern" being 
in length 680 feet, breadth 83, depth 58. It is 
mentioned by German commentators that Peter 
Jansen, in 1609, built a vessel of the same pro 
portions as the ark, though smaller, viz. : length 
120, width 20, depth 12 feet. It was found most 
convenient for stowage, containing one-third more 
freight than ordinary vessels of the same ton 
nage, though it was unsuited for making way 
quickly through the water. 

ARK. A mare s-tail cloud. A flat-boat. 

Arm. A weapon. An inlet of the sea. The 
end of a yard, beam, bracket, or axle. A branch 
of the military service. One of the wings of 
angle-iron. The part of an anchor to which the 
flukes are attached. An index-hand or pointer. 

To ARMS ! A summons to war or battle. 

UNDER ARMS. Armed and ready for fighting. 

To BE IN ARMS. To be in a state of hostility. 

STAND OF ARMS. A complete set for one sol 
dier, with equipments ; frequently the rifle and 
bayonet alone. 

Arm. To fit, furnish, and provide for war. 
To wind rope-yarns around about a cross bar 
shot to facilitate ramming it home. To put tal 
low in the cavity at the bottom of a lead to bring 
up specimens of the bottom. 

ARM AND AWAY ! The order for armed boats 
to prepare for service. 

Armada, The Invincible. The famous Span 
ish armament so called consisted of 150 ships, 
2650 great guns, 20,000 soldiers, 8000 sailors, and 
2000 volunteers, under the Duke of Medina Si- 
donia. It arrived in the Channel, July 19, 1588, 
and was defeated the next day by Drake and 
Howard. Ten fire-ships having been sent into 
the enemy s fleet, they cut their cables, put to 
sea, and endeavored to return to their rendezvous 
between Calais and Gravelines ; the English fell 
upon them, took many ships, and Admiral How 
ard maintained a running fight from the 21st of 
July to the 27th, obliging the shattered fleet to 
bear away for Scotland and Ireland, where a 
storm dispersed them, and the remainder of the 
armament returned by the North Sea to Spain. 



The Spaniards lost fifteen capital ships in the 
engagement, and 5000 men ; seventeen ships were 
lost or taken on the coast of Ireland, and up 
wards of 5000 men were drowned, killed, or taken 
prisoners. The English lost but one ship. 

Armadilla. A squadron of guarda-costas which 
formerly cruised on the coast of South America 
to prevent smuggling. 

Armador. A Spanish privateer. 

Armament. A term expressing collectively 
all the great guns and small-arms, with their 
equipments, but generally applied to the great 
guns only. 

Armamenta. The rigging, tackling, and all 
necessary furniture of an ancient ship. 

Armatae. Ancient ships fitted with sails and 
oars, but which fought under oars only. 

Armature. A piece of soft metal connecting 
the poles of a magnet. It serves to prevent the 
dissipation of the magnetic force. 

Arm-chest. A portable locker to afford a 
ready supply of arms and accoutrements. 

Armed. Supplied with weapons ; fitted and 
furnished for war. 

Armed-in-flute. Partially armed, a part of 
the battery having been removed and the effec 
tive armament thus reduced below that which 
the vessel rates. 

Armed-mast. A mast made of more than 
one tree. 

Armed Neutrality. See NEUTRALITY. 

Armed-ship. A vessel fitted out by private 
parties to cruise against an enemy s commerce. 
She is furnished with a letter-of-marque. 

Armed-stem. A prow strengthened by armor. 

Arming. The tallow used to arm the* lead. 

Armings. Red dress cloths, formerly hung 
outside the upper-works on holidays. A kind of 
boarding-netting. 

Armipotent. Powerful in war. 

Armistice. A cessation of arms for a short 
time by convention ; a truce. 

Armlet. A small arm of the sea. 

Armogan. An old term for good season or 
opportunity for navigation, which if neglected 
rendered valid a claim for demurrage. A Med 
iterranean term for fine weather. 

Armor. The term, as now generally accepted, 
refers to metallic protection against the fire of 
artillery, whether applied to ships or forts. The 
metal of which armor has been heretofore com 
posed was iron; but the development in the 
power of artillery has rendered it necessary to 
seek other metals which would be able to offer a 
more effective resistance to the impact of heavy 
shot with high velocities. Steel has been much ex 
perimented with, and has been partially adopted, 
and later experiments lead to the supposition 
that a combination of iron and steel, called 
" compound armor," will ultimately be in gen 
eral use. A description of this combination of 
metals will be found under its proper heading. 
The thickness of armor must of course depend 
upon the service on which a ship is to be em 
ployed and upon her floating capacity ; and, in 
case of forts, upon the depth of water in the 
approaching channels, which will determine the 
character of vessel that is likely to be able to 
approach within range ; but interesting questions 
have arisen as to the manner in which armor 
should be applied, whether it should be left alto 
gether unsupported, or whether partially sup- 



ARMOR 



41 



ARMOR 




FIG. 1. 



ported, or whether assisted by direct support 
from the structure to which it is attached, or 
whether elastic or solid backing is the most ad 
vantageous. We will review some of these cases 
which have constituted the points of discussion 
on armor. 

Fig. 1 represents the armor-plate as applied to 
the "Warrior," the first regular ironclad vessel 
of modern times. In this case the armor is 4 
inches thick, with a wood backing of 18 inches 
and a skin-plating of inch. The object of the 
iron plate is to offer a strong ob 
stacle to the blow of the projectile, 
expending, unaided, its whole 
power of resistance in the effort. 
So much of the energy of the 
projectile as can be absorbed by 
the strength of the plate neutra 
lizes that amount of the damage 
that might have been done to the 
vessel, and if the plate is des 
troyed it has done its duty in af 
fording this much protection. 
The wood backing acts as a cushion to save the 
hull of the vessel from receiving any damage 
from the shock of the impact. This is the 
most simple means of applying armor. It is, 
in the words of an eminent constructor, " a good 
thickness of wood with a patch of iron on the 
outside," which he declared to be "the best 
armor in the world for ships." 

An improvement on this plan of applying 
armor was suggested by Mr. Chalmers, of Eng 
land, who, observing the easy manner in which 
the wood backing yielded to the force of impact, 
conceived the idea of reinforcing it so as to pre 
vent it from being so readily deranged. His 
idea was that, as the force of impact was con 
fined to one point, and as the wood backing nat 
urally yielded in all directions to the pressure 
applied, an increased element of support could 
be supplied to the wood backing if this tendency 
could be controlled. Accordingly, he proposed 
that thin plates of iron should be sandwiched in, 
horizontally, between the layers of wood back 
ing, so as to control in a measure the yielding 
of the wood in a vertical direction. These plates 
of iron were loosely disposed between the layers 
of wood, being attached neither to the skin- 
plating nor to the armor. On this principle there 
was constructed in England a Chalmers target, 
which was fired at with very good results favor 
ing the idea, but it was never officially adopted 
by the English government. Fig. 2 represents 
the " Warrior" armor with the Chalmers plates, 
as proposed by the inventor. 

About the time of the experiments with the 
Chalmers target, the chief con 
structor of the English admi 
ralty introduced into the con 
struction of vessels, intended 
for ironclads, a horizontal iron 
girder on the outside of the 
hulls, which was riveted to the 
side by angle-irons, and which 
gave much additional rigidity 
to the hull. Fig. 3 represents 
the armor of the " Bellero 
phon," in which the horizontal 
girder was introduced. 

In comparing Figs. 2 and 3, it will be seen 
that the object of the horizontal plate of the 




FIG. 2. 



Chalmers target is achieved in the backing of the 
armor of the " Bellerophon," but with a differ 
ence. In both instances the horizontal disposi 
tion of the iron plate between the layers of the 
wood backing satisfies the demand made by Mr. 
Chalmers for the support of the wood backing, 
but the proposition of Mr. Chalmers went no 
farther than this. His idea was simply to rein 
force the backing so as to enable it to afford a 
more decided support to the armor; the object 
was to prevent the derangement of the wood 
backing, consequent upon impact at one point, 
by obstructing the vertical yielding of the wood 
away from the point of pressure. This effort 
was confined solely to the backing. But, in the 
" Bellerophon" armor, it will be seen that the 
horizontal girder, which does the work of the 
Chalmers plate between the layers of the wood 
backing, is connected with the hull of the vessel, 
and forms a part of the structure. This involves 
another and a very important consideration, for 
the shock of impact is thus carried to the hull 
of the vessel, and the consideration of the sub 
ject presents a very different aspect. A " thick 
ness of wood with a patch of iron on the out 
side," bolted to a ship s side, is simply an inde 
pendent attachment, and if the armor is shattered 
by the projectile, and the backing is pierced, all 
the independent work that can be done by this 
covering has been performed ; but if the inner 
face of the armor rests against the edge of a hori 
zontal iron plate or girder which is connected to 
the hull, this plate acts as a strut behind a target, 
and in supporting the armor it 
receives the force of the blow, 
which it communicates to the 
hull. A point made in defense 
of the use of the girder as a sup 
port to the armor is, that the 
force of the shock is not commu 
nicated to one point alone of the 
frame of the hull, but is dissem 
inated along an extensive por 
tion of the vessel on each side of 
the point of impact. 

Mr. John Hughes, of the late Millwall Iron- 
Works, on the Thames, England, developed the 
idea of support to the armor-plate by the intro 
duction of a hollow stringer, which bears his 
name, which was most successfully applied in 
the celebrated Millwall shield, a target which 
was fired at at Shoeburyness in 1868. The Mill- 
wall shield exhibited very superior power of re 
sistance to all other targets that were experi 
mented on at that time. The experiments of 
that year were made particularly interesting 
from the fact that a Rodman 15-inch gun was 
one of those that were used in the firing, and 
the inferiority of the gun in capacity to pene 
trate armor was made clearly perceptible. Fig. 
4 represents the Hughes hollow girder or stringer, 
which is placed horizontally and riveted to the 
side of the vessel. 

The hollow portion of the stringer is filled in 
with oak. 

On the closing of the Millwall works, Mr. 
Hughes undertook the establishment of large 
iron-works in Russia, under the patronage of 
the government, and his hollow stringers were 
adopted by that government and were applied 
to the turreted vessel called the " Hercules" 
that was building in St. Petersburg in 1871. 




FJG. 3. 



ARMOR 



42 



ARMOR 



The name of this vessel was afterwards changed 
to "Peter the Great." The hollow stringers, 
as applied to this vessel, were estimated to 
be equal to two inches of iron in increasing 
her defensive capacity. An objection has been 
made to the use of the Hughes hollow stringer 
on the ground that it gave too much solidity 
to the backing, thereby neutralizing the advan 
tage that was supposed to rest in the elasticity 
afforded by the wood cushion ; but the Russian 
authorities" assert that, under the violence of 
the impact of a heavy projectile, there is a de- 

JUT. 

FIG. 4. 

cided amount of elasticity developed in the 
stringer itself, which is quite sufficient to refute 
the charge that the whole structure is rendered 
rigid by the use of this device. In the case of 
the "Peter the Great," the Hughes stringers 
were not placed in positive contact with the 
armor-plate, but were provided with a cushion 
of lignum-vitse, about two inches thick, which 
intervened between the outer face of the stringer 
and the inner side of the plate ; this was consid 
ered as a refinement in the details of applying 
the stringer, which answered all objections to 
its use. 

Fig. 5 represents a method of reinforcing the 
backing for armor which was adopted for the 
"Colossus" and her class of monitors for the 
United States navy, but the idea has not pro 
gressed beyond its conception. 

At the present time the Chalmers horizontal 
plate, as applied by the English admiralty, con 
nected by an angle-iron to the hull and encir 
cling the vessel, may be considered as the most 
generally adopted plan of reinforcing the armor 
of ironclad ships. 

In the case of forts, the general plan is to plate 
with iron the stone-works 
already constructed, and, at 
Spithead, for example, the 
same plan is carried out with 
new fortifications ; but a no 
table exception is made to 
this rule by the Russians in 
the new works which they 
have established for the de 
fense of St. Petersburg at 
Cronstadt. A description 
of the different systems of 
armor used in these defenses will be the best cita 
tion that can be made of such plans for defense 
as have been considered worthy of being adopted. 
On the south side of the channel the defenses 
consist entirely of turrets, constructed on the 
English plan of rotation as used in the English 
turreted ironclads. The outside plating of these 
turrets is 12 and 14 inches thick, and the hollow 
stringers of Hughes constitute the backing. 

On the northern side of the channel there are 
erected five casemated batteries, the armor of 
each differing from that of all the others. 




FIG. 5. 



Fig. 6 represents the system adopted for the 
first one of these batteries. It consists of a 9- 
inch iron plate, backed by 12 inches of teak, rest 
ing against a 1-inch plate of iron, which is sup, 





_J 



FIG. 7. 



FIG. 6. 

ported by horizontal girders of iron, 12 inches 
wide, riveted to an inner 1-inch skin, all of 
which is backed by struts, which serve to divide 
the interior space in the battery allotted to the 
service of each. 

Fig. 7 represents the 
armor of the second bat 
tery, which is constructed 
on the same plan as that 
of the first battery, with 
the exception of the gird 
ers and the inner skin, 
the 1-inch plate behind 
the wood backing form 
ing the inner skin. In 
this plan the wood back 
ing is increased to 18 
inches thickness. 

Fig. 8 represents the armor of the third bat 
tery, which is called the Lancaster armor. The 
edges of the plates are tongued 
and grooved, and are built up 
one upon the other. A part of 
each plate has a thickness of 14 
inches, while the rest of the 
same plate is 8 inches thick. 
The inner side of this armor 
presents a surface of horizontal 
ribs, the exterior surface is 
smooth, the inequality of the 
thickness of each plate being 
confined to the inner side. The 
armor is supported behind by 
iron uprights, having on one 
surface projecting squares, which 
enter into the recesses between the ribs of the 
plates. These uprights are separated by inter 
vals of 2 or 3 feet. The whole is backed by 
struts. 

Fig. 9 represents the fourth 
battery with its armor. This 
battery is built of granite blocks 
of Finland stone, 10 feet thick. 
This is covered by 2 inches of 
teak, on which is placed the 
armor, consisting of plates 9 
inches in thickness. This con 
struction not requiring the sup 
port of struts, the battery is 
quite open from one end to the 
other, which gives the beautiful 
stone an opportunity of showing to advantage. 

Fig. 10 represents the fifth battery, which has 
9 inches of armor on the exterior. Behind this 
there are placed uprights of iron 6 inches square 




FIG. 8. 




AKMOK 



43 



ARRAY 




placed G inches apart, the intervals being filled 
with wood. Behind this is a wood backing con 
sisting of 12 inches of teak. Behind this arc 
placed the hollow stringers of Hughes tilled in 
with wood. These stringers are JO inches in 
width, the thickness 
at the outer rectan 
gular face is l inch, 
and the spread of the 
angle-irons forming 
their base is 12 in 
ches. The stringers 
are thus 12 inches 
apart. These are riv 
eted by their angle- 
iron base to the inner 
skin of 1-inch iron. 

In this combination of systems the Russian 
authorities have adopted each in its complete 
ness. Each invention has been taken as a whole, 
and the result is a combination of many systems 
without a complication of different ideas. 

Propositions have been made to increase the 
elasticity of the backing by the introduction of 
hardened rubber, etc., but these plans have been 
found rather to assist than to impede the pene 
tration of projectiles. E. Simpson, Commodore 
U.S.N. 

Armor, Compound. Wrought iron and steel 
have, each, advantages and disadvantages as 
material for armor for vessels of war. Wrought 
iron is tenacious, but does not offer sufficient re 
sistance to the punching power of the projectile, 
whereas steel offers great resistance to the punch 
ing power, but is comparatively easily crumbled 
or shattered by a succession of blows. 

COMPOUND ARMOR is the result of an effort to 
combine the good qualities of the two metals by 
facing the iron armor with steel plates. The 
steel prevents the penetration of the shot, and 
the iron backing by its great tenacity prevents 
the destruction of the steel by shattering. 

The plates are welded together in the following 
manner : The iron plate, raised to a red heat, is 
placed in a form, and over it is poured molten 
steel. The temperature of the molten steel being 
higher than the fusing-point of iron, the surface 
of the iron plate becomes partially fused, and a 
complete union of the two metals is obtained. 

By this process the weld is not confined to a 
simple line as in an ordinary weld, but a third 
metal or semi-steel is formed, varying in thick 
ness from \ to f of an inch. By the formation 
of this anomalous steel the two metals are joined 
together inseparably, or, in other words, the iron 
has run into the steel, and steel into the iron. 
Experiments to tear the two asunder have re 
sulted in the tearing of the iron while the weld 
remained intact. 

The compound armor-plates thus obtained may 
be rolled to any thickness. 

By the invention of compound armor it would 
seem that the defense is once more placed on an 
equality with the attack. H. T. Stockton, Lieu 
tenant U.S.N. 

Armor, Submarine. The water-tight dress of 
a diver. See DIVING. 

Armorer. A petty officer whose duty it is to 
keep the small-arms in condition for service. 
Formerly he was the blacksmith of the ship. 

Armorer s Mate. The assistant of the ar 
morer. 



Armoric. The language of Brittany, Corn 
wall, and Wales. The original signification was 
maritime. 

Armory. A place reserved for the storage of 
small-arms. 

Arm-rack. A frame, generally vertical, for 
holding small-arms. 

Arms. Weapons of offense and defense. 
Arms and weapons both signify instruments of 
offense and defense, but we say fire-arms, never 
fire-weapons. Cannons, muskets, pistols, are 
fire-arms; bows and arrows, clubs, stones, are 
weapons. Instruments made on purpose to fight 
witn are called arms, or weapons ; such as are 
accidentally employed to fight with, weapons. 
(Mech.) The two parts of a balance or other 
lever on opposite sides of the fulcrum. 

Armstrong, James, Commodore U.S.N. Born 
Shelby ville, Ky., January 17, 1794, died Charles- 
town, Mass., August 27, 1868. Midshipman, 
November 15, 1809; lieutenant, April 27, 1816; 
commander, March 3, 1825; captain, September 
8, 1841 ; commodore, July 16, 1866. Captured 
in the "Frolic" in 1814 by the British frigate 
"Orpheus," and kept a prisoner until March, 
1815. Commanded the East India Squadron 
1855-58, and in 1857 attacked and captured the 
Barrier forts in the Canton River. Compelled 
by a large rebel force to surrender the Pensacola 
navy-yard, January 12, 1801. 

Armstrong, Sir William George. Noted for 
various mechanical inventions, and particularly 
that of a gun of extraordinary power and pre 
cision. Born at Newcastle, England, in 1810, 
was articled to Mr. Armourer Donkin, an emi 
nent solicitor in Newcastle, who, at the expira 
tion of his time, made him a partner. About 
1838, observing one day a little stream descend 
ing along a height near Newcastle and driving 
but a single mill, he thought to how much more 
purpose it might be applied hydraulically, and 
thus was led into a course of experimenting 
which resulted in his producing a much improved 
hydraulic engine. In 1845 he invented a hy 
draulic crane, which has proved to be of eminent 
utility in raising weights in harbors. Soon after 
the invention of the gun which bears his name 
an office was created for him, that of Chief En 
gineer of Rifled Ordnance. For description of 
Armstrong gun, see ORDNANCE. 

Army. An armed force under regular mili 
tary organization employed for national offense 
or defense. An army may comprise the whole 
military force employed by a state, or only a por 
tion under a particular commander. A fleet is 
sometimes called a naval army. 

Armye. An early name for a fleet. 

Arnot. A shrimp. 

Arquebuse. A sort of hand-gun ; an old spe 
cies of fire-arm resembling a musket, and sup 
ported upon a forked rest when in use. 

Arrack. A spirituous liquor manufactured in 
the East Indies from various substances, but 
chiefly from fermented rice arid the sap of the 
cocoa palm. 

Arraign. To call, or set as a prisoner, at the 
bar of the court to answer to the matter charged 
in an indictment or complaint. 

Array. The order of battle. The whole body 
of officers constituting a court-martial. 

To ARRAY. To equip ; to arm for battle ; to 
arrange in order of battle. 



ARREARS 



44 



ARTICLES 



Arrears. That which is behind in payment, 
but supposes a part already paid. 

Arrest. To suspend from duty, and restrain 
from liberty, preparatory to a court-martial. 

Arrow. A slender shaft to be shot from a 
bow. It is generally armed at one end and 
feathered at the other, though the natives of 
Africa frequently feather the barbed end. 

Arsenal. A manufactory or depository for 
arms and all military equipments. 

Artemon. The mainsail of ancient ships. 

Articles. The express stipulations to which a 
seaman binds himself when he joins a merchant 
ship. 

Articles for the Government of the United 
States Navy. The Navy of the United States 
shall be governed by the following Articles : 

Article 1. The commanders of all fleets, squad 
rons, naval stations, and vessels belonging to the 
navy are required to show in themselves a good 
example of virtue, honor, patriotism, and subor 
dination ; to be vigilant in inspecting the con 
duct of all persons who are placed under their 
command ; to guard against and suppress all 
dissolute and immoral practices, and to correct, 
according to the laws and regulations of the 
navy, all persons who are guilty of them ; and 
any such commander who offends against this 
article shall be punished as a court-martial may 
direct. 

Article 2. The commanders of vessels and 
naval stations to which chaplains are attached 
shall cause divine service to be performed on 
Sunday, whenever the weather and other circum 
stances allow it to be done ; and it is earnestly 
recommended to all officers, seamen, and others 
in the naval service diligently to attend at every 
performance of the worship of Almighty God. 

Article 3. Any irreverent or unbecoming be 
havior during divine service shall be punished as 
a general or summary court-martial may direct. 

Article 4. The punishment of death, or such 
other punishment as a court-martial may ad 
judge, may be inflicted on any person in the 
naval service 

1. Who makes, or attempts to make, or unites 
with any mutiny or mutinous assembly, or, 
being witness to or present at any mutiny, does 
not do his utmost to suppress it ; or, knowing of 
any mutinous assembly or of any intended mu 
tiny, does not immediately communicate his 
knowledge to his superior or commanding officer ; 

2. Or disobeys the lawful orders of his superior 
officer ; 

3. Or strikes orassaults, or attempts or threatens 
to strike or assault his superior officer while in 
the execution of the duties of his office ; 

4. Or gives any intelligence to, or holds or 
entertains any intercourse with, an enemy or 
rebel, without leave from the President, the 
Secretary of the Navy, the commander-iii-chief 
of the fleet, the commander of the squadron, or, 
in case of a vessel acting singly, from his com 
manding officer ; 

5. Or receives any message or letter from an 
enemy or rebel, or, being aware of the unlawful 
reception of such message or letter, fails to take 
the earliest opportunity to inform his superior or 
commanding officer thereof; 

6. Or, in time of war, deserts or entices others 
to desert ; 

7. Or, in time of war, deserts or betrays his 



trust, or entices or aids others to desert or betray 
their trust ; 

8. Or sleeps upon his watch ; 

9. Or leaves his station before being regularly 
relieved ; 

10. Or intentionally or willfully suffers any 
vessel of the navy to be stranded, or run upon 
rocks or shoals, or improperly hazarded ; or ma 
liciously or willfully injures any vessel of the 
navy, or any part of her tackle, armament, or 
equipment, whereby the safety of the vessel is 
hazarded or the lives of the crew exposed to 
danger ; 

11. Or unlawfully sets on fire, or otherwise un 
lawfully destroys, any public property not at the 
time in possession of an enemy, pirate, or rebel ; 

12. Or strikes or attempts to strike the flag to 
an enemy or rebel, without proper authority, or, 
when engaged in battle, treacherously yields or 
pusillanimously cries for quarter ; 

13. Or, in time of battle, displays cowardice, 
negligence, or disaffection, or withdraws from 
or keeps out of danger to which he should ex 
pose himself; 

14. Or, in time of battle, deserts his duty or 
station, or entices others to do so ; 

15. Or does not properly observe the orders of 
his commanding officer, and use his utmost exer 
tions to carry them into execution, when ordered 
to prepare for or join in, or when actually en 
gaged, in battle, or while in sight of an enemy ; 

16. Or, being in command of a fleet, squadron, 
or vessel acting singly, neglects, when an en 
gagement is probable, or when an armed vessel 
of an enemy or rebel is in sight, to prepare and 
clear his ship or ships for action ; 

17. Or does not, upon signal for battle, use his 
utmost exei tions to join in battle ; 

18. Or fails to encourage, in his own person, 
his inferior officers and men to fight coura- 



19. Or does not do his utmost to overtake and 
capture or destroy any vessel which it is his duty 
to encounter ; 

20. Or does not afford all practicable relief and 
assistance to vessels belonging to the United 
States or their allies when engaged in battle. 

Article 5. All persons who, in time of war, or 
of rebellion against the supreme authority of the 
United States, come or are found in the capacity 
of spies, or who bring or deliver any seducing 
letter or message from an enemy or rebel, or en 
deavor to corrupt any person in the navy to be 
tray his trust, shall suffer death, or such other 
punishment as a court-martial may adjudge. 

Article 6. If any person belonging to any pub 
lic vessel of the United States commits the crime 
of murder without the territorial jurisdiction 
thereof, he may be tried by court-martial and 
punished with death. 

Article 7. A naval court-martial may adjudge 
the punishment of imprisonment for life, or for a 
stated term, at hard labor, in any case where it 
is authorized to adjudge the punishment of 
death ; and such sentences of imprisonment and 
hard labor may be carried into execution in any 
prison or penitentiary under the control of the 
United States, or which the United States may 
be allowed, by the legislature of any State, to 
use ; and persons so imprisoned in the prison or 
penitentiary of any State or Territory shall be 
subject, in all respects, to the same discipline 



ARTICLES 



45 



AKTICLES 



and treatment as convicts sentenced by the courts 
of the State or Territory in which the same may 
be situated. 

Article 8. Such punishment as a court-martial 
may adjudge may be inflicted on any person in 
the navy 

1. Who is guilty of profane swearing, false 
hood, drunkenness, gambling, fraud, theft, or 
any other scandalous conduct tending to the de 
struction of good morals ; 

2. Or is guilty of cruelty toward, or oppression 
or maltreatment of, any person subject to his 
orders ; 

3. Or quarrels with, strikes, or assaults, or uses 
provoking or reproachful words, gestures, or 
menaces toward, any person in the navy ; 

4. Or endeavors to foment quarrels between 
other persons in the navy ; 

5. Or sends or accepts a challenge to fight a 
duel or acts as a second in a duel ; 

6. Or treats his superior officer with contempt, 
or is disrespectful to him in language or deport 
ment, while in the execution of his office ; 

7. Or joins in or abets any combination to 
weaken the lawful authority of, or lessen the re 
spect due to, his commanding officer ; 

8. Or utters any seditious or mutinous words ; 

9. Or is negligent or careless in obeying orders, 
or culpably inefficient in the performance of 
duty; 

10. Or does not use his best exertions to pre 
vent the unlawful destruction of public property 
by others ; 

11. Or, through inattention or negligence, suf 
fers any vessel of the navy to be stranded, or run 
upon a rock or shoal, or hazarded ; 

12. Qr, when attached to any vessel appointed 
as convoy to any merchant or other vessels, fails 
diligently to perform his duty, or demands or 
exacts any compensation for his services, or mal 
treats the officers or crews of such merchant or 
other vessels ; 

13. Or takes, receives, or permits to be re 
ceived, on board the vessel to which he is at 
tached, any goods or merchandise, for freight, 
sale, or traffic, except gold, silver, or jewels, 
for freight or safe-keeping ; or demands or re 
ceives any compensation for the receipt or trans 
portation of any other article than gold, silver, 
or jewels, without authority from the President 
or Secretary of the Navy ; 

14. Or knowingly makes or signs, or aids, abets, 
directs, or procures the making or signing of, 
any false muster ; 

15. Or wastes any ammunition, provisions, or 
other public property ; or, having power to pre 
vent it, knowingly permits such waste ; 

16. Or, when on shore, plunders, abuses, or 
maltreats any inhabitant, or injures his property 
in any way ; 

17. Or refuses, or fails to use, his utmost exer 
tions to detect, apprehend, and bring to punish 
ment all offenders, or to aid all persons appointed 
for that purpose ; 

18. Or, when rated or acting as master-at- 
arms, refuses to receive such prisoners as may be 
committed to his charge, or, having received 
them, suffers them to escape, or dismisses them 
without orders from the proper authority ; 

19. Or is absent from his station or duty with 
out leave, or after his leave has expired ; 

20. Or violates or refuses obedience to any law 



ful general order or regulation issued by the 
Secretary of the Navy ; 

21. Or, in time of peace, deserts, or attempts to 
desert, or aids and entices others to desert ; 

22. Or receives or entertains any deserter from 
any other vessel of the navy, knowing him to be 
such, and does not, with all convenient speed, 
give notice of such deserter to the commander of 
the vessel to which he belongs, or to the com- 
mander-in-chief, or to the commander of the 
squadron. 

Article 9. Any officer who absents himself 
from his command without leave may, by the 
sentence of a court-martial, be reduced to the 
rating of an ordinary seaman. 

Article 10. Any commissioned officer of the 
navy or marine corps who, having tendered his 
resignation, quits his post or proper duties with 
out leave, and with intent to remain permanently 
absent therefrom, prior to due notice of the ac 
ceptance of such resignation, shall be deemed 
and punished as a deserter. 

Article 11. No person in the naval service 
shall procure stores or other articles or supplies 
for, and dispose thereof to, the officers or enlisted 
men on vessels of the navy, or at navy-yards or 
naval stations, for his own account or benefit. 

Article 12. No person connected with the 
navy shall, under any pretense, import in a pub 
lic vessel any article which is liable to the pay 
ment of duty. 

Article 13. Distilled spirits shall be admitted 
on board of vessels of war only upon the order 
and under the control of the medical officers of 
such vessels, and to be used only for medical 
purposes. 

Article 14. Tine and imprisonment, or such 
other punishment as a court-martial may ad 
judge, shall be inflicted upon any person in the 
naval service of the United States 

Who presents or causes to be presented to any 
person in the civil, military, or naval service 
thereof, for approval or payment, any .claim 
against the United States or any officer thereof, 
knowing such claim to be false or fraudulent ; or 

Who enters into any agreement or conspiracy 
to defraud the United States by obtaining, or 
aiding others to obtain, the allowance or pay 
ment of any false or fraudulent claim ; or 

Who, for the purpose of obtaining, or aiding 
others to obtain, the approval, allowance, or pay 
ment of any claim against the United States, or 
against any officer thereof, makes or uses, or pro 
cures or advises the making or use of, any writ 
ing or other paper, knowing the same to con 
tain any false or fraudulent statement ; or 

Who, for the purpose of obtaining, or aiding 
others to obtain, the approval, allowance, or 
payment of any claim against the United States 
or any officer thereof, makes or procures or ad 
vises the making of any oath to any fact, or to 
any writing or other paper, knowing such oath 
to be false ; or 

Who, for the purpose of obtaining, or aiding 
others to obtain, the approval, allowance, or pay 
ment of any claim against the United States or 
any officer thereof, forges or counterfeits, or 
procures or advises the forging or counterfeiting 
of any signature upon any writing or other paper, 
or uses or procures or advises the use of any such 
signature, knowing the same to be forged or 
counterfeited ; or 



ARTICLES 



46 



ARTICLES 



Who, having charge, possession, custody, or 
control of any money or other property of the 
United States, furnished or intended for the 
naval service thereof, knowingly delivers, or 
causes to be delivered, to any person having au 
thority to receive the same, any amount thereof 
less than that for which he receives a certificate 
or receipt ; or 

Who, being authorized to make or deliver any 
paper certifying the receipt of any money or 
other property of the United States, furnished 
or intended for the naval service thereof, makes 
or delivers to any person such writing, without 
having full knowledge of the truth of the state 
ment therein contained, and with intent to de 
fraud the United States ; or 

Who steals, embezzles, knowingly and will 
fully misappropriates, applies to his own use or 
benefit, or wrongfully and knowingly sells or 
disposes of any ordnance, arms, equipments, 
ammunition, clothing, subsistence stores, money, 
or other property of the United States, furnished 
or intended for the military or naval service 
thereof; or 

Who knowingly purchases, or receives in 
pledge for any obligation or indebtedness, from 
any other person who is a part of, or employed in, 
said service, any ordnance, arms, equipments, 
ammunition, clothing, subsistence stores, or other 
property of the United States, such other person 
not having lawful right to sell or pledge the 
same ; or 

Who executes, attempts, or countenances any 
other fraud against the United States. 

And if any person, being guilty of any of the 
offenses described in this article while in the 
naval service, receives his discharge, or is dis 
missed from the service, he shall continue to be 
liable to be arrested and held for trial and sen 
tence by a court-martial, in the same manner 
and to the same extent as if he had not received 
such discharge nor been dismissed. 

Article 15. The commanding officer of every 
vessel in the navy entitled to or claiming an 
award of prize-money, shall, as soon as may be 
practicable after the capture, transmit to the 
Navy Department a complete list of the officers 
and men of his vessel entitled to share, stating 
therein the quality of each person rating ; and 
every commanding officer who offends against 
this article shall be punished as a court-martial 
may direct. 

Article 16. No person in the navy shall take 
out of a prize, or vessel seized as a prize, any 
money, plate, goods, or any part of her equip 
ment, unless it be for the better preservation 
thereof, or unless such articles are absolutely 
needed for the use of any of the vessels or armed 
forces of the United States, before the same are 
adjudged lawful prize by a competent court ; but 
the whole, without fraud, concealment, or em 
bezzlement, shall be brought in, in order that 
judgment may be passed thereon; and every 
person who offends against this article shall be 
punished as a court-martial may direct. 

Article 17. If any person in the navy strips 
off the clothes of, or pillages, or in any manner 
maltreats any person taken on board a prize, he 
shall suffer such punishment as a court-martial 
may adjudge. 

Article 18. If any officer or person in the 
naval service employs any of the forces under 



his command for the purpose of returning any 
fugitive from service or labor, he shall be dis 
missed from the service. 

Article 19. Any officer who knowingly en 
lists into the naval service any deserter from the 
naval or military service of the United States, 
or any insane or intoxicated person, or any minor 
between the ages of 16 and 18 years without the 
consent of his parents or guardian, or any minor 
under the age of 16 years, shall be dishonorably 
dismissed from the service of the United States. 

Article 20. Every commanding officer of a 
vessel in the navy shall obey the following rules : 

1. Whenever a man enters on board, the com 
manding officer shall cause an accurate entry to 
be made in the ship s books, showing his name, 
the date, place, and term of his enlistment, the 

Cce or vessel from which he was received on 
rd, his rating, his descriptive list, his age, 
place of birth, and citizenship, with such re 
marks as may be necessary. 

2. He shall, before sailing, transmit to the 
Secretary of the Navy a complete list of the 
rated men under his command, showing the par 
ticulars set forth in rule one, and a list of offi 
cers and passengers, showing the date of their 
entering. And "he shall cause similar lists to be 
made out on the first day of every third month 
and transmitted to the Secretary of the Navy as 
opportunities occur, accounting therein for any 
casualty which may have happened since the last 
list. 

3. He shall cause to be accurately minuted on 
the ship s books the names of any persons dying 
or deserting, and the times at which such death 
or desertion occurs. 

4. In case of the death of any officer, man, 
or passenger on said vessel, he shall take care 
that the paymaster secures all the property of the 
deceased, for the benefit of his legal representa 
tives. 

5. He shall not receive on board any man 
transferred from any other vessel or station to 
him, unless such man is furnished with an ac 
count, signed by the captain and paymaster of 
the vessel or station from which he came, speci 
fying the date of his entry on said vessel or at 
said station, the period and term of his service, 
the sums paid him, the balance due him, the 
quality in which he was rated, and his descrip 
tive list. 

6. He shall, whenever officers or men are sent 
from his ship, for whatever cause, take care that 
each man is furnished with a complete statement 
of his account, specifying the date of his enlist 
ment, the period and term of his service, and his 
descriptive list. Said account shall be signed by 
the commanding officer and paymaster. 

7. He shall cause frequent inspections to be 
made into the condition of the provisions on his 
ship, and use every precaution for their preserva 
tion. 

8. He shall frequently consult with the sur 
geon in regard to the sanitary condition of his 
crew, and shall use all proper means to preserve 
their health. And he shall cause a convenient 
place to be set apart for sick or disabled men, to 
which he shall have them removed, with their 
hammocks and bedding, when the surgeon so 
advises, and shall direct that some of the crew 
attend them and keep the place clean. 

9. He shall attend in person, or appoint a 



AKTICLES 



AKTICLES 



proper officer to attend, when his crew is finally 
paid off, to see that justice is done to the men 
and to the United States in the settlement of the 
accounts. 

10. He shall cause the articles for the govern 
ment of the navy to be hung up in some public 
part of the ship, and read once a month to his 
ship s company. 

Every commanding officer who offends against 
the provisions of this article shall be punished as 
a court-martial may direct. 

Article 21. When the crew of any vessel of 
the United States are separated from their vessel 
by means of her wreck, loss, or destruction, all 
the command and authority given to. the officers 
of such vessel shall remain in full force until 
such ship s company shall be regularly dis 
charged from or ordered again into service, or 
until a court-martial or court of inquiry shall be 
held to inquire into the loss of said vessel. And 
if any officer or man, after such wreck, loss, or 
destruction, acts contrary to the discipline of the 
navy, he shall be punished as a court-martial 
may direct. 

Article 22. All offenses committed by persons 
belonging to the navy which are not specified in 
the foregoing articles shall be punished as a 
court-martial may direct. 

Article 23. All offenses committed by persons 
belonging to the navy while on shore shall be 
punished in the same manner as if they had been 
committed at sea. 

Article 24. No commander of a vessel shall 
inflict upon a commissioned or warrant officer 
any other punishment than private reprimand, 
suspension from duty, arrest, or confinement, 
and such suspension, arrest, or confinement shall 
not continue longer than ten days, unless a fur 
ther period is necessary to bring the offender to 
trial by a court-martial ; nor shall he inflict, or 
cause to be inflicted, upon any petty officer, or 
person of inferior rating, or marine, for a single 
offense, or at any one time, any other than one 
of the following punishments, namely : 

1. Eeduction of any rating established by 
himself. 

2. Confinement, with or without irons, single 
or double, not exceeding ten days, unless further 
confinement be necessary, in the case of a pris 
oner to be tried by court-martial. 

3. Solitary confinement, on bread and water, 
not exceeding five days. 

4. Solitary confinement not exceeding seven 
days. 

5. Deprivation of liberty on shore. 

6. Extra duties. 

No other punishment shall be permitted on 
board of vessels belonging to the navy, except 
by sentence of a general or summary court- 
martial. All punishments inflicted by the com 
mander, or by his order, except reprimands, shall 
be fully entered upon the ship s log. 

Article 25. No officer who may command by 
accident, or in the absence of the commanding 
officer, except when such commanding officer is 
absent for a time by leave, shall inflict any other 
punishment than confinement. 

Article 26. Summary courts-martial may be 
ordered upon petty officers and persons of in 
ferior ratings by the commander of any vessel, 
or by the commandant of any navy-yard, naval 
station, or marine barracks to which they be 



long, for the trial of offenses which such officer 
may deem deserving of greater punishment than 
such commander or commandant is authorized 
to inflict, but not sufficient to require trial by a 
general court-martial. 

Article 27. A summary court-martial shall 
consist of three officers not below the rank of 
ensign, as members, and of a recorder. The 
commander of a ship may order any officer under 
his command to act as such recorder. 

Article 28. Before proceeding to trial the mem 
bers of a summary court-martial shall take the fol 
lowing oath or affirmation, which shall be admin 
istered by the recorder: "I, A B, do swear (or 
affirm) that I will well and truly try, without 
prejudice or partiality, the case now depending, 
according to the evidence which shall be adduced, 
the laws for the government of the navy, and 
my own conscience." After which the recorder 
of the court shall take the following oath or af 
firmation, which shall be administered by the 
senior member of the court : " I, A B, do swear 
(or affirm) that I will keep a true record of the 
evidence which shall be given before this court 
and of the proceedings thereof." 

Article 29. All testimony before a summary 
court-martial shall be given orally, upon oath 
or affirmation, administered by the senior mem 
ber of the court. 

Article 30. Summary courts-martial may sen 
tence petty officers and persons of inferior ratings 
to any one of the followingpunishments, namely : 

1. Discharge from the service with bad-con 
duct discharge; but the sentence shall not be 
carried into effect in a foreign country ; 

2. Solitary confinement, not exceeding thirty 
days, in irons, single or double, on bread and 
water, or on diminished rations ; 

3. Solitary confinement, in irons, single or 
double, not exceeding thirty days ; 

4. Solitary confinement not exceeding thirty 
days ; 

5. Confinement not exceeding two months ; 

6. Reduction to next inferior rating ; 

7. Deprivation of liberty on shore on foreign 
station ; 

8. Extra police duties, and loss of pay, not to 
exceed three months, may be added to any of the 
above-mentioned punishments. 

Article 31. A summary court-martial may 
disrate any rated person for incompetency. 

Article 32. No sentence of a summary court- 
martial shall be carried into execution until the 
proceedings and sentence have been approved by 
the officer ordering the court and by the corn- 
man der-in-chief, or, in his absence, by the senior 
officer present. And no sentence of such court 
which involves loss of pay shall be carried into 
execution until the proceedings arid sentence 
have been approved by the Secretary of the 
Navy. 

Article 33. The officer ordering a summary 
court-martial shall have power to remit, in part, 
or altogether, but not to commute, the sentence 
of the court. And it shall be his duty either to 
remit any part or the whole of any sentence the 
execution of which would, in the opinion of the 
surgeon or senior medical officer on board, given 
in writing, produce serious injury to the health 
of the person sentenced ; or to submit the case 
again, without delay, to the same or to another 
summary court-martial, which shall have power, 



AKTICLES 



48 



AETICLES 



upon the testimony already taken, to remit the 
former punishment, and to assign some other of 
the authorized punishments in the place thereof. 

Article 34. The proceedings of summary 
courts-martial shall be conducted with as much 
conciseness and precision as may be consistent 
with the ends of justice, and under such forms 
and rules as may be prescribed by the Secretary 
of the Navy, with the approval of the President ; 
and all such proceedings shall be transmitted, in 
the usual mode, to the Navy Department. 

Article 35. Any punishment which a sum 
mary court-martial is authorized to inflict may 
be inflicted by a general court-martial. 

Article 36. No oflicer shall be dismissed from 
the naval service except by the order of the Pres 
ident or by sentence of a general court-martial ; 
and in time of peace no officer shall be dismissed 
except in pursuance of the sentence of a general 
court-martial or in mitigation thereof 

Article 37. When any officer, dismissed by or 
der of the President since 3d March, 1865, makes, 
in writing, an application for trial, setting forth, 
under oath, that he has been wrongfully dis 
missed, the President shall, as soon as the neces 
sities of the service may permit, convene a court- 
martial to try such officer on the charges on 
which he shall have been dismissed. And if 
such court-martial shall not be convened within 
six months from the presentation of such appli 
cation for trial, or if such court, being convened, 
shall not award dismissal or death as the punish 
ment of such officer, the order of dismissal by 
the President shall be void. 

Article 38. General courts-martial may be con 
vened by the President, the Secretary of the 
Navy, or the commander-in-chief of a fleet or 
squadron ; but no commander of a fleet or squad 
ron in the waters of the United States shall con 
vene such court without express authority from 
the President. 

Article 39. A general court-martial shall con 
sist of not more than thirteen nor less than five 
commissioned officers as members ; and as many 
officers, not exceeding thirteen, as can be con 
vened without injury to the service, shall be 
summoned on every such court. But in no case, 
where it can be avoided without injury to the 
service, shall more than one-half, exclusive of 
the president, be junior to the officer to be tried. 
The senior officer shall always preside, and the 
others shall take place according to their rank. 

Article 40. The president of the general court- 
martial shall administer the following oath or 
affirmation to the judge-advocate or person offi 
ciating as such : 

" I, A B, do swear (or affirm) that I will keep 
a true record of the evidence given to and the 
proceedings of this court ; that I will not divulge 
or by any means disclose the sentence of the 
court until it shall have been approved by the 
proper authority ; and that I will not at any time 
divulge or disclose the vote or opinion of any 
particular member of the court, unless required 
so to do before a court of justice in due course of 
law." 

This oath or affirmation being duly adminis 
tered, each member of the court, before proceed 
ing to trial, shall take the following oath or af 
firmation, which shall be administered by the 
judge-advocate or person officiating as such : 

u I, A B, do swear (or affirm) that I will truly 



try, without prejudice or partiality, the case now 
depending, according to the evidence which shall 
come before the court, the rules for the govern 
ment of the navy, and my own conscience ; that 
I will not by any means divulge or disclose the 
sentence of the court until it shall have been ap 
proved by the proper authority ; and that I will 
not at anytime divulge or disclose the. vote or 
opinion of any particular member of the court, 
unless required so to do before a court of justice 
in due course of law." 

Article 41. An oath or affirmation in the fol 
lowing form shall be administered to all wit 
nesses, before any court-martial, by the president 
thereof: 

u You do solemnly swear (or affirm) that the 
evidence you shall give in tne case now before 
this court shall be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, and that you will state 
everything within your knowledge in relation to 
the charges : so help you God ; (or, this you do 
under the pains and penalties of perjury. )" 

Article 42. "Whenever any person refuses to 
give his evidence or to give it in the manner pro 
vided by these articles, or prevaricates, or be 
haves with Contempt to the court, it shall be 
lawful for the court to imprison him for any time 
not exceeding two months. 

Article 43. The person accused shall be fur 
nished with a true copy of the charges, with the 
specifications, at the time he is put under arrest ; 
and no other charges than those so furnished 
shall be urged against him at the trial, unless it 
shall appear to the court that intelligence of such 
other charge had not reached the officer ordering 
the court when the accused was put under ar 
rest, or that some witness material to the support 
of such charge was at that time absent and can 
be produced at the trial ; in which case reason 
able time shall be given to the accused to make 
his defense against such new charge. 

Article 44. Every officer who is arrested for 
trial shall deliver up his sword to his command 
ing officer, and confine himself to the limits as 
signed him, on pain of dismissal from the ser 
vice. 

Article 45. "When the proceedings of any 
general court-martial have commenced, they 
shall not be suspended or delayed on account of 
the absence of any of the members, provided 
five or more are assembled ; but the court is en 
joined to sit from day to day, Sundays excepted, 
until sentence is given, unless temporarily ad 
journed by the authority which convened it. 

Article 46. No member of a general court- 
martial shall, after the proceedings are begun, 
absent himself therefrom, except in case of sick 
ness, or of an order to go on duty from a superior 
officer, on pain of being cashiered. 

Article 47. Whenever any member of a court- 
martial, from any legal cause, is absent from 
the court after the commencement of a case, all 
the witnesses who have been examined during 
his absence must, when he is ready to resume his 
seat, be recalled by the court, and the recorded 
testimony of each witness so examined must be 
read over to him, and such witness must ac 
knowledge the same to be correct, and be subject 
to such further examination as the said member 
may require. Without a compliance with this 
rule, and an entry thereof upon the record, a 
member who shall have been absent during the 



ARTICLES 



49 



ARTIFICIAL 



examination of a witness shall not be allowed to 
sit again in that particular case. 

Article 48. Whenever a court-martial sen 
tences an officer to be suspended, it may suspend 
his pay and emoluments for the whole or any 
part of the time of his suspension. 

Article 49. In no case shall punishment by 
flogging, or by branding, marking, or tattooing 
on the body be adjudged by any court-martial 
or be inflicted upon any person in the navy. 

Article 50. No person shall be sentenced by a 
court-martial to suffer death, except by the con 
currence of two-thirds of the members present, 
and in the cases where such punishment is ex 
pressly provided in these articles. All other 
sentences may be determined by a majority of 
votes. 

Article 51. It shall be the duty of a court- 
martial, in all cases of conviction, to adjudge a 
punishment adequate to the nature of the offense ; 
but the members thereof may recommend the 
person convicted as deserving of clemency, and 
state on the record their reasons for so doing. 

Article 52. The judgment of every court-mar 
tial shall be authenticated by the signature of the 
president, and of every member who may be 
present when said judgment is pronounced, and 
also of the judge-advocate. 

Article 53. No sentence of a court-martial, 
extending to the loss of life or to the dismissal 
of a commissioned or warrant officer, shall be 
carried into execution until confirmed by the 
President. All other sentences of general court- 
martial may be carried into execution on con 
firmation of the commander of the fleet or officer 
ordering the court. 

Article 54. Every officer who is authorized to 
convene a general court-martial shall have power, 
on revision of its proceedings, to remit or miti 
gate, but not to commute, the sentence of any 
such court which he is authorized to approve and 
confirm. 

Article 55. Courts of inquiry may be ordered 
by the President, the Secretary of the Navy, or 
the commander of a fleet or squadron. 

Article 56. A court of inquiry shall consist of 
not more than three commissioned officers as 
members, and of a judge-advocate, or person 
officiating as such. 

Article 57. Courts of inquiry shall have power 
to summon witnesses, administer oaths, and pun 
ish contempts in the same manner as courts- 
martial ; but they shall only state facts, and 
shall not give their opinion, unless expressly re 
quired so to do in the order for convening. 

Article 58. The judge-advocate, or person 
officiating as such, shalfadminister to the mem 
bers the following oath or affirmation : " You do 
swear (or affirm) well and truly to examine and 
inquire, according to the evidence, into the mat 
ter now before you, without partiality." After 
which the president shall administer to the judge- 
advocate, or person officiating as such, the fol 
lowing oath or affirmation : u You do swear (or 
affirm) truly to record the proceedings of this 
court, and the evidence to be given in the case 
in hearing." 

Article 59. The party whose conduct shall be 
the subject of inquiry, or his attorney, shall have 
the right to cross-examine all the witnesses. 

Article 60. The proceedings of courts of in 
quiry shall be authenticated by the signature of 



the president of the court and of the judge-ad 
vocate, and shall, in all cases not capital, nor ex 
tending to the dismissal of a commissioned or 
warrant officer, be evidence before a court-mar 
tial, provided oral testimony cannot be obtained. 

Artificer. One who works by hand in wood 
or metal. 

Artificial. Made by art ; not genuine. 

ARTIFICIAL GLOBE. A spherical representa 
tion of the earth or the heavens. 

ARTIFICIAL SINES, TANGENTS, ETC. The 
logarithms of the natural sines, tangents, etc. 

ARTIFICIAL NUMBERS. Logarithms. 

ARTIFICIAL LINES. Lines on a sector or 
scale, so contrived as to represent logarithmic 
signs and tangents, which, by the help of the 
line of numbers, solve, with tolerable exactness, 
problems in trigonometry and navigation. 

ARTIFICIAL EYE. An eye worked in the 
end of a rope. It is neater but not so strong as 
a spliced eye. 

Artificial Horizon. A reflector whose surface 
is perfectly horizontal, used for observing alti 
tudes. Artificial horizons are of two kinds, 
those for use on shore, and those for use on board 
ship. 

The most usual form of the shore artificial 
horizon is a rectangular trough of quicksilver or 
other fluid. Quicksilver is the fluid most conve 
nient and the best adapted for obtaining a surface 
which shall quickly subside after being disturbed. 
No altitude can be observed which is greater 
than half the range of the instrument ; thus, 
with a sextant no altitude above 60 can be ob 
served. For altitudes less than 15 the observa 
tion is generally impracticable. One advantage 
of the artificial horizon is, that when the angle 
shown by the instrument is halved to obtain the 
angle of elevation, all errors of observation are 
halved at the same time. There is no correction 
for "dip." The instrument used for observing 
is sometimes fixed upon a small pillar. In this 
artificial horizon an essential condition is the 
parallelism of the faces of plate-glass forming 
the roof. The effects of refraction may be prac 
tically eliminated by these plates being made 
circular disks which admit of being turned in 
their own plane. One set of observations hav 
ing been taken, the plates are turned through 
180 and a new set taken, the two being used in 
combination ; or with a common roof the error 
may be practically eliminated by reversing it. A 
small mirror of polished metal or of darkened 
plate-glass is sometimes used as an artificial 
horizon, its horizontally being ascertained by 
means of a spirit-level placed upon it, and the 
adjustment effected by means of screws which 
form its stand. Such an instrument, though 
convenient and portable, does not give satis 
factory results. 

At sea the celestial bodies are sometimes dis 
tinctly visible when the horizon is enveloped in 
mist ; the sea-horizon is often disturbed by haze 
or fog, and by moonlight is often uncertain. 
Hence the attempts to invent an artificial horizon 
adapted for use on board ship. Mr. Serson sug 
gested to apply the principle upon which a top, 
when spinning, tends to preserve a vertical 
position. A pivot carrying a mirror thus ro 
tating would theoretically give the horizontal 
reflector required ; but it failed in practice. Ad 
miral Beechey s contrivance is more successful. 



ARTILLERY 



50 



ASTRONOMY 



The telescope of the sextant is fitted with a bal 
ance carrying a glass vane, one half of which is 
colored blue to represent the sea-horizon, and to 
which the celestial object is brought down. The 
amount of oscillation above and below the level 
is indicated by divisions on the glass, the values 
of which are determined by the maker. Other 
constructions, where the horizon is attached to 
the sextant, have been tried with more or less 
success. 

Artillery. Formerly synonymous with arch 
ery, but now comprehends everything relating 
to guns and to the service of guns. 

Arx. A fort or castle. 

Ascii. The inhabitants of the torrid zone, 
who, being twice a year under a vertical sun, 
have no shadow. 

Ashes. The earthy part of combustible sub 
stances remaining after combustion. 

ASH-PIT. The space underneath the grate- 
bars. 

ASH-CHUTE. A receptacle into which ashes 
are dumped to be conve} T ed overboard. 

ASH-WHIP. A whip for hoisting ashes out of 
the fire-room. 

Ashlar. Blocks of stone masonry fronting 
docks and piers. 

Ashore. On land, opposed to aboard ; when 
applied to a ship, means that she is aground. 

Asia. See CONTINENTS. 

Asiento. A contract between the king of 
Spain and other powers, for furnishing the Span 
ish dominions in America with negro slaves. It 
began in 1689, and was vested in the South Sea 
Company in 1713. By the treaty of Utrecht it 
was transferred to the English, who were to fur 
nish 4800 negroes annually to Spanish America. 
This contract was given up to Spain at the peace 
in 1748. 

Askew. Awry ; aslant. 

Aslant. Obliquely. 

SAILING ASLANT. Beating to windward. 

Asleep. A sail filled with just enough wind 
for swelling or bellying out is said to be asleep. 

Aspect. The general appearance of the land 
from seaward. 

Aspic. An ancient 12-pounder about 11 feet 
long. 

Aspinwall. A seaport of the United States 
of Columbia, on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus 
of Panama. The harbor has a depth of water 
sufficient for the largest ships, and is very spa 
cious. Pop. 2500. 

Aspirant de Marine. (Fr.) Midshipman. 

Assail. To attack with violence or in a hos 
tile manner. 

Assault. A hostile attack. An effort to gain 
possession of a fortification by main force. 

Assegai. A spear, or javelin used by the 
Zulus. 

Asseguay. A dagger used in the Levant. 

Assembly. A beat of the drum or call on the 
bugle, as a signal to troops to assemble. 

Assilag. A name given in the Hebrides to a 
small bird with a black bill. The stormy petrel. 

Assistant. See SURGEON, PAYMASTER, EN 
GINEER. 

Assurance. Insurance. A con-tract to pay 
a certain sum on the occasion of a certain event ; 
as, loss or death. 

Assurgent. A heraldic term for a man or 
beast rising out of the sea. 



A-starboard. The situation of the helm when 
the tiller is borne over to the starboard side of 
the ship. 

HARD A-STARBOARD. The order to put the 
helm over to the extreme limit. 

Astatic Needle. See NEEDLE. 

A-stay. The anchor is said to be a-stay when 
the cable forms an acute angle with the surface 
of the water. A long stay signifies that the cable 
forms a line parallel with the main-stay, and a 
short stay means that it is parallel with the fore- 
stay. 

Asteria. A genus of radiated marine ani 
mals ; the star-fish. 

Asterism. A constellation ; a group of stars. 

Astern. Any distance behind, a vessel in the 
direction of the stern. 

To DROP ASTERN. To be left behind. 

To BE ASTERN OF THE RECKONING. To be 
behind the position determined by logging. 

Asteioid. The name which Herschel proposed 
to give the minor planets which have been dis 
covered between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. 
The first one was discovered in 1801, but since 
that time over 80 have been added to the number. 
The largest one is but 300 miles in diameter. 
They closely resemble small stars, and can only 
be distinguished from them by their motion. 

Astragal. Mouldings on old cannon. 

Astral. Relating to the stars. 

Astrolabe. The armillary sphere. 

A sea-astrolabe is a brass ring with a mov 
able arm, for observing altitudes of stars and 
planets. 

Astrology. Formerly synonymous with as 
tronomy ; subsequently, the art of foretelling 
events by the positions and aspects of the stars. 
Judicial astrology was invented by the Chal- 
dseans, and hence was transmitted to the Egyp 
tians, Greeks, and Romans. It was much in 
vogue in France in the time of Catherine de 
Medicis, 1533. The early history of astrology 
in England is very little known : Bede was ad 
dicted to it, 700 ; and so was Roger Bacon, 1260. 
Cecil, Lord Burlcigh, calculated the nativity of 
Elizabeth ; and she, and all the European princes, 
were the humble servants of Dee, the astrologer 
and conjurer. But the period of the Stuarts was 
the acme of astrology in England. Sir Walter 
Scott has made ample use of Sir William Lilly, 
the noted astrologer, in his tales of this period ; 
and it is certain that Lilly was consulted by 
Charles I. respecting his projected escape from 
Carisbrook Castle in" 1647. 

Astronomical Clock. A pendulum clock 
regulated to sidereal time. The error is its dif 
ference from sidereal time, and the rate is the 
daily change of error. 

The Astronomical Day begins at noon, and the 
hours are numbered from one to twenty-four. 

Astronomicals. Sexagesimal fractions. 

Astronomy. (Gr. aster, a star, any luminary 
body; nomos, a law.) The science which treats 
of the heavenly bodies. It is generally divided 
into Spherical Astronomy, which treats of the 
appearances, magnitudes, motions, and distances 
of the heavenly bodies ; and Physical Astronomy , 
which applies the principles of mechanics to ex 
plain the motions of the heavenly bodies and 
the laws by which they are governed. That 
portion of spherical astronomy which is applied 
to purposes of navigation is called Nautical 



ASTRONOMY 



51 



ASYLUM 



Astronomy. See SUN, PLANETS, ASTEROID, 
STARS, COMETS, ECLIPSES, etc. 

The earliest astronomical observations were 
made at Babylon, it is said, about 2234 B.C. The 
study was much advanced in Chaldaea under 
Nabonassar ; was known to the Chinese about 
1100 B.C., some say centuries before. 

Lunar eclipses observed at Babylon, and re 
corded by Ptolemy, about 720 B.C. 

Spherical form of the earth and the true cause 
of lunar eclipses taught by Thales, about 600 B.C. 

Further discoveries by Pythagoras, who taught 
the doctrine of celestial motions and believed 
in the plurality of habitable worlds, died about 
470 B.C. 

Meton introduces the lunar-solar cycle, 433 

B.C. 

Treatises of Aristotle " concerning the heav 
ens," and of Autolycus "on the motion of the 
sphere" (earliest extant works on astronomy), 
about 350 B.C. 

Aratus writes a poem on astronomy about 281 
B.C. 

Archimedes observes solstices, etc., about 212 

B.C. 

Hipparchus, greatest of Greek astronomers, 
determines mean motion of sun and moon ; dis 
covers precession of equinoxes, etc., about 160-125 
B.C. 

The precession of the equinoxes confirmed, and 
the places and distances of the planets discovered 
by Ptolemy, 139-161 A.D. 

Astronomy and geography cultivated by the 
Arabs about 760 A.D. ; brought into Europe about 
1200 A.D. 

Clocks first used in astronomy about 1500 A.D. 

True doctrine of the motions of the planetary 
bodies revived by Copernicus, founder of modern 
astronomy; his "Revolution of the Heavenly 
Bodies" published 1543 A.D. 

Astronomy advanced by Tycho Brahe, who yet 
adheres to the Ptolemaic system, about 1582 A.D. 

True laws of the planetary motions announced 
by Kepler ; 1st and 2d, 1609 A.D ; 3d, 1618 A.D. 

Galileo constructs a telescope, 1609 ; and dis 
covers Jupiter s satellites, etc., 8th January, 
1610 A.D. 

Various forms of telescopes and other instru 
ments used in astronomy invented, 1608-40 A.D. 

Cartesian system published by Des Cartes, 
1637 A.D. 

The transit of Venus over the sun s disk first 
observed by Horrocks, 24th November, 1639 A.D 

Cassini draws his meridian line after Dante, 
1655 A.D. 

The aberration of the light of the fixed stars 
discovered by Horrebow, 1659 A.D. 

Huyghens completes the discovery of Saturn s 
ring, 1654 A.D. 

Gregory invents a reflecting telescope, 1663 A.D. 

Charts of the moon constructed by Scheiner, 
Langrenus, Hevelius, Riccioli, etc., about 1670 

A.D. 

Discoveries of Romer on the velocity of light, 
and his observation of Jupiter s satellites, 1675 

A.D. 

Motion of the sun round its own axis proved 
by Halley, 1676 A.D. 

Newton s " Principia" published, and the sys 
tem as now taught demonstrated, 1687 A.D. 

Catalogue of the stars made by Flamsteed, 
1688 A.D. 



Cassini s chart of the full moon executed, 1692 
A.D. 

Satellites of Saturn, etc., discovered by Cassini, 
1701 A.D. 

Halley predicts the return of the comet (of 
1759), 1705 A.D. 

Flarnsteed s " Historia Ccelestis" published, 
1725 A.D. 

Aberration of the light of the stars discovered 
and explained by Dr. Bradley, 1727 A.D. 

John Harrison produces chronometers for de 
termining the longitude, 1735 etseq., and obtains 
the reward, 1764 A.D. 

Celestial inequalities found by La Grange, 1780 

A.D. 

Uranus and satellites discovered by Herschel, 
13th March, 1781 A.D. 

" Mecanique celeste," by La Place, published 
1796 A.D. 

Beer and Madler s map of the moon published, 
1834 A.D. 

Lord Rosse s telescope constructed, 1828-45 A.D. 

The planet Neptune discovered, 23d Septem 
ber, 1846 A.D. 

Bond photographs the moon, 1851 A.D. 

Hansen s table of the moon published at ex 
pense of the British government, 1857 A.D. 

Spectrum analysis applied in astronomy, 1861 

A.D. 

Astrum, or Astron. Sirius, the Dog-star. A 
cluster of stars. 

Aswim. Afloat. 

Asylum. A place of refuge. 

Asylum, Naval, of the United States. This 
important and interesting institution has been in 
existence about half a century, and is situated 
upon the banks of the Schuylkill, within the 
limits of the city of Philadelphia, and in the old 
district of Passyunk. 

The property upon which the institution is 
situated comprises an irregular plat of about 23 
acres, bounded by the Gray s Ferry Road, Bain- 
bridge Street, Southerland Avenue (running 
parallel with the Schuylkill River), and a wall 
running thence eastward to meet the Gray s 
Ferry Road again. 

Originally a part of a tract of 150 acres, ex 
tending from the Schuylkill to Long Lane, it 
was, long previous to the Revolution, the site of 
a handsome country-seat, belonging to the Pem- 
berton family, it having been purchased from 
the Penns in l735. 

The place, which was known as " Plantation," 
was then quite remote from the built-up parts of 
the town, and, in spite of its name, appears never 
to have been a farm, but to have been taken up 
with lawns, shrubberies, and gardens. The house 
was of brick ; large, square, roomy, and comfort 
able. This mansion was afterwards, and previ 
ous to the erection of the present large building, 
the naval asylum and hospital. Two brick tene 
ment or servants houses stood to the north of the 
mansion, and were also used until superseded by 
the present building. "When demolished, their 
debris was used by Commodore Biddle to metal 
the roads and walks which now exist. 

"Plantation" was a favorite residence for 
some of the British officers during their occupa 
tion of Philadelphia, and there is frequent men 
tion of it in contemporary journals and corre 
spondence. Soldiers were flogged, and one or 
two hung for depredations upon the gardens and 



ASYLUM 



ASYLUM 



smoke-houses, and Mrs. Pemberton, whose hus 
band was absent, extorted an ample apology 
from a certain Lord Murray, who had treated 
the tenants with "barbarious and unbecoming 
behavior, very unworthy of a British nobleman 
and officer, after being previously shown General 
Howe s protection posted up in the house." For 
some time previous to the evacuation the house 
was occupied by General Pattison, the com 
mander of the Koyal Artillery. 

From the Pembertons the place passed to the 
Abbots, and was purchased from that family by 
the government. 

On May 26, 1826, Surgeon Thomas Harris, of 
the navy, was authorized by the Hon. Samuel 
L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy, to purchase 
" the Abbot lot, of about 23 acres, for $16,000." 
From the accounts it appears that $17,000 was 
ultimately paid, however, a very small sum 
compared with the value of the land at this day. 

As soon as it was established that we were to 
have a permanent naval force, it became neces 
sary to make provision for the sick, wounded, 
and disabled. In 1798 an act of Congress pro 
vided that 20 cents a month should be deducted 
from the pay of all seamen of the merchant 
marine for the relief of the sick and disabled, 
the money to be in charge of the Secretary of the 
Treasury. And in the next year 1799 its bene 
fits were extended to the "officers, seamen, and 
marines of the navy, who were to receive the 
same relief as the sick and disabled seamen of the 
merchant service." 

Under the working of this law naval seamen 
were sent to civil hospitals, where their officers 
lost control of them, and they disappeared. Nor 
did it seem proper that officers, seamen, and 
marines of a military service should, as an after 
thought, be foisted upon the Treasury Depart 
ment. It was evidently necessary for the navy 
to have a hospital department of its own, in 
charge of its own medical officers, who, from 
being identified with the service, could sympa 
thize with and understand the virtues and fail 
ings of the seamen. Accordingly, in 1810, an 
act of Congress appointed the Secretaries of War, 
the Navy, and the Treasury a " Board of Com 
missioners of Naval Hospitals," and the fund 
derived from monthly assessments upon all per 
sons in the naval service was turned over to them, 
to constitute a "Naval Hospital Fund," and 
$50,000 from the unexpended balance of the "Ma 
rine Hospital Fund" was placed by the same act 
in their hands, this being the estimated share of 
the amount which had accrued since the acts of 
1798-99. 

From this act of 1810 dates the origin of the 
Naval Asylum, as well as of all the rest of our 
naval hospitals. 

Mr. Paul Hamilton, then Secretary of the 
Navy, addressed a letter to the House Committee 
on the Naval Establishment warmly supporting 
naval hospitals as places of relief and main 
tenance, not only for the sick of the service, but 
for the disabled and infirm who should prefer it 
to a pension. He even recommended that the 
widows and children of seamen killed in action 
should be supported in such institutions, the 
boys to be brought up for the naval service. He 
also recommends that the midshipmen should be 
sent to these hospitals for a period of instruction 
in navigation and general learning. 



On February 26, 1811, the commissioners of 
naval hospitals were authorized to acquire sites, 
and to buy or build hospitals, and this same act 
requires one of these establishments to provide 
a permanent "asylum" for " decrepid and dis 
abled naval officers, seamen, and marines." 

"Asylum" is thus used in the first law upon 
the subject. It seems an unfortunate term, al 
though truly expressing the intent of the charity. 

In the year 1826, as has been said, Dr. Harris 
bought the asylum property, and the hospital at 
the navy-yard, on the Delaware, was abandoned, 
and the Pemberton mansion used instead ; and 
continued in use until 18 ; ?3, when the present 
asylum building, was sufficiently finished for 
occupation. 

In the records of the hospital from 1826 to 
1833 appear the names, as patients, of Farra- 
gut, Bainbridge, Twiggs, Hull, Levy, Izard, 
Newell, Ogden, Howard, P. Voorhees, Engle, 
Mercer, and other well-known officers. 

The government selected the Philadelphia 
Hospital as the one which was to be the "asy 
lum" directed by the act of 1811 ; and from the 
correspondence, it is clear that Dr. Harris is re 
sponsible for the selection of the site upon the 
Gray s Ferry Koad, it being already in possession 
and occupied for hospital purposes. He was de 
tailed by the Secretary of the Navy to superin 
tend the construction, receiving a certain sum, 
over and above his pay, therefor. Mr. Strick 
land, the architect, was associated with him in 
the superintendence. 

In 1832 the asylum building was under roof; 
and up to this time the expense had been wholly 
borne by the "Naval Hospital Fund," which 
had become so drained that, in July of that year, 
a bill passed Congress appropriating $27,300 for 
" completing the navy asylum at Philadelphia," 
and $6600 for " fixtures, furniture, and appara 
tus." During the time the asylum was being 
built the naval hospitals at Chelsea, Brooklyn, 
Norfolk, and Pensacola were going up, under 
regular annual appropriations. 

In this same year 1832 there was a transfer, 
by act of Congress, of all powers of commissioners 
of hpspitals to the Secretary of the Navy. They 
were directed to turn over to him all cash and evi 
dences of value previously held by them jointly 
for "the payment of navy and privateer pen 
sions, and for expenditures on account of naval 
hospitals." The Secretary of the Navy wus 
henceforth to keep this fund as sole commissioner, 
reporting annually to Congress, as he does to 
this day. 

The asylum building, though by no means 
completed internally, was occupied toward the 
close of 1833. From that time until 1842 an 
aggregate of $93,000 was appropriated for the 
building, grounds, etc. 

According to the report of the architect, the 
building cost $195,000, and adding the cost of 
the land brings the total to $212,600, of which 
four-ninths came from appropriations, and the 
rest from the hospital fund. 

The building faces nearly east, and is con 
structed of a grayish-white marble, with a gran 
ite basement. It is 380 feet in length, and con 
sists of a central building, with a high, broad 
flight of marble steps, and imposing abutments, 
and a marble colonnade and pediment, in the 
bastard classic style, which was the fashion at 



ASYLUM 



53 



ATLAS 



the period of its erection, and which has fastened 
upon the country numbers of solid and costly 
buildings, utterly unsuited to our climate, and 
unsightly from lack of fitness. 

The wings are symmetrical, and terminate in 
pavilions, or transverse buildings at each end. 
These wings are supplied with broad covered 
verandas on each of the two main floors, which 
are admirably adapted to their purpose, and, of 
course, entirely out of keeping with the classic 
central structure. 

A fine attic and basement complete the build 
ing, which is most thoroughly and substantially 
constructed in every part. The marble stair 
cases of the interior are especially noticeable 
from their ingenious construction and economy 
of space. The ceilings of two floors are vaulted 
in solid masonry, and there is a remarkably fine, 
lofty domed apartment, used as a muster-room 
and chapel. 

The beneficiaries, as they are called, have each 
a small room, and the use of several reading- 
and smoking-rooms in the pavilions, beside which 
there are quarters for officers and employes. 

When the asylum was first occupied four bene 
ficiaries were transferred to it from the old build 
ing, as were the sick of the station. 

The whole of the interior was not finished 
until 1848, when the increase in the number of 
inmates rendered it necessary. For many years 
from 1840 to the close of the civil war the 
second floor of the south wing and the rooms in 
the pavilion were used as the hospital proper. 
During the war much of the attic was also so 
used. For many years the beneficiaries were 
supported in the same way, and from the same 
fund as patients in hospital. In 1842 their num 
ber was 42, and in 1858 there were considerably 
over 100 ; and in the latter year the hospital 
fund was relieved by an appropriation " for sup 
port of beneficiaries, $26,392;" and ever since a 
separate and specific annual appropriation has 
been made for the same purpose. The annual 
appropriation, from the naval pension fund, is 
now about $60,000. 

The first " Governor" of the Naval Asylum 
was Commodore James Biddle, who was ap 
pointed by Secretary J. K. Paulding, upon com 
plaint and scandal resulting from the adminis 
tration of an old lieutenant who had charge of 
the beneficiaries as " superintendent." The Sec 
retary proposed to the commodore to take charge, 
with the title of " Governor," as adding dignity 
to the position. His appointment was dated 
August 1, 1838, and he remained until 1842, 
when he was relieved upon his own application. 
During his service the classes of midshipmen 
preparing for examination were placed at the 
asylum, with one or two professors to instruct 
them, a partial fulfillment of Mr. Paul Hamil 
ton s idea. They at first had the basement 
rooms at the north end, which were truly re 
ported as being "damp, cold, cheerless, and un 
healthy." Afterwards, through the energetic 
remonstrances of Lieutenant Foote, they were 
placed on the floor above. Here they remained 
until the Naval Academy at Annapolis was 
founded, in 1845. 

About 1842, during the administration of Sec 
retary Upshur, a division of the building into 
two parts was effected by a lath-and-plaster par 
tition, one part being hospital and the other 



asylum. The partition ran through the centre 
of the hall, and the wings being precisely alike, 
afforded equal conveniences. This arrangement 
did not continue long, however. 

During the late war the necessity for a separate 
naval hospital became evident, and a large and 
commodious building for that purpose was erected 
upon a portion of the grounds nearer the river. 

During the early years of the asylum those 
who died there were buried to the north of the 
asylum, but the cutting of a street led to the 
bodies being removed to ground to the west. 
When the hospital was built it was found neces 
sary to remove the bodies again, and they were 
transferred to a lot belonging to the government 
in Mount Moriah Cemetery, where all inter 
ments now take place. 

At the Naval Asylum hundreds of old men 
who have deserved well of their country have 
passed their declining years in tranquillity and 
comfort, not unfrequently attaining a great age. 
The present number of beneficiaries ranges from 
130 to 150, and they die about as fast as new 
ones come in. Under the regulations no one is 
eligible for the asylum who has not passed at 
least twenty years in the naval service, but ex 
ceptions are made in cases of serious disability 
in the line of duty. 

Upon entering the asylum a beneficiary has 
to give up to the hospital fund any pension of 
which he may be in receipt. Each one has a 
separate room, and is furnished with three whole 
some meals a day, a good allowance of clothing, 
free washing, and one dollar and one pound and 
a half of tobacco per month. 

There is a good library for the use of the in 
mates, and pleasant reading- and smoking- 
rooms, with open fires, and tables covered with 
newspapers and periodicals. No restraint is 
placed upon their movements, within reasonable 
hours, so long as their conduct is marked with 
propriety, and the usual punishment for miscon 
duct is confinement to the grounds for a few 
days. E. Shippen. 

Asymtote. A line which continually ap 
proaches a curve but never meets it. 

Atabal. A Moorish drum. 

Atagan. See YATAGAN. 

A-taunt-o, or All A-taunt-o. Every mast 
an-end and fully rigged. 

Ategar. An old English hand-dart. 

Atherine. A silvery fish used in the manu 
facture of artificial pearls. It is also called ar 
gentine. 

Athwart. Transversely; at right angles to 
the keel ; across the line of the ship s course. 

ATHWAKT HAWSE. A vessel, boat, or float 
ing timber drifted across the stem. 

ATHWART-SHIPS. From side to side ; in oppo 
sition to fore-and-aft. 

ATHWART THE TIDE. Across the tide. 

Atlantic. The ocean which separates the New 
World from Europe and Africa, so named from 
the Atlas Mountains, in Africa. See OCEANS. 

Atlantides. The daughter of Atlas ; a name 
of the Pleiades. 

Atlas. A book of maps or charts, so called 
from the character of that name in ancient myth 
ology, represented as carrying the world on his 
back. The name was first applied to maps by 
Mercator, the famous geographer, in the 16th 
century. 



ATMOSPHERE 



54 



AURORA 



Atmosphere is the name applied to the gaseous 
fluid which surrounds the earth. It exhibits, in 
common with all fluid bodies, the usual charac 
teristics of hydrostatic pressure, but its internal 
condition differs from that of a liquid, inasmuch 
as its particles repel each other, and can only be 
held in proximity by external force. From this 
circumstance it follows that the volume of any 
portion of air varies much more under the influ 
ence of external pressure than that of an equal 
volume of water ; hence the stratum of air near 
est the earth is denser than strata in the upper 
regions, where, from their being subjected to 
the weight of a smaller mass of superincumbent 
air, the repulsive force of the particles has freer 
play. 

Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere. 
Volumes. Grains. 

Nitrogen 79.02 76.84 

Oxygen 20.94 23.10 

Carbonic acid 0.04 0.06 

100.00 100.00 

Besides the substances just named other gas 
eous matters occur, but in quantities so small as 
not sensibly to increase the bulk of the at 
mosphere. 

Posidonius first calculated the height of the 
atmosphere, stating it to be 800 stadia, nearly 
agreeing with our modern ideas, about 79 B.C. 
Its weight was determined by Galileo and Torri- 
celli, about 1643; its density and elasticity by 
Boyle; and its relation to light and sound by 
Hooke, Newton, and Derham. The composition 
of the atmosphere was ascertained by Hales, 
Black, Priestley, Scheele, Lavoisier, and Caven 
dish ; and its laws of refraction were investigated 
by Dr. Bradley, 1737. 

Atolls. An East Indian name for the coral 
formations known as lagoon-islands. 

Atomizer. An instrument to reduce a liquid 
to a spray. 

Atrie. To bring-to in a gale. 

A-trip. The anchor is a-trip when it is just 
hove clear of the ground. Sails are a-trip when 
they are sheeted home, hoisted taut up, and 
ready for trimming. Yards are a-trip when 
they are hoisted up and ready to be swayed 
across. A mast is a-trip when the fid is out 
ready for lowering. 

Attached. Belonging to. An officer is said 
to be attached to any ship or station to which he 
is ordered for duty. 

Attack. To fall upon with hostile intent ; to 
assail. 

Atterage. (Fr.) A land-fall. 

Attested. Legally certified. 

Attile. An old law term for the furniture of 
a ship. 

Attraction. The principle by which bodies 
mutually tend toward each other, distinguished 
into the attraction of gravitation, of cohesion, 
and capillary, magnetic, and electrical attraction. 

Atween, or Tween. Between. 

Atwixt, or Twixt. Betwixt. 

Auckland. A town of New Zealand, on the 
"Waitamata Inlet. Lat. 36 50 S. ; Ion. 174 
50 E. It has two fine harbors. Auckland is 
the third port in the colony in the value of ex 
ports and imports. Pop. 12,000. 

Audit. To settle or adjust an account. 



Auditor, Fourth. Chief of a bureau of the 
Treasury Department, established in 1817. Pre 
viously an accounting clerk in the Navy Depart 
ment. The Auditor s office receives the accounts 
of all paymasters of United States vessels, navy- 
yards, and navy pay offices, of navy pension 
agents, paymasters, and quartermasters of the 
marine corps, and other disbursing agents for 
the Navy Department, and passes upon the cor 
rectness and legality of their receipts and expen 
ditures. All claims for pay, bounty, prize- 
money, traveling expenses, or other compensation 
for services in the navy and marine corps should 
be made to this office. All allowances by the 
Fourth Auditor are subject to revision by the 
Second Comptroller. An appeal may be taken 
to the Comptroller from an adverse decision of 
the Auditor, and the decision of the former is 
final, except with Congress and the United States 
courts. The Auditor is the custodian of all pay- 
and muster-rolls of officers, men, and mechanics 
on board ship or at navy-yards, from which the 
state of their accounts can be readily ascertained. 
He also preserves all vouchers for expenditures 
of money and stores ; the papers in claims of all 
characters ; and the original or copies of all let 
ters received or written. Records are kept of all 
accounts rendered to the office, and the amounts 
allowed and disallowed thereon ; of all claims re 
ceived, and the disposition thereof ; of all moneys 
drawn from or refunded to the Treasury by navy 
disbursing officers ; of all transfers of money, 
clothing, and small-stores between pay officers ; 
of the amount of money appropriated for each 
specific naval purpose and the expenditures there 
from; of prizes captured, the participants in the 
capture, and the amounts distributed to claim 
ants, and remaining unclaimed ; of all allot 
ments of pay, amount paid to each allottee, and 
amount deducted from the pay of each allottee ; 
and other records of the transactions of the office. 
It is the duty of the Auditor to prepare the ac 
counts of delinquent pay officers for suit on their 
official bonds, and transmit the same to the 
Solicitor of the Treasury. The Auditor has no 
power to compromise claims of the United States 
against its debtors. The office consists of the 
Auditor, Deputy Auditor, and about 40 clerks, 
and is organized in divisions, as follows : pay 
masters accounts, prize-money, general claims, 
navy pay accounts, bookkeeper s, records, and 
navy pensions. 

Auges. Apsides. 

Auget. A tube filled with powder for firing a 
mine. 

Augmentation of the Moon s Diameter. The 
increase in apparent diameter, due to an increase 
of elevation. 

Auk. A sea-bird of the Alca family. 

Aulin. An Arctic gull (Cata-ract.es parasiti- 
cus). It is called dirty aulin by the northern 
boatmen. 

Aumbrey. An old term for a bread and 
cheese locker. 

Aume. A Dutch measure for wine, contain 
ing 40 English gallons. 

Auriga. A northern constellation, popularly 
known as the "Wagoner." a Aurigce, Capella. 

Aurora. The goddess of morning. The faint 
light which precedes the rising of the sun. 

AURORA BOREALIS. The northern lights. A 
luminous meteoric phenomenon, supposed to be 



ATJSTEK 



55 



AWNING 



of electrical origin. This species of light usually 
appears in streams, ascending toward the zenith 
from a dusky bank, a few degrees above the north 
ern horizon. Sometimes it assumes a wavy ap 
pearance, arid is then called the merry -dancers, 
The streams assume a variety of colors, from 
pale yellow to blood-red. 

AURORA AUSTRALIS. The southern^ lights. 

Auster. The south wind of the ancients. 

Austral. Relating to the south. 

Australia. See CONTINENTS. 

Austral Signs. The last six of the zodiac. 

Austrian Navy. The geographical position 
of this immense empire renders it next to impos 
sible that it should either possess or require a 
large navy. When the territory extended over 
Lombardo-Venetia, the ports of Venice and 
Trieste were commanded by Austria, and the 
trade there carried on needed the protection of 
ships of war. But that extensive portion of the 
empire which was assigned to Austria by the 
treaty of Vienna, in the year 1815, was wrested 
from her in the year 1859, when France united 
with Sardinia to achieve the independence and 
unification of Italy under one monarch. Con 
sequently her maritime pqssessions have dwin 
dled to the Danube and the ports in Dalmatia, 
etc., and as the former has but one outlet to the 
Black Sea, which does not admit of vessels draw 
ing many feet of water, Austria needs not many 
ships of war to protect her commerce. At the 
present moment, therefore, she possesses but 47 
steamers and 17 ships of war, and as their united 
burden is only 93,270 tons, and they altogether 
mount no more than 365 guns, it may be con 
ceived that they are for the greater part very 
small vessels. The entire annual cost of the 
navy and the establishments connected with it is 
rather above ten millions of florins. The trade 
which the navy shelters is limited to 35 ports in 
the Littoral provinces, 54 in Dalmatia, and 11 in 
Croatia. 

Autan. Gusts of wind from the south 

Automatic Fire. An explosive mixture of 
the Greeks, compounded of equal parts of sul 
phur, saltpetre, and sulphide of antimony finely 
pulverized and mixed into a paste with equal 
parts of the juice of black sycamore and liquid 
asphaltum, a little quicklime being added. The 
rays of the sun would set it on fire. 

Autumn. The fall : the months of September, 
October, and November. 

AUTUMNAL EQUINOX. The time when the 
sun crosses the equator, moving south. 

AUTUMNAL POINT. That point on the ecliptic 
whence the sun descends southward. 

AUTUMNAL SIGNS. Libra, Scorpio, and Sa 
gittarius. 

Auxiliary Screw. A screw with which a full- 
rigged vessel is sometimes supplied, to be used in 
calms, working to windward, entering port, etc. 

Avast. Stop ; cease. From the Italian basta. 

Avenue. The inlet into a port. 

Average. A rule was established by the Rho- 
dian law, and has prevailed in every maritime 
nation, that where a loss has been sustained or 
an expense incurred, for the general safety of the 
ship and cargo, a contribution should be made, 
in proportion to their respective interests, by the 
owners of the ship, freight, and goods on board ; 
or, in modern times, by the insurer of these. To 
this contribution the name of general average is 



given. Personal property of the passengers, not 
carried for the purpose of traffic, is not liable for 
any share in this contribution. See JETTISON. 

PARTICULAR AVERAGE. The loss of an an 
chor, the leakage of a cask, the washing over 
board of goods, etc., where the common safety 
was not in question, and where there is, conse 
quently, no contribution. 

PETTY AVERAGES are pilotage, anchorage 
duty, etc. If these occur in the ordinary course 
of the voyage they are not loss, but simply a part 
of the expenses necessarily incurred. But if 
they have occurred under extraordinary circum 
stances, and for the purpose of avoiding imme 
diate danger, they are a loss, which is included in 
the general average, and covered by the contribu 
tion. 

AVERAGE BOND is a deed which parties liable 
to a general average are in the habit of execut 
ing, by which they empower an arbiter to value 
the property lost, and fix the proportion which 
shall be borne by each proprietor. 

AVERAGE ADJUSTER. A qualified person to 
adjust the loss, damage, and expense in conse 
quence of an accident or misfortune. 

AVERAGE AGREEMENT. A written document 
signed by the consignees of a cargo, binding 
themselves to pay a certain proportion of gen 
eral average that may arise against them. 

Avviso. An Italian advice-boat. 

Awaft, or Awhef t. The displaying of a stopped 
flag. 

Await, Lying in. In ambush for the purpose 
of cutting off passing vessels. 

Award. A judgment by arbitrators in mari 
time cases. 

A-wash. At the surface of the water. 

Away Off. At a distance, but in sight. 

AWAY SHE GOES! The cry when a vessel 
starts on the ways in launching. An order to 
walk away briskly with a tackle. 

AWAY THERE ! The call for a boat s crew to 
man their boat; as, away there, launches! 

AWAY WITH IT ! An order to walk away 
briskly with a tackle. 

A-weather. The position of the helm when 
the tiller is borne over to the weather side. 
When it is put over to the extreme limit it is 
hard a-weather. 

Aweigh. The position of the anchor just after 
breaking ground. 

Awkward Squad. A squad of raw recruits, 
or of men detailed for extra drill on account of 
their stupidity. 

Awning. A canvas covering spread over the 
deck of a vessel to protect the crew from the sun 
and weather. The forecastle awning extends 
from the foremast forward. The main-deck 
awning is spread between the foremast and the 
mainmast. The quarter-deck awning is spread 
between the main- and mizzen-masts, and the 
poop awning extends from the mizzen-mast aft. 

The back-bone is a rope stitched to the middle 
of the awning. It runs fore-and-aft, has a 
thimble in one end, and to the other is hooked 
the fore-and-aft tackle. The awning is hauled 
out at the corners by earings, and at the sides by 
stops and bull-earings. 

The ridge-rope is a rope fore-and-aft the ship on 
both sides, forming a straight line from stem to 
, stern, and is supported by the rigging and by 
I wooden or iron supports called stanchions. 



AX 



56 



AZUMBAL 



The sharks-mouth is an opening to accommo 
date the masts and stays abaft, and the dog-s-ear 
is one of the irregularly-shaped corners thus 
formed. The euphroe is a block of wood through 
which is rove a combination of small lines called 
a crowfoot. To this is hooked the crowfoot-hal 
liards. 

The lacing is the line which draws together 
the ends of adjoining awnings. 

AWNING- or SIDE-CURTAINS are strips of can 
vas set between the ridge-rope and the rail. 

To GET THE AWNING ON A STRETCH. To 
haul it taut between the masts. 

To SPREAD AN AWNING. To suspend it paral 
lel with the deck by means of the fore-and-aft 
tackle, earings, and side-stops. 

To HOUSE AN AWNING. To bring the edges 
close down to a housing-line near the deck, thus 
giving the canvas a greater angle and causing it 
to shed the water. 

To TRICE UP AN AWNING. To hook whips 
to the earings and edges and hoist it up to dry. 
The whips are sometimes hooked to the back 
bone. 

To FURL AN AWNING. To roll it up and pass 
stops around it. 

Ax. A tool for chopping wood. 
. BROAD-AX, a carpenter s tool. It has a wider 
and thinner blade and a shorter handle than the 
ordinary ax. 

BATTLE-AX. The ancient weapon had, some 
times, a double edge. The tool by this name 
now in use is simply a hatchet. 

Axis. A straight line passing through a body 
upon which it revolves, or may be supposed to 
revolve. 

Axis OF THE EARTH. That diameter upon 
which the earth rotates diurnally from west to 
east. In consequence of this rotation the earth 
has assumed its present form, an oblate sphe 
roid, being compressed at the extremities of the 
axis (the poles), and bulging in the regions most 
remote from thein(the equatorial). With refer 
ence to its extremities, the axis is called the 
Polar Diameter. 

Axis OF THE HEAVENS. That diameter about 
which the celestial concave appears to revolve 
diurnally from east to west. It passes through 
the observer s place"; and is parallel to the axis 
of the earth, with which it is generally consid 
ered coincident. 

Axle. The cross-piece of a gun-carriage, on 
the extremities of which the trucks revolve, which 
extremities are called the arms of the axle. 



Aye. Yes. Aye-aye, the response of com 
missioned officers, not commanding or flag- 
officers, to the hail of the sentry. Aye-aye, sir, 
the usual response to denote that an order is un 
derstood and will be obeyed. 

Aylet. The sea-swallow. 

Ayont. Beyond. 

Ayr. An open sea-beach. A bank of sand. 
The mediaeval term for oar. 

Ayt. See EYGHT. 

Azimuth. The arc of the horizon intercepted 
between the meridian of the place and a vertical 
circle passing through the centre of any body 
The magnetic azimuth is the arc of the horizon 
intercepted between the vertical circle and the 
magnetic meridian. The difference between the 
true and the magnetic azimuth is the variation of 
the compass. 

AZIMUTH CIRCLE, a vertical circle, or great 
circle passing through the zenith and nadir. 

AZIMUTH AND ALTITUDE. The horizon co-or 
dinates for defining points of the celestial con 
cave in its diurnal revolution relatively to the 
position of an observer on the earth s surface. 

AZIMUTH AND ALTITUDE INSTRUMENT. An 
instrument for taking azimuths and altitudes si 
multaneously. The telescope by which the ob 
servations are made is capable of motion in two 
planes at right angles to each other, and the 
amount of its angular motion in each is measured 
in two circles co-ordinate to each other, whose 
planes are parallel to those in which the tele 
scope moves. In the azimuth and altitude in 
strument one of these planes is horizontal, the 
other vertical. 

AZIMUTH, MOTION IN. An instrument is said 
to move "in azimuth" when it is turned on a 
vertical axis ; in contradistinction, it is said to 
move " in altitude" when it is turned on a hori 
zontal axis. An azimuth and altitude instru 
ment admits of both motions. 

AZIMUTH COMPASS. A compass specially 
adapted for observing bearings. 

AZIMUTH DIAGRAM, GODFRAY S. A diagram 
by means of which the true azimuth can be 
rapidly and simply obtained without calculation, 
the data being the latitude, the sun s declination, 
and the apparent time. The scale on which it is 
constructed gives the result to within one-eighth 
of a degree. 

Azogue. Quicksilver. A Spanish ship fitted 
expressly to carry quicksilver. 

Azumbal. A Spanish wine measure, eight of 
which make an arroba. 



B 



BACK-LASH 



B. 



B. Abbreviation for before in the U. S. 
General Service Code of Signals. In the log b 
denotes blue sky. 

Baard. A mediaeval transport. 

Baas. A Dutch skipper. 

Babbing. A method of catching crabs. 

Babbitt Metal. A soft alloy of copper, zinc, 
and tin, used for the bearing of journals to di 
minish friction. 

Bac. A French ferry-boat. A punt used by 
shipwrights for carrying tar, pitch, etc. 

A broad flat boat for transporting carriages, 
cattle, etc., over streams by means of a rope 
stretched across. 

Bacallao (Sp.). Newfoundland and adjacent 
islands. The name is also applied to the codfish 
salted in Newfoundland. 

Bache, Alexander Dallas, LL.D., A.A.S., 
physicist, born Philadelphia, Pa., July 19, 1806 ; 
died Newport, R, I., February 17, 1867. West 
Point, 1825. He was a great-grandson of Dr. 
Franklin, and his mother was ^,he daughter of 
A. J. Dallas. He was a lieutenant of engineers 
until his resignation, in 1829. Engaged in con 
structing Fort Adams and other works at the en 
trance of Narragansett Bay. From 1827 to 1832 
he was professor of mathematics in the University 
of Pennsylvania, and then took charge of the 
organization of Girard College, spending some 
time, in 1836, inspecting the great schools of 
Europe, publishing, upon his return, a valuable 
report on the subject. In 1839 he resigned his 
connection with this college, and became, in 1841, 
principal of the Philadelphia High School. In 
1843 he was appointed superintendent of the U. S. 
Coast Survey. Its valuable contributions to 
geodetic and physical science are found in the 
annual reports of the survey, and in the proceed 
ings of the Association for the Advancement of 
Science. He was one of the founders of the 
American Association for the Promotion of Sci 
ence, took a prominent part in founding the 
American Academy of Science, was made presi 
dent of the American Philosophical Society in 
1855, and was an active and efficient member of 
the United States Sanitary Commission through 
out the war of the Kebellion. The degree of 
LL.D. was conferred on him by the University 
of New York in 1836, by the University of Penn 
sylvania in 1837, and by Harvard University in 
1851. He was made a regent of the Smithsonian 
Institution in August, 1846. In 1833 he edited 
Brewster s " Optics," with notes. He published 
" Observations" at the observatory of Girard Col 
lege, 1840-45, 3 vols. 8vo, " Report of Experi 
ments to Navigate the Chesapeake and Delaware 
Canal by Steam," Philadelphia, 1834, and con 
tributed many valuable papers to the scientific 
journals of the day. 

Back, Sir George, born at Stockport, England, 
November 6, 1796. In the year 1819 this British 



naval officer accompanied Sir John Franklin on 
his first Arctic voyage. Fourteen j-ears later he 
was sent out on an expedition in search of Cap 
tain Boss, an Arctic navigator, and published an 
interesting account of his voyage. In 1839 he 
was knighted, and in 1867 he became an admiral. 

Back. The outside or convex part of compass- 
timber. The outermost board of a sawn tree. 

BACK OF A SHIP.. A figurative term for the 
keel and kelson. See BROKEN-BACKED. 

BACK OF THE POST. An additional timber 
bolted to the after part of the stern-post. 

To BACK AN ANCHOR. See ANCHOR. 

To BACK A SHIP AT ANCHOR. To keep the 
chain taut by hoisting the mizzen-topsail. If 
the wind falls she should be hove a-peak. 

To BACK A SAIL. To lay the yard so that 
the wind acts on the forward surface, and thus 
check or stop the headway. 

To BACK WATER. To row in a direction 
contrary to the usual mode, so as to give a boat 
stern way. 

To BACK THE PORT OR STARBOARD OARS. 
To back on one side and give way on the other, 
so as to round quickly. 

To BACK A ROPE OR CHAIN. To put on a 
preventer. 

To BACK THE WORMING. To fill the holidays 
between the worming and the rope, so as to give 
a smooth surface for the service. 

The wind is said to back when it changes di 
rection against the sun. 

To BACK AND FILL. A method of working 
to windward with a weather tide in a narrow 
channel. The main object is to keep the ship in 
mid-channel broadside on to the current. The 
yards are counterbraced, or the sails are kept 
shivering. The ship is kept well under control 
by bracing the yards and giving her the jib and 
spanker as circumstances demand. To attempt 
this manoeuvre a correct knowledge of the 
strength and set of the currents and the depth 
of the water is required. 

BACK HER ! The order to reverse the engine 
and give the vessel sternway. 

Back-board. A board across the stern-sheets 
of a boat to form the coxswain s box, and also to 
support the backs of the passengers. 

Back-bone. The fore-and-aft rope stitched 
to the midship part of an awning. 

Backer. A broad piece of sennit nailed around 
the yard inside of the sheave. It is fitted with 
an eye or a thimble, and the head-earing is rove 
through it. 

Back-frame. The vertical wheel which turns 
the whirlers of a rope-winch. 

Backing. The timber behind the armor-plates 
of a ship. See ARMOR. 

Back-lash. The reaction or striking back of 
the moving parts of machinery when the power 
is not uniform or the load is variable. 



BACK-O -BEYOND 



58 



BAGPIPE 



Back-o -beyond. Said of a great unknown 
distance. 

Back-observation. A name applied to an 
observation in which the greatest distance of the 
heavenly body from the horizon is measured. It 
is so called because the back of the observer is 
turned to the object when its altitude is taken. 

Back-pressure. The resistance of the atmos 
phere or waste steam to the piston. 

Back-rope. A rope which fits over the dol 
phin-striker with a cuckold s neck and sets up to 
the bows on each side. See GOB-LINE. 

Back-sight. The breech-sight of fire-arms. 

Back-staff. An old navigating instrument 
invented in 1590; so named because the back of 
the observer was turned to the heavenly body 
when its altitude was measured. See BACK-OB 
SERVATION. 

Backstays. Ropes which extend from all 
mast-heads except the lower to the ship s side 
or channels. 

STANDING BACKSTAYS set up well aft and 
support the masts when the wind is abaft the 
beam. 

BREAST-BACKSTAYS set up in the channels and 
support the masts when on the wind. They are 
not now in use. 

BEAR ABAFT THE BREAST-BACKSTAYS! An 
order to come up the breast-backstays and bear 
them abaft, in order that the yards may be braced 
sharp up. 

PREVENTER-BACKSTAYS. Additional supports 
to assist the backstays when carrying on. 

TRAVELING-BACKSTAYS are fitted with a trav 
eler, which moves up and down with the topsail- 
yard. The support is thus kept where it is most 
needed. They are not now in use. 

To BACKSTAY A YARD. To brace it up as far 
as the backstays will permit. 

Backstay-plates. Plates to which the back 
stays set up. 

Backstay-stools. Small detached channels 
fixed abaft the principal ones, to which the stand 
ing backstays set up. They are introduced in 
preference to extending the channels. 

Back-strapped. A ship with a wind fair, but 
so light as not to enable her to stem the current, 
is said to be back strapped. 

Back-sweep. That which forms the hollow 
of the top-timber of a frame. 

Back- wash. See WASH. 

Back-water. Water thrown back by the turn 
ing of a paddle-wheel or propeller. Water held 
by a dam or reservoir. The smooth water free 
from current in a small stream which runs into 
a large stream. It is caused by the rising of the 
water in the main stream. 

Baculite. A genus of fossil shells of a straight 
form, a little conical, and in their cellular struc 
ture resembling the ammonites. 

Badderlock. The Fucus esculentus, a kind 
of edible sea-weed. 

Badge, Good-conduct. Any enlisted man 
holding a continuous-service certificate, who is 
distinguished for obedience and sobriety, and is 
proficient in seamanship and gunnery, shall re 
ceive, upon the expiration of his enlistment, 
a good-conduct badge ; after he has received 
three such badges, under three consecutive re- 
enlistments, within three months from the dates 
of his discharge, he shall, if qualified, be enlisted 
as a petty officer, and hold a petty officer s rating 



during subsequent continuous re-enlistments ; 
and shall not be reduced to a lower rating except 
by sentence of a court-martial. 

Badge, Quarter. False quarter-galleries. A 
carved ornament on a vessel s quarter, contain 
ing a window or a representation of one. 

Badger. To worry ; to nag. 

Badger-bag. The burlesque Neptune, who 
boards the ship on crossing the line. 

Badger Whiskers. In 1841, Hon. George E. 
Badger, Secretary of the Navy, issued a general 
order regulating the uniform of the navy, in 
which was a clause requiring that no part of the 
beard should be worn long except the whiskers, 
and that they should not descend more than one 
inch below the tips of the ears, and thence in a 
line with the corners of the mouth. These were 
nicknamed " Badger Whiskers." Fashion, how 
ever, proved more powerful than the regulation, 
and the order was never fully enforced. 

Baessy. The old name of a gun, afterwards 
called base. 

Baffin, Wm., born in 1584. Engaged with Jas. 
Hall in Arctic investigations begun in 1612; 
this navigator discovered the gulf which commu 
nicates with the North Atlantic Ocean by Davis 
Strait, and he earned immortality by giving the 

fulf the name of Baffin s Bay, in 1016 ; was 
illed at the siege of Ormuz, May 23, 1622. 

Baffling. A light breeze, which is continually 
hauling and veering, is said to be baffling. 

Bag. A pouch or sack to hold or convey any 
thing. The bag in which the sailor s clothing is 
stowed is made of canvas painted black, with the 
owner s name and ship s number plainly sten 
ciled thereon. 

WHAT is THE NUMBER OF YOUR BAG ? 
Jack s facetious inquiry addressed to a comrade 
starting out on perilous duty from which he 
may never return. The saying originated from 
the habit seamen formerly had of going through 
a dead comrade s bag before his effects" could be 
sold at auction. 

DITTY-BAG. A small bag to hold sewing- 
gear, shaving-tackle, etc. 

MONK-BAG. A small purse, which sailors 
wear strung around their neck, to contain their 
valuables. So named from the habit monkeys 
have of stowing away food in their cheeks. 

BAG AND BAGGAGE. The whole movable 
property. 

BAG "OF THE HEAD-RAILS. The lowest part 
or sweep of the head-rails. 

To BAG ON A BOWLINE. To be leewardly. 
A sail is said to bag when, the leeches being 
taut, there is a great deal of slack canvas in the 
sail. Formerly sails were so cut intentionally, 
the idea being that they would catch more wind. 
Sails are now cut so as to set as flat as possible. 

Bagala. A two-masted Arab boat, used both 
for commerce and for piracy. They are from 50 
to 300 tons burden, and sail with great rapidity. 

Baggety. The lump or sea-owl (Cyclopterus 
turn pus). 

Baggonet. An old term for bayonet, and not 
a vulgarism. 

Baghela. A Muscat one-masted vessel, 200 to 
300 tons burden. 

Bag-net. A fishing-net shaped like a bag. 

Bagnio. A barrack for galley-slaves and 
convicts. 

Bagpipe. To bagpipe the mizzen is to lay it 



BAG-KEEF 



59 



BAINBRIDGE 



aback by bringing the sheet to the mizzen 
rigging. 

Bag-reef. The lower reef of fore-and-aft 
sails ; the upper reef of topsails. 

Bagrel. A minnow or baggie. 

Baguio. A rare but very violent wind among 
the Philippine Islands. 

Bahar. A weight used in the East Indies, 
varying considerably in different localities, ran 
ging from 223 to 625 pounds. 

Bahia. A city and seaport of Brazil, situated 
in an elevated position on the strip of land form 
ing the E. side of the entrance to All-Saints Bay, 
immediately within Cape San Antonio, on which 
is a revolving light 140 feet above sea-level ; in lat. 
13 42" S., Ion. 38 31 42" W. It is 800 miles 
N.N.E. of Kio de Janeiro. 

The harbor is one of the best in America, and 
is suitable for vessels of any size. The commerce 
consists chiefly in the export of sugar, cotton, to 
bacco, coffee, etc. The whale-fisheries of this city 
were once the greatest in the world, and large 
numbers of whales are still caught in the neigh 
boring waters. Pop. 140,000. 

Baidar. An Arctic canoe used for pursuing 
otters and even whales. It consists of a frame 
18 to 25 feet long, covered with hides, and is 
impelled by 6 to 12 paddles. 

Baikie. A name for the Larus marinus, or 
black-backed gull. 

Bail. A surety. The cargo of a captured or 
detained vessel is not allowed to be taken on bail 
before adjudication except by mutual consent. 
To lade water out of a ship or boat with buckets 
(which were of old called bayles), cans, or the 
like. 

Bail-bond. The obligation entered into by 
sureties. In prize matters the bail-bond is not 
a mere personal security given to the individual 
captors, but an assurance to abide by the adjudi 
cation of the court. 

Bailey, Theodorus, Rear-Admiral U.S.N. 
Born in New York, and appointed midshipman 
from that State, January 1, 1818. Commissioned 
as lieutenant, March 3, 1827 ; receiving-ship, at 
New York, 1829; sloop " Vincennes/ Pacific 
Squadron, 1834-36; special duty, 1837; navy- 
yard, New York, 1840; frigate "Constellation," 
East India Squadron, 1843; rendezvous, New 
York, 1846; commanding store-ship "Lexing 
ton," 1847-48. While in command of the store- 
ship "Lexington," during the Mexican war, 
rendered eificient and valuable aid to the com 
mander of the Pacific Squadron by his energy, 
enterprise, and gallantry in fitting out and lead 
ing numerous expeditions against the enemy. 

Commissioned as commander, March 6, 1849 ; 
commissioned as captain, December 15, 1855 ; 
commanding sloop-of-war "St. Mary s," 1856- 
57; commanded frigate "Colorado," Western 
Gulf Blockading Squadron, 1861-62. 

Captain Bailey was Farragut s second in com 
mand in the battle at New Orleans, and led the 
attack and passage of the forts. He was officially 
commended by Admiral Farragut for his bravery 
and ability, and further complimented by being 
sent to Washington as the bearer of dispatches, 
announcing the victory. Commissioned as com 
modore, July 16, 1862. 

Commodore Bailey, although his health was 
seriously impaired, asked for active duty, and in 
the fall of 1862 was ordered to command the 



Eastern Gulf Blockading Squadron, where he 
displayed great energy and perseverance in his 
successful attempt to break up blockade-running 
on the Florida coast. Commandant Portsmouth 
navy-yard, 1865-67. 

Commissioned as rear-admiral, July 25, 1866. 
On special duty at Washington, D. C., 1867-70 
Died 1876. 

Bails. The frame which supports the canopy 
spread over the stern-sheets of a boat. 

Bainbridge, William, Commodore U.S.N. 
Born in Princeton, N. J., May 7, 1774; was the 
son of Dr. Absalom Bainbridge, a leading phy 
sician of New York. His maternal grandfather 
was John Taylor, Lord High Commissioner of 
New Jersey under the crown. Bainbridge made 
his first cruise in the frigate "Alliance," then 
sold out of the navy and engaged in the India 
trade. When 18, he sailed as first mate of a ves 
sel, and when 19, was made her commander. 
Appointed a lieutenant-commandant in the navy 
in 1798, and given command of the " Retalia- 
tion," 14. Captured off Guadaloupe by the 
French frigates " Insurgente" and " Le Volon- 
tier." Promoted to master commandant and 
given command of the "Norfolk," 18. Cap 
tured several French privateers. Promoted to 
captain in 1800, when 26 years old. Took the 
"George Washington," 28, to Constantinople 
with tribute-money from the Dey of Algiers, 
and was the first to show our flag in Turkey. 
Commanded next the " Essex," 32, in the Medi* 
terranean. Next took command of the " Phila 
delphia," 38, joining the squadron of Commodore 
Preble. Captured "the Moorish pirate " Mesh- 
boha," 22. While blockading Tripoli harbor, 
October 31, 1803, the "Philadelphia" grounded 
on a reef not laid down in the chart, and the 
vessel was captured by the Tripolitans, her com 
mander, officers, and crew suffering imprison 
ment until the end of the Tripolitan war, June, 
1805. Made several cruises in the merchant ser 
vice during the peace that followed. In Decem 
ber, 1808, hoisted his broad-pennant in the 
"President," 44, remaining in her until May, 
1810. Sailed again in the merchant service until 
1812, when war with England became imminent. 
It was the temper of the government to lay up 
our navy during this war, but by the earnest 
protest of Bainbridge and Stewart this terrible 
blunder was avoided. Commanded the Charles- 
town navy-yard until the declaration of war, 
June 18/1812. He relieved Hull in command 
of the "Constitution," 44, September 15, 1812. 
Ran down the coast of Brazil, and when in lat. 
13 Q / S. and Ion. 31 W., she fell in with and 
captured the English frigate "Java," 38. The 
" Constitution" went into action and came out 
with royal yards across, and without losing a 
spar. The "Java" was reduced to a mastless 
wreck, too much injured to be taken into port. 
The " Constitution" had 9 killedand 25 wounded. 
Bainbridge was seriously shot with a musket- 
ball, and^hurt by a splinter from the wheel. The 
" Java" had 124 killed and wounded. Her cap 
tain Lambert was fatally injured. Among 
the prisoners taken was Lieutenant-General 
Hislop, bound to Bombay as governor. Men and 
officers were released on parole at San Salvador. 
Reached Boston February 27, 1813, Bainbridge 
relinquishing her command. For this action he 
received a gold medal from Congress. Com- 



BAIT 60 

.- 

manded the Charlestown navy-yard until the 
end of the war. Commanded the Mediterranean 
Squadron in 1815, his flag-ship being the " In 
dependence," 74, and again in 1819, his flag-ship 
in this instance being the " Columbus," 80. Re 
turned home in 1821, and was made a navy com 
missioner. Commanded the Philadelphia navy- 
yard. Died in Philadelphia, July 28, 1833, 
aged 59 years and 3 months. He married Susan 
Heyliger, granddaughter of Captain-General 
Heyliger, governor of the Dutch West Indies. 
His youngest daughter married Rear-Admiral 
Henry Kuhn Hoff, of the navy, and his grand 
son, William Bainbridge Hoff, is still in the 
service. Wm. Bainbridge Hoff, Lieutenant- Com 
mander U.S.N. 

Bait. The charge of a hook to allure fish. 

Baitland. An old word used to signify a port 
where refreshments could be procured. 

Bala-chong. A kind of cake formed of small 
fishes pounded up with salt and spices and then 
dried. It is much esteemed in China as a condi 
ment for rice, etc. 

Balsena. The zoological name for the right 
whale. 

Balaklava. A town of Russia, in the Crimea, 
on the Black Sea. Lat. 44 29 N. ; Ion. 33 34 
40 /x E. It has an excellent port. Pop. 742. 

Balance. To contract a sail into a narrower 
compass ; this is peculiar to the mizzen of a ship, 
and to the mainsail of those vessels wherein it is 
extended by a boom. The operation of bal 
ancing the mizzen is performed by lowering the 
yard or gaff a little, then rolling up a small por 
tion of the sail at the peak or upper corner, and 
lashing it about one-fifth down towards the mast. 
A boom mainsail is balanced by rolling up a 
portion of the clew, or lower aftermost corner, 
and fastening it strongly to the boom. 

Balance-fish. The hammer - headed shark 
(which see). 

Balance-frames. Those frames or bends of 
timber, of an equal capacity or area, which are 
equally distant from the ship s centre of grav 
ity. 

Balance of Power. An expression used in 
diplomacy for that state of matters in which no 
one of the European states is permitted to have 
such a preponderance as to endanger the inde 
pendence of the others. 

Balance of Trade. The term commonly used 
to express the difference between the value of the 
exports from, and the imports into, a county. 
The balance is said to be favorable when the 
value of the exports exceeds that of the imports, 
and unfavorable when the value of the imports 
exceeds that of the exports. 

Balance-reef. To balance-reef a sail is to re 
duce it to its last reef, generally applied to fore- 
and-aft sails. 

Balance-reef-band. A reef-band that crosses 
a spanker or trysail from the head-earing to the 
tack diagonally, making it nearly triangular, and 
is used to contract it in very blowing weather. 
A balance-reef-band is generally placed in all 
gaff-sails ; the band runs from the throat to the 
clew, so that it may be reefed either way, by 
lacing the foot or lower half; or by lacing the 
gaff dropped to the band : the latter is only done 
in the worst weather. 

Balance, Steam. The ordinary safety-valve 
(which see). 



BALCH 

Balancing-point. A familiar term for centre 
of gravity. 

Balandra. A Spanish pleasure-boat. A 
lighter, a species of schooner. 

Balanus. The acorn-shell. A sessile cirriped. 

Balcar, or Balcor. See BALKAR. 

Balch, George B., Rear-Admiral U.S.N. 
Born in Tennessee, January 3, 1821. Appointed 
from Alabama, December 30, 1837 ; attached to 
sloop "Cyane," Pacific Squadron, 1840; Naval 
School, Philadelphia, 1843. 

Promoted to passed midshipman, June 29, 
1843; special duty, 1845; in war with Mexico, 
November 1, 1846, engaged in first attack on 
Alvarado by squadron under Commodore Con 
nor ; engaged in active operations from Ma} , 
1846, to surrender of Vera Cruz, March, 1847; 
in Mosquito Fleet, under Commodore Tatnall, 
covered the landing of the army under General 
Scott, March 9, 1847 ; at the time acting master 
of the "Falcon" ; March, 1847, engaged in the 
joint bombardment of Vera Cruz with the army, 
and was present at the surrender of that city and 
the Castle of San Juan d Ulloa to the military 
and naval forces; steamer "Princeton," Medi 
terranean Squadron, 1847-48 ; Naval Observa 
tory, Washington, 1849-50. 

Commissioned as lieutenant, August 16,1850; 
sloop "Plymouth," Pacific Squadron, 1851-54; 
while in the " Plymouth," Lieutenant Balch, in 
command of the advance post at Shanghai, 
China, was wounded in the hip in a fight be 
tween the rebels and Imperialists ; nav} 7 -yard, 
Washington, 1855-57; sloop "Jamestown," 
Home Squadron, 1857-58; sloop "St. Mary s," 
Pacific Squadron, 1858-59; frigate "Sabine," 
1860; while in the " Sabine," fell in with the 
transport "Governor" and rescued nearly 400 
marines, under Lieutenant-Colonel Reynolds, 
the transport sinking under the " Sabine s" stern, 
November 24, 1861 ; in command of steamer 
" Pocahontas," South Atlantic Squadron, 1861- 
62; volunteered for command of boats in taking 
possession of Tybee Island, December 26, 1861. 

Commissioned as commander, July 16, 1862 ; 
engaged rebel battery at Stono, South Carolina; 
in August, 1862, ascended Black River the dis 
tance of seventy-five miles, and drove rebel bat 
tery from earth-works, and engaged rebel infantry 
on the bluffs ; commanding steamer " Pawnee," 
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, 1863-65; 
July 16, 1863, was attacked by two batteries, the 
rebels making a simultaneous attack on General 
Terry s forces. They were repulsed, and Com 
mander Balch was informed by General Terry 
that he had saved his command. The " Paw 
nee" was struck forty-six times. On December 
25, 1863, the " Marblehead" was opened on by 
rebel batteries ; the " Pawnee" took an enfilading 
position in the Keowah River, and demoralized 
the enemy and caused him to retreat ; afterward 
captured two rebel guns. While in command 
of the "Pawnee," Commander Balch engaged 
in the combined operations of the naval forces 
under Rear-Admiral Dahlgren, and the army 
under General Foster, in Stono River, South 
Carolina r from July 3 to 11, 1864, and particu 
larly in the bombardment of Battery Pringle, on 
James Island, South Carolina. On February 9, 
1865, having with him the " Sonoma" and " Daf 
fodil," he ascended the Togoda Creek, North 
Edisto, South Carolina, and engaged three rebel 



BALCONY 



61 



BALLAST 



batteries of eleven or twelve guns, driving the 
rebels from their earth- works. The u Pawnee" 
was hit ten times, the "Sonoma" twice, and 
the " Daffodil" twice ; navy-yard, Washington, 
1866-68. 

Commissioned as captain, July 25, 1866 ; 
commanding flag-ship "Albany," N^ Atlantic 
Squadron, 1868-69; navigation duty, Washing 
ton, 1870-71 ; navy-yard, Washington, 1872. 

Commissioned as commodore, August 13, 
1872 ; Governor Naval Asylum, Philadelphia, 
1873-76 ; member Light-House Board, 1877-78.; 
promoted to rear-admiral, 1878 ; superintendent 
of Naval Academy, 1879-80. 

Balcony. The projecting open galleries of 
old line-of-battle ships sterns. 

Baldrick. A leathern girdle or sword-belt. 
Also the zodiac. 

Baldwin, Charles H., Commodore U.S.N. 
Born in New York, September 3, 1822. Ap 
pointed from New York, April 24, 1839; at 
tached to frigate " Brandywine," Mediterranean 
Squadron, 1839-40; sloop "Fairfield," Mediter 
ranean Squadron, 1840-43; sloop "Vandalia," 
1843-44; Naval School, Philadelphia, 1844-45. 

Promoted to passed midshipman, July 2, 
1845; frigate "Congress," Pacific Squadron, 
1845-49 ; war with Mexico ; operations in the 
neighborhood of Mazatlan during the time that 
place was in possession of the United States naval 
forces, from November, 1847, to June, 1848 ; two 
engagements with the enemy. 

Commissioned as lieutenant, November, 1853; 
resigned, February 28, 1854 ; re-entered the ser 
vice as lieutenant, 1861 ; commanded steamer 
" Clifton" at the passage of Forts Jackson and 
St. Philip, and capture of New Orleans, also at 
first attack on Vicksburg, 1862. 

Commissioned as commander, November 18, 
1862; commanding steamer " Vanderbilt" ; 
special service, 1863-64 ; ordnance duty, Mare 
Island navy-yard, California, 1864-67 ; fleet- 
captain, North Pacific Squadron, 1868-69. 

Commissioned as captain, 1869 ; Inspector of 
Ordnance, Mare Island, California, 1869-71 ; 
commanding " Colorado," Asiatic Squadron, 
1871-73; commanding naval rendezvous, San 
Francisco, 1873. 

Commissioned as commodore, August 8, 1876 ; 
member Board of Examiners, 1876-79. 

Bale. A pack or bundle. 

BALE-GOODS. Goods or merchandise done up 
in bales. 

Baleen. The scientific term for the whale 
bone of commerce, derived from balcena, a 
whale. It consists of a series of long horny 
plates growing from each side of the palate in 
place of teeth. These plates are 10 to 15 feet in 
length, and about a foot in width at the base. 

Bale-fire. A beacon-fire. 

Balenot. A porpoise or small whale, which 
frequents the river St. Lawrence. 

Balestilha. The cross-staff of the early Por 
tuguese navigators. 

Balinger, or Balangha. A kind of small 
sloop or barge ; small vessels of war, formerly 
without forecastles. A trading-boat of the Phil 
ippines and Moluccas. 

Balistes. A genus of ganoid fishes, charac 
terized by their solid coat of mail extending over 
the head as well as the body. Commonly called 
trigger-fish. 



Balit. A one-masted vessel of Muscat, from 
100 to 200 tons burden. 

Balize is on the Bay of Honduras, at the 
mouth of the river Balize. Lat. 17 29 18" 
N. ; Ion. 88 12 W. The anchorage is safe and 
the harbor spacious. The chief trade is in ma 
hogany. Exports and imports about $1,000,000 
per annum. Pop. 4000. 

Balk. Young trees felled and squared. A 
beam of timber used for temporary purposes, and 
under eight inches square. Timbers, squared, of 
any size, intended for planks, or, when very 
large, for booms or rafts. 

Balkar. A man placed on an eminence to 
watch the movements of shoals of fish. In 
early statutes he is called balcor. 

Ball. A round body or globe. A solid shot 
or bullet discharged from a cannon or other 
gun. Formerly the word ball in its military 
sense sufficiently described the projectiles of fire 
arms, as nothing but round solid substances, such 
as stone, iron, or lead, were so employed. With 
the introduction of the mortar, however, which 
was probably not long after the invention of can 
non, irregularly-shaped pieces of stone or metal 
came to be used, and at the siege of Naples by 
Charles VIII. , in 1435, we first hear of shells or 
hollow shot being used. The word, therefore, as 
applied to the projectiles of fire-arms is not now 
inclusive of all the projectiles used, but only of a 
class. See BULLET, SHELL, SHOT. 

Ball, with a prefix more or less descriptive of 
its purposes, such as fire-ball, stink-ball, etc. 
(for which see separate headings), denotes pyro- 
technical compositions, or missiles filled with 
mal-odorous matter. 

BALL AND SOCKET. A joint, of which the 
inner part is formed like a ball and the outer 
part is a hollow socket, inclosing the greater 
portion of the ball, and fitting close upon it, but 
allowing freedom of motion in every direction. 

To BALL OFF. To wind up into a ball ; as, 
rope-yarns. 

Ballahou. A fast-sailing schooner, common 
in Bermuda and the West Indies. The foremast 
rakes forward and the mainmast aft ; hence the 
term ballahou is sometimes applied to men-of- 
war in which the masts are not kept properly 
stayed, or which are slovenly in other respects. 

Ballarag. See BULLYRA G. 

Ballast. A heavy substance employed to give 
a ship sufficient hold on the water to give her 
stability. The amount of ballast depends not 
only on the ship s size and cargo, but also on 
her build. It is not merely the weight of ballast 
which the mariner has to consider ; he is re 
quired to take into account its distribution. 
To ballast a ship is the act of disposing the bal 
last so that the ship will maintain her proper 
equilibrium, and be neither too stiff nor too 
crank. If she be too stiff she will sail sluggishly, 
and her masts will be endangered by her violent 
rolling. If she be too crank she will be unable 
to carry sail without the danger of capsizing. 
Stiffness is occasioned by stowing the ballast well 
down, which brings the centre of gravity very 
near the keel. Crankness, on the other hand, is 
occasioned by raising the centre of gravity too 

The object, therefore, is to so place the ballast, 
neither too high nor too low, neither too near 
the head nor too far aft, that the ship may be 



BALL AST AGE 



BALTHEUS 



brought down so that the surface of the water 
will be brought nearly to the extreme breadth 
amidships. 

The cargo and ballast are considered together, 
the quantity and distribution of the latter being 
made dependent upon the former. In a man-of- 
war the ballast is permanent, and is made sub 
servient to the guns and other top-weights she is 
required to carry. The substances used as bal 
last are various, chiefly iron, stone, gravel, sand, 
mud, and water. 

A ship is said to be in ballast when she carries 
no weight except the ballast, crew, passengers, 
provisions for, and baggage of, crew and pas 
sengers. 

To LOSE ONE S BALLAST is to become top- 
heavy from conceit. 

To HEAVE or SHOOT BALLAST is to dump 
mud or gravel ballast overboard. In order to 
prevent the filling up of harbors and channels 
certain regulations have been made at most 
maritime places for the disposal of ballast. The 
ballast is said to shift when from violent rolling 
it is removed from its original position. 

BAG-WATER BALLAST is contained in water 
proof bags laid upon the floor of a vessel, and tilled 
or emptied by means of a pump and hose. 

BOTTOM-WATER BALLAST is confined beneath 
a false bottom in the vessel. 

HOLD- WATER BALLAST is contained in a large 
receptacle, which may be filled with cargo when 
the ship is not in ballast. 

PIG-IRON BALLAST is supplied to men-of-war. 
It has the great advantage of taking up but little 
space. 

SHINGLE BALLAST is composed of coarse 
gravel. 

TANK-WATER BALLAST is contained in two 
fore-and-aft tanks, which can be easily filled and 
emptied by means of a pump. 

Ballastage. A duty paid for taking up 
ballast from a port. 

Ballast-basket. A basket made of osier for 
the measure and transport of ballast. 

Ballast-lighter. A large flat-floored barge, 
for heaving up and carrying ballast. 

Ballast-mark. The horizontal line described 
by the surface of the water on the body of a ship, 
when she is immersed with her usual weight of 
ballast on board. 

Ballast-master. A person appointed to see 
the port-regulations in respect to ballast carried 
out. 

Ballast-ports. Square holes cut in the sides 
of merchantmen for taking in ballast. 

Ballast-trim. Trim when in ballast. 

Ballatoon. A sort of long heavy luggage- 
vessel of upwards of a hundred tons, employed on 
the river between Moscow and the Caspian Sea. 

Ball-cartridge. See CARTRIDGE. 

Ball-clay. Stiff clay brought up by the flukes 
of the anchor. 

Ballistic Pendulum. An instrument invented 
by Robins for measuring the force or velocity of 
cannon- and musket-balls. To one extremity of 
an iron bar was fixed a heavy cubical block of 
wood, lined at the back with iron. A transverse 
bar of iron at the other extremity of the first 
bar served as an axis of suspension, in which the 
pendulum swung freely, backwards and forwards. 
In order to measure the extent of the vibration 
which the pendulum made after receiving the 



impact of the projectile, a ribbon was attached 
to the lower end of the pendulum, passing loosely 
through an orifice in a horizontal bar in the 
frame-work ; when the pendulum was raised it 
drew the ribbon along with it, and the quantity 
which thus passed through the orifice measured 
the chord of the arc of vibration. The instru 
ment now used consists of a case or mortar of 
cast iron, partly filled with sand-bags or block- 
lead, suspended by wrought-iron bars from an 
axis working on knife-edges on V-supports, and 
the arc of vibration is measured on a copper arc 
by an index carrying a vernier. If such a pen 
dulum, when at rest, be struck by a body of a 
known weight, and the vibration which the pen 
dulum makes after the blow be known, the ve 
locity of the striking body may thence be deter 
mined. The quantity of motion of the projectile 
before impact is equal to that of the pendulum 
and projectile after impact. See ELECTRO-BAL 
LISTICS, GUN PENDULUM. 

Ballistics. The art or science of throwing 
weapons by means of engines. 

Balloen. A Siamese state-galley built to 
imitate a sea-monster, and pulling seventy to 
a hundred oars of a side. 

Ballon. A brigantine-rigged vessel used in 
Siam, and made of a single tree. 

Balloon. A bag of silk or other fabric filled 
with gas specifically lighter than the atmos 
phere, and hence deriving a tendency to ascend. 

Balloon-fish. A fish of the genus Diodon, 
having the power of inflating its body until it 
becomes almost globular. 

Balloon -jib. See JIB. 

Ballot. To bound from side to side; as, a 
shot in the bore of a gun. 

Ballow. Deep water inside a shoal or bar. 

Bally. A Teutonic word for inclosure, now 
prefixed to many seaports in Ireland, as Bally- 
castle, Ballyhaven, etc. 

Balsa (Sp.). 1. A pool; a lake. 2. A raft, 
or float, for conveying goods or persons across a 
river. It seems probable that the original sig 
nification of a pool or lake was converted into 
the means employed to cross lakes or rivers. On 
the west coast of South America balsas are made 
of bullocks hides sewn together over a frame 
work in two cylinders joined together, not un 
like in form to the jaw-bone of a horse. An 
other kind of balsa is made of several pieces of 
an extremely light wood, sharpened at the ends 
and lashed together, with transverse slats to hold 
them singly in position. Both these means were 
employed centuries ago for landing in the surf. 
The same primitive arrangement of the second 
kind, using a sail, is the fishing-boat met far out 
of sight of land on the coast of Brazil. The 
general acceptation of the word on this con 
tinent is either two or more inflated bags of 
india-rubber, or long casks of metal or wood 
secured together in " pairs, held some distance 
apart by a frame-work, or logs of light wood 
held together as before described, usually em 
ployed where the eurf is heavy. 3. Any form 
of flotation capable of propulsion not designed 
for temporary use, differing from a raft in that 
the latter is a mere temporary expedient. See 
LIFE-BOATS and LIFP>RAFTS. Daniel Ammen, 
Rear- Admiral U.S.N. 

Baltheus Orionis. The three bright stars 
constituting Orion s Belt. 



BALTIMOKE 



63 



BANKSAL 



Baltimore, a city and port of entry of Mary 
land, is on the estuary of the Patapsco River, 12 
miles from its entrance into Chesapeake Bay, 
and 250 miles by ship-channel from the sea. 
Lat. 39 17 N. ; Ion. 76 37 / W. The harbor 
is spacious and secure. The facilities for the 
transfer of freight from the railways to the ship 
ping are excellent, and in recent years Che city 
has become one of the leading places of export 
in the United States. Steamship lines connect 
it with Liverpool, Bremen, and the principal 
domestic ports. Pop. 330,000. 

Balusters. The ornamental pillars of the 
balconies or galleries of ships. 

Bamba. A commercial shell of value on the 
Gold Coast of Africa. 

Bamboo. A plant of the family of grasses, 
and genus Bambusa, growing in tropical coun 
tries. Bamboo arundlnacea has a round, straight, 
hollow, woody, jointed stem ; it grows to the 
height of forty feet and upward. Old stalks are 
five or six inches in diameter, and are so hard 
and durable that they are used in the manufac 
ture of agricultural implements, and in building 
houses and ships. Bamboo is in general use in 
China for masts of junks, hence the pidgin-Eng 
lish expressions, "two piecee bamboo" and 
" three piecee bamboo" for brig-rigged and full- 
rigged vessels. 

Bamboozle. To deceive ; to play low tricks 
upon. To decoy the enemy by hoisting false 
colors. 

Banana. A species of the genus Musa and 
its fruit. 

Band. An iron hoop around a mast or yard. 
A company of musicians allowed to a ship or 
navy-yard. See REEF-BAND, ROBAND. 

BANDSMAN. A member of the band. 

MASTER OF THE BAND. The leader of the 
band. 

Bandage. A fillet, roller, or swath used in 
dressing wounds. 

Bandala. The fibre from which the Manilla 
white rope is made. It is an outer layer of the 
abaca, a variety of the plantain. See ROPE. 

Bandaleer, or Bandoleer. A large leathern 
belt thrown over the right shoulder and dangling 
under the left arm, worn by ancient musketeers 
for sustaining their musket. A small leather 
case, of which every musketeer wore twelve, sus 
pended by a belt. 

Banded-drum. See GRUNTER. 

Banderole. A small streamer or banner car 
ried at the mast-head of a vessel, or at the end of 
a pike or lance. 

Band-fish, or Ribbon-fish. A popular name 
of the Gymnetrus genus. 

Bandle. An Irish measure of two feet. 

Bang. An astringent and narcotic drug made 
from the large leaves and capsules of the wild 
hemp (Cannabis Indica}. A mixture of opium, 
hemp-leaves, and tobacco, of an intoxicating 
quality, chewed and smoked by the Malays and 
other people in the East. 

Bange. Light, fine rain. 

Bangkok, capital of Siam, on the Menam, 20 
miles from its mouth. Lat. 13 38 N. ; Ion. 100 
34 E. Steamers ply hence to Singapore and 
Hong Kong. Value of exports in 1877, $8,200,000; 
of imports, $7,500,000. Vessels of 250 tons come 
up to the town. Pop. 500,000. 

Bangles. The hoops of a spar. The rings on 



the wrists and ankles of Oriental people, chiefly 
worn by females. 

Bangor. A city and port of entry in Maine, 
on the right bank of the Penobscot River, about 
60 miles from the ocean. Lat. 44 48 N. ; Ion. 
68 47 W. It is the head of navigation on the 
Penobscot River, which traverses extensive forests 
of pine, cedar, etc. The average quantity of 
lumber shipped annually from Bangor is about 
200,000,000 feet. Pop. about 23,000. 

Banian. A sailor s colored frock. 

Banian-, or Banyan- days. A cant term among 
sailors to denote those days on which meat does 
not form a part of the ration. The term is de 
rived from a religious sect in the East who never 
eat flesh. 

Banian-, or Banyan-tree. The India fig-tree 
(Ficus Indica). The tendrils from the branches 
take root on reaching the ground, and form new 
stocks, till they cover a space of an acre or more. 
Religious rites, from which women are excluded, 
are there performed. 

Banjo. The brass frame in which a screw- 
propeller is hung. 

Bank. The border or margin of a river or 
lake. A shoal composed of sand, mud, or gravel. 
A seat or bench for rowers in a galley. The ,com- 
mon galleys had 25 banks on each side, with one 
oar to each bank, and four men to each oar. The 
galeasses had 32 banks on a side, and six or seven 
rowers to each bank. See GALLEY. 

To DOUBLE-BANK AN OAR is to set two men 
to pulling one oar. 

A SINGLE-BANKED BOAT is one in which a 
thwart is occupied by one man. 

A DOUBLE-BANKED BOAT is one in which two 
rowers sit on the same thwart. 

Banka. A canoe of the Philippines consisting 
of a single piece. 

Banker. A vessel engaged in the cod-fishery 
on the banks of Newfoundland. 

Bankerk, Joseph van Trappen. A Dutch 
admiral, born at Flushing about 1590; fought in 
the battle of Dunkirk, and defeated the Portu 
guese fleet near Brazil in 1647. Died on his 
voyage home the same year. 

Bank Fires. To allow the fires in the furnace 
to burn down low, and then cut off the supply 
of oxygen by covering the fires with ashes and 
closing the doors of the furnace and ash-pit. By 
this means fuel will be saved, and in an emer 
gency fires can be spread and steam generated 
with great rapidity. 

Bank-harbor. A harbor protected from the 
violence of the sea by banks of sand, mud, or 
gravel. 

Bankhead, John Pine, Captain U.S. N. Born 
in South Carolina, August 3, 1821. Entered as a 
midshipman August 6, 1838, became a passed 
midshipman in 1844, a lieutenant in 1852, a com 
mander in 1862, and a captain in 1866. Died 
at Aden, Arabia, April 27, 1869. In command 
of the gunboat "Pembina," November 7, 1861, 
at the battle of Port Royal, and subsequent 
operations on the coast of South Carolina. In 
command of the original ""Monitor" when she 
foundered off Cape Hatteras, December 31, 1863. 

Bank-hook. A large fish-hook laid baited in 
running water with line attached to the bank. 

Banking. A general term applied to fishing 
on the great bank of Newfoundland. 

Banksal, or Banksaul, and in Calcutta spelled 



BANNAG 



64 



BARK 



bankshall. A shop, office, or other place, for 
transacting business. A square inclosure at the 
pearl-fishery. A beach store-house wherein ships 
deposit their rigging and furniture while under 
going repair. A place where small commercial 
courts and arbitrations are held. 

Bannag. A name for a white trout ; a sea- 
trout. 

Bannak-fluke. A name of the turbot, as dis 
tinguished from the halibut. 

Banner. A small square flag edged with fringe. 

Bannerol. A little banner or streamer. 

Bannock. A name given to a certain hard 
ship-biscuit. 

Banstickle. A diminutive fish, called also 
the three-spined stickle-back (Gasterosteus acu- 
leatus). 

Baptism. A ceremony practiced on sailors 
and passengers on their first crossing the equator : 
a riotous and ludicrous custom, which from the 
violence of its ducking, shaving, and other prac 
tical jokes, is becoming annually less in vogue. 
It is esteemed a usurpation of privilege to bap 
tize on crossing the tropics. 

Bar. A boom formed of huge trees, or spars 
lashed together, moored transversely across a 
port, to prevent entrance or egress. The short 
bits of bar-iron, about half a pound each, used as 
the medium of traffic on the Negro coast. An 
accumulated shoal or bank of sand, shingle, 
gravel, or other uliginous substances, thrown up 
by the sea to the mouth of a river or harbor. 
The shore on which the deposition of sediment 
is taking place will be flat, whilst the opposite 
one is steep. It is along the side of the latter that 
the deepest channel of the river lies ; and in the 
line of this channel, but without the points that 
form the mouth of the river, will be the bar. If 
both the shores are of the same nature, which 
seldom happens, the bar will lie opposite the 
middle of the channel. Rivers in general have 
what may be deemed a bar, although it may not 
rise high enough to impede the navigation, for 
the increased deposition that takes place when 
the current slackens must necessarily form a 
bank. Bars of small rivers may be deepened by 
means of stockades to confine the river cur 
rent, and prolong it beyond the natural points 
of the river s mouth ; they operate to remove the 
place of deposition farther out, and into deeper 
water. Bars, however, act as breakwaters in 
most instances, and consequently secure smooth 
water within them. The deposit in all curvilin 
ear or serpentine rivers will always be found at 
the point opposite to the curve into which the 
ebb strikes and rebounds, deepening the hollow 
and depositing on the tongue. Therefore if it 
be deemed advisable to change the position of a 
bar, it may in some cases be aided by works 
projected on the last curve seaward. By such 
means a parallel canal may be formed which will 
admit vessels under the cover of the bar. 

BAR-HARBOR. One which from a bar at its 
entrance cannot admit ships of great draft, or 
can only do so at high water. Bar-shallow, 
a term sometimes applied to a portion of a bar 
which has less water on it than other parts of the 
bar. 

Baracoota. A tropical fish (Sphyrcena bara- 
citda), considered in the West Indies to be dan 
gerously poisonous at times, nevertheless eaten, 
and deemed the sea-salmon. 



Barangay. An East Indian vessel propelled 
by oars. 

^Barbadoes Tar. A mineral pitch or petro 
leum, which flows from the earth or rocks in 
many places. 

Barbalot. The barbel. Also, a puffin. 

Barb-bolt. A rag-bolt. A bolt with a jagged 
end to make it hold when it cannot be clinched. 

Barbel. A fresh-water fish found in many 
European rivers ; its upper jaw is furnished 
with four beard-like appendages. 

Barber. A singular vapor rising in streams 
from the surface of the water. The condensed 
breath on the beard and moustache. A rating 
on the ship s books for the man who shaves the 
people. 

Barbette (Fr.}. A mound on which guns are 
mounted to fire over the top of the parapet. 
Guns are in barbette when they are mounted so 
as to fire over a parapet, and not through an 
embrasure. Barbette gun, or barbette battery, a 
gun or battery mounted in barbette. Barbette 
carriage, a carriage which permits of its gun 
being mounted in barbette. 

Barca (Sp.). A small two-masted vessel. 

Barca-longa (Sp.}. A large Spanish coasting 
vessel with pole-masts and lug-sails. The name 
is also applied to Spanish gunboats. 

Barcarolle. A popular song sung by Vene 
tian gondoliers. 

Barcelona. A seaport town of Spain. Lat. 
(mole light) 41 22 36" N. ; Ion. 2 II E. The 
port is commodious, two moles having been built 
for its improvement. Pop. 225,000. 

Barces. Short guns with large bores, for 
merly used in ships. 

Barchetta. A small bark for transporting 
provisions. 

Barcon. A Mediterranean lighter. 

Bareka. A small barrel, spelled also barika. 

Bare poles. A vessel at sea is said to be 
under bare poles when no sail is set; in which 
case she may be either lying-to, or scudding 
before the gale. 

Barge. A vessel or boat of state elegantly 
furnished. A double-decked passenger or freight 
boat having no power of its own, but towed by a 
steamboat. A long double-banked boat of spa 
cious construction for the use of flag-officers. A 
spacious light-draft river-boat for the transporta 
tion of heavy merchandise. 

BARGEES. The crews of canal-boats and river- 
barges. 

BARGE-MATE. The officer who steers a boat 
of state on occasions of ceremony. 

BARGE-MEN, or BARGES. Picked men who 
pull the barges. 

BARGET. An old term for a small barge. 

Bari. A city and seaport of Italy, on a penin 
sula in the Adriatic. Lat. 41 7 *52" N. ; Ion. 
16 53 4" E. The quay and roadstead are good, 
and the harbor has been much improved of late. 
Pop. 52,000. 

Barilla. A sea-shore or maritime plant from 
which soda is made. In commerce this name is 
applied to the impure carbonate of soda made by 
burning certain maritime plants. See ALG^E. 

Bark, or Barque. Any small vessel. A 
three-masted vessel square-rigged on the fore 
and main, with fore-and-aft sails on the mizzen- 
mast. Bark-rigged, rigged as a bark, with no 
square-sails on the mizzen-mast. 



BAKKANTINE 



65 



BAROMETER 



Barkantine, or Barquantine. A three-masted 
vessel square-rigged on the fore-mast, and fore- 
and-aft rigged on the main- and mizzen-masts. 

Barkers. An old term for lower deck guns 
and pistols. 

Barkey. A sailor s term of endearment for 
the ship to which he belongs. 

Barking-irons. Large dueling pistols. 

Barling. An old term for the lamprey. 

Barling-spars. Spars fit for any small mast 
or yard. 

Barnacle (Conch.). A species of the Bala- 
nidce, a family of sessile crustaceans. The shells 
are common along sea-shores, where they adhere 
to rocks, timber, and vessels. (Ornith.) A spe 
cies of goose (Anas lucopsis) frequenting the 
northern seas in summer and migrating south 
wards in winter. Formerly the strange notion 
prevailed that they grew out of the barnacles at 
tached to ships ; hence the name. 

Barnstable (Mass.). A port of entry on a 
bay of the same name, which is a part of Cape 
Cod Bay. Pop. about 430, mostly engaged in the 
coast-trade and fisheries. 

Barometer (Gr. baros, weight, and metron, 
measure). An instrument for measuring the 
weight or pressure of the atmosphere. The dis 
covery of the instrument resulted from an appli 
cation, made to Galileo by workmen engaged in 
preparing a suction pump for a deep well, to 
know why, notwithstanding great care in form 
ing and fitting the valves and piston, the water 
would not rise higher than about 32 English 
feet. In that age the doctrine of a plenum was 
an axiom in philosophy ; and the ascent of water 
in the barrel of the pump was universally as 
cribed to nature s horror of a vacuum; Galileo 
therefore contented himself with replying that the 
power of nature to overcome a vacuum was lim 
ited, and did not exceed the pressure of a column 
of water 32 feet in height. Before his death, 
however, which happened soon after, in 1642, he 
earnestly recommended to his pupil Torricelli to 
undertake the investigation of the subject. Tor 
ricelli, suspecting the true cause of the suspension 
of the water, namely, the weight of the atmos 
phere, conceived the idea of trying the experi 
ment with mercury. He perceived that if the 
weight of the atmosphere forms a counterpoise 
to a column of water of 32 feet, it must also 
counterpoise a column of mercury of about 28 
inches in height, the weight of mercury being 
about 14 times greater than that of water. 
Having procured a glass tube of about 3 feet in 
length and a quarter of an inch in diameter, 
hermetically sealed at one end, he filled it with 
mercury; and covering the open end with the 
finger, he immersed it in an open vessel contain 
ing mercury. On bringing the tube to the verti 
cal position, and removing the finger, the mer 
cury instantly sank, leaving a vacuum at the top 
of the tube, and after making several oscillations, 
stood in the tube at the height of about 28 inches 
above the surface of that in the vessel. On cov 
ering the mercury in the vessel with a portion of 
water, and raising the tube till the lower end 
came into contact with the water, the mercury 
all ran out, and the water rushed up to the top 
of the tube. This experiment, called after its 
author, the Torricellian experiment, demonstrated 
that the mercury was sustained in the tube, and 
the .water in the barrel of the pump, by exactly 



the same counterpoise, whatever the nature of it 
might be. Torricelli died shortly after without 
completing his discovery, but the fame of his 
experiment attracted to the subject the attention 
of philosophers in other countries ; among others 
the celebrated Pascal. After various experi 
ments, all of which tended to establish the press 
ure of the atmosphere, it occurred to Pascal that 
if the mercurial column was really supported by 
atmospheric pressure it must be affected by the 
weight of the superincumbent mass of air, and 
consequently be "diminished at considerable ele 
vations. Assisted by his brother-in-law, Perier, 
he conclusively established by experiments the 
correctness of the theory, and thereupon pro 
posed the barometer as an instrument for meas 
uring the height of mountains, or the relative 
altitudes of places above the surface of the earth. 
"While Pascal, therefore, is justly credited with 
the practical demonstration of the value of the 
barometer in the determination of heights, it is 
claimed that Claudio Beriguardi, at Pisa, had 
made the same application of the instrument five 
years before; and it appears that Alhazen, the 
Saracen, A.D. 1100, was aware that the atmos 
phere decreases in density with increase of height. 

The barometer in its ordinary form consists of 
a tube 34 inches in length, closed at the top, ex 
hausted of air, and with its lower end immersed 
in a cup of mercury, which the pressure of the 
atmosphere causes to ascend in the tube. The 
height of the mercurial column varies with 
changes in the weight of the atmosphere, and a 
graduated scale alongside the tube, embracing 
the range of oscillation, enables the variations 
to be noted. 

In all barometric observations there are, in 
general, two essential corrections to be made: 
one for capillarity, or depression of the mercury 
in the tube, and the other for temperature. The 
following are the corrections for tubes of different 
diameters according to the theory of Mr. Ivory: 

Diam. of tube. Depression. Diam. of tube. Depression. 

Inches. Inches. Inches. Inches. 

.10 .1403 .40 .0153 

.15 .0863 , .45 .0112 

.20 .0581 .50 .0083 

.25 .0407 .60 .0044 

.30 .0292 .70 .0023 

.35 .0211 .80 .0012 

In siphon barometers (so called from their 
shape), having both branches of the same di 
ameter, the depression is equal at both ends ; 
consequently the effect is destroyed, and no 
correction is required. The correction for the 
temperature, which is the most important, de 
pends on the expansion of the mercury and the 
expansion of the scale on which the divisions are 
marked ; this latter expansion being very small, 
is disregarded. In order to ascertain the neces 
sary correction for expansion of the mercury, a 
thermometer must be attached to the barometer 
and observed at the same time. The rule usually 
followed is to "subtract the ten-thousandth part 
of the observed altitude for every degree of Fah 
renheit above 32. Calculated correction tables 
are published. 

THE ANEROID BAROMETER (Gr. a, without, 
and neros, a fluid). In this instrument the vary 
ing pressure of the atmosphere is indicated, not 
by the varying height of a column of fluid, but 
by the compression and expansion of a small 
metal vessel from which nearly all the air has 



BAKOMETER-GATJGE 



66 



BARRY 



been exhausted. Its external appearance is that 
of a circular brass box having a dial face, the 
graduations of which are pointed out by a finger, 
which is moved by machinery attached to the 
elastic nearly exhausted vessel fixed within. At 
the back of the instrument is a screw for the pur 
pose of adjusting its indications by reference to 
the mercurial barometer. The aneroid requires 
to be thus originally set, and should be thus ad 
justed from time to time. It possesses the ad 
vantages of being very susceptible and portable, 
and is a most convenient " weather glass" for 
ship s use. It is also a convenient instrument 
for roughly estimating the heights of mountains. 

For additional information respecting the ba 
rometer and its uses, see " Weather Guides," by 
Rear-Admiral Jenkins. 

Barometer-gauge. An appendage to a boiler 
or condenser. to indicate the state of the vacuum. 

Barquantine. See BARKANTINE. 

Barque. See BARK. 

Barra-boats. Vessels of the western isles of 
Scotland, carrying ten or twelve men. They are 
extremely sharp fore and aft, having no floor, 
but with sides rising straight from the keel, so 
that a transverse section resembles the letter V. 
They are swift and safe, for in proportion as they 
heel to a breeze their bearings are increased. 

Barrack-smack. A corruption of Berwick- 
smack ; a word applied to small Scotch traders. 

Barracoon. A slave warehouse, or an in- 
closure where slaves are kept. 

Barrator. The master of a ship who commits 
any fraud in the management of the ship, or in 
relation to his duties as master, by which the 
owners or insurers are injured. 

Barratry. A fraudulent breach of duty or 
willful act of known illegality on the part of a 
master of a ship, in his character as master, or of 
the mariners, to the injury of the owner of the 
ship or cargo, and without his consent, and it 
includes every breach of trust committed with 
dishonest views ; as, by running away with a ship, 
by scuttling or deserting her, or by embezzling 
her cargo. 

Barred Killifish. A fish from two to four 
inches in length, which frequents salt-water 
creeks, floats, and the vicinity of wharves. 

Barrel. The cylinder between the whelps and 
the pawl-rim constituting the main piece of a 
capstan. The part of the wheel on which the 
tiller-ropes are wound. The tube of a fire-arm. 
The piston-chamber of a pump. A cylindrical 
wooden vessel or cask, greater in length than in 
breadth, bulging in the middle, and composed 
of staves and headings held together by hoops 
of wood or iron. A measure of capacity, as 31 
gallons of wine, 36 gallons of ale, or 196 pounds 
of flour. 

BARREL-BUILDER. An old rating on the ship s 
books, now called cooper. 

BARREL-BULK. A measure used in estimating 
capacity for freights. It is equal to five cubic 
feet, or one-eighth of a ton. 

Barrel-screw. A powerful machine, consist 
ing of two large poppets, or male screws, moved 
by levers in their heads upon a bank of plank, 
with a female screw at each end. It is of great 
use in starting a launch. 

Barrier of Ice. Ice stretching from the land- 
ice to the sea- or main ice, or across a channel, so 
as to render it impassable. 



Barrier Reefs. Coral reefs that either extend 
in straight lines in front of the shores of a con 
tinent or large island, or encircle smaller isles, 
in both cases being separated from the land by a 
channel of water. Barrier reefs exist in New 
South Wales, the Bermudas, Laccadives, Mal 
dives, etc. 

Barren, James, Commodore U.S.N. Born 
in Virginia in 1769. Went to sea early in life, 
and served with his father in the early marine of 
Virginia, commanding the " Patriot." Entered 
the navy as lieutenant, March 9, 1798, and 
cruised under Barry, in the " United States," in 
the West Indies, and afterwards to France. Pro 
moted to captain, May 22, 1799, commanded the 
"President" (44) in Dale s squadron to Tripoli, 
and returned in Morris s squadron in the " New 
York" (36) in 1802. Transferred to the " Chesa 
peake" (38), and returned home in her. Again 
went to the Mediterranean, in the " Essex" (32), 
under the flag of his brother, S. Barren, and was 
transferred to the "President" (44) in 1805. Was 
sixth captain on the new navy list. Returning 
home in 1806, he was given the "Chesapeake" 
(44), and hoisted a broad-pennant on her in June, 
1807. He put to sea June 22, and was followed 
out of Chesapeake Bay by the "Leopard" (50), an 
English frigate, and, while unprepared to fight, 
was fired into from that ship, after some parley 
concerning search, and compelled to surrender, 
having been wounded. He was tried on several 
charges, found guilty of two, and suspended from 
rank and pay for five years, until 1813. During 
the period of his suspension he was absent from 
the United States, and on his return became 
involved in a quarrel with Commodore Decatur, 
and killed that officer in a duel, March 22, 1820, 
himself being seriously wounded. Resided in 
Norfolk until 1825. Commanded Philadelphia 
navy-yard, 1825-27 ; Norfolk navy-yard, 1827- 
32; Philadelphia navy-yard, 1833-37; wait 
ing orders, 1838-42. He became the. senior 
officer of the navy in 1839. On leave and wait 
ing orders until his death, which occurred at 
Norfolk in 1851, April 21, he being 82 years old, 
and having been in the navy 53 years. F. S. 
Bassett, Lieutenant U.S.N. 

Barry, John, Commodore U.S.N. Born in 
Wexford County, Ireland, in 1745. He went to 
sea in the merchant service while yet young. 
Arriving in America at the age of 15, he adopted 
it as his home. He received one of the first com 
missions incur navy. Commanded the "Lex 
ington," brig (16), the first cruiser to sail, and 
captured the British tender "Edward." Was 
transferred to the frigate " Effingham" the same 
year, and commissioned captain, No. 7 on the 
list. Successfully removed the ships up the river 
when Philadelphia was taken, and captured a 
schooner by a bold dash with boats. Volun 
teered with the army, and was aid to General 
Cadwalader at Trenton. Appointed to command 
the " Raleigh" (32), and being chased by a British 
squadron, he made a brave defense, but ran his 
ship ashore and lost her. 

Commanded several letters of marque in the 
West Indies. Sailed in February, 1781, in 
command of the " Alliance" (32), with our min 
ister, Laurens, to France, and on his return in 
the same year, May 29, captured the English 
sloop " Atalanta" and brig " Trepassa," and was 
severely wounded. 



BAKSE 



67 



BAKT 



Sailed again in 1781, conveying Lafayette and 
De Noailles to France. Left L Orient February, 
1782, and cruised in the Atlantic. Returning 
from Havana in March, he was chased by three 
English ships, but, engaging the first, so injured 
her that he was able to escape. 

Sailed at intervals during the war in letters of 
marque. Made senior officer of the navy in 
1794. In command of the " United States" (44) 
at Philadelphia, and was influential in having 
set on foot the construction of those heavy frigates 
that won so many victories. During the war 
with France he cruised in European waters in 
the " United States," protecting our commerce. 
He died at Philadelphia, September 13, 1803, at 
the age of 58. He was the third commander- 
in-chief of the navy. F. S. Bassett, Lieutenant 
U.S.N. 

Barse. The common river-perch. 

Bar-shot. Two half balls joined together by 
a bar of iron, for cutting and destroying spars 
and rigging. "When whole balls are thus fitted 
they are more properly double-headed shot. 

Bart, Jean. Born at Dunquerque, October, 
1650. Died in the same place, April, 1702. The 
life of Jean Bart is, or was, a text-book in the 
French naval schools, and his memory has al 
ways been preserved among the French sea 
faring population as a type of a French sailor. 
He is to the French navy what Bayard and 
Latour d Auvergne are to the army. In the 
English navy every old prejudice, as well as the 
custom of hard fighting, is said to come down 
from Benbow, and so in the French navy all 
such traditions are traced to Jean Bart. He 
was a member of a seafaring family of Dun 
querque, on the very N.E. confines of France. 
He was rather more Flemish than French, in fact. 

His father commanded a corsaire (somewhat 
equivalent to a " letter of marque") out of the 
port of Dunquerque. Jean Bart went to sea at 
twelve years of age, and long before his major 
ity became " second" of a brigantine, with the 
euphonious name of the Cochon Gras, or " Fat 
Hog," which cruised in the dangerous naviga 
tion of the English Channel as a lookout against 
the advance of the British fleet. 

In 1666, Jean Bart entered the Dutch Marine, 
serving under the celebrated Admiral de Ruyter 
in the war with the English. He returned home 
in 1672, having attained the rank of lieutenant, 
leaving the Dutch service on account of war 
breaking out between Holland and France. 
Still a very young man, he commenced his 
career as corsaire, and for six years his whole 
sale captures of Dutch vessels caused his name 
to be known in all northern ports. 

In 1679, upon the recommendation of the cele 
brated Vauban, Jean Bart was commissioned 
as lieutenant de vaisseait in the French Royal 
Marine. 

In 1681 he was sent by Colbert, in command 
of two frigates, against the Salee pirates. He 
made a brilliant cruise, bringing back with him 
many important Moorish prisoners. Two years 
after, during the war between France and Spain, 
he made important and successful cruises in the 
Mediterranean, and was advanced to the rank of 
capitalize de fregate. At this time he organized 
squadrons of fast frigates and corsaires combined, 
and so drilled them that they were not only able 
to greatly interfere with the enemy s commerce, 



but were able to unite and fight in line upon 
occasion. 

By this time his reputation as a bold and skill 
ful commander was so well established that his 
services were always sought for when anything 
especially difficult or daring was to be attempted 
by sea. 

In 1689 he convoyed a fleet of powder and 
provision vessels from Calais to Brest, fighting 
his way down the channel through a fleet of 
English and Dutch cruisers. During one of 
these fights he saw his son, a child of ten years 
old, showing some trepidation, and at once had 
him lashed to the mainmast until the action was 
over. This boy became a vice-admiral in the 
French navy. 

Soon after this Jean Bart was, with Captain 
the Chevalier Forbin, wounded and taken pris 
oner in a bloody frigate action in the channel. 
They were taken to Plymouth, but, owing to 
the stubborn resistance of the men-of-war, their 
convoy escaped. He was not many days a pris 
oner, but succeeded in escaping during foggy 
weather, and, with Forbin and two or three 
sailors, seized the yawl of a merchant vessel, and 
pulled for the French coast. After forty-eight 
hours of exposure and excessive labor, they 
landed on the coast of Brittany, near St. Malo. 
Both he and Forbin were made capitaines de vais- 
seau for this exploit. 

Jean Bart was soon at sea again, this time in 
command of a squadron of frigates, with which 
he fought several actions and made captures. 

In 1690 he commanded the frigate " Alcyon," 
in Tourville s fleet, with great approval from his 
admiral ; and, upon his return from this cruise, 
he was allowed to carry out his idea of forming 
a special squadron to destroy the Dutch com 
merce in the North Sea and in the Baltic. 

By the time he had, at Dunquerque, got 
ready seven frigates and a fire-ship, he found 
himself blockaded by thirty-five English and 
Dutch vessels. He managed, however, to elude 
them all, and to make his cruise, during which 
he burnt nearly a hundred English vessels, 
landed near Newcastle, burnt a number of houses, 
and returned safely to his port, with his squadron 
intact and laden with spoil. Never willing to be 
idle, he was soon off again into the North Sea, 
this time with only three ships, and again re 
turned with prizes. 

Jean Bart s fame was now such that he was sent 
for by Louis XIV., when the brilliant courtiers 
of that august monarch were much amused with 
his brusque manners and ways. He had already 
been popularly called "the Sea Bear," and all 
sorts of stories" are told of how he bore himself in 
the presence of the " Sun of France," how he 
smoked his pipe in his presence, clapped the 
princes of the blood on the back, and generally 
behaved as a genuine loup-de-mer. There ap 
pears to be little truth in these relations. Jean 
Bart was no doubt of simple, plain manners, 
but long before this period he had associated 
with some of the best men in France, and he 
had commanded fleets very successfully. It is 
not likely, therefore, that he would have been 
found wanting in common courtesy. The fact 
appears to be that the stories told of his be 
havior at court were only a corollary to those 
popularly related of him, so great was the en 
thusiasm created by his exploits. 



BAKT 



68 



BARTON 



It has been said by Eugene Sue, in his " His- 
toirede Marine," that Jean Bart could not write, 
and only signed his name mechanically. This is 
not probable in the case of one who was a good 
navigator. The "Archives de la Marine" show 
exceedingly well-formed signatures of his, al 
though the letters themselves are written by a 
clerk, as is the case in all services and at all times. 
The naval registers of Dunquerque show the 
same thing. M. Vanderest, in his " Histoire de 
Jean Bart," disposes of these stories in an en 
thusiastic but complete fashion. 

Portraits of Jean Bart show him to have been 
a square-built man, of fair height, with a good, 
open, Flemish countenance, blue eyes, and light 
hair. He spoke several languages, including 
English, but, it is said, spoke French with a 
Flemish accent. 

In 1693, Louis XI V., wishing to repair the 
disgrace of La Hogue, gave Tourville command 
of a new fleet, in which Jean Bart commanded 
the " Glorieux," and in her fought at the battle 
of Lagos. 

After this he had command of a squadron of 
six frigates to escort an immense convoy of 
grain, and succeeded in getting his charge safely 
into Dunquerque, after a severe battle with the 
Anglo-Dutch fleet. By this action he saved that 
part of France from impending famine ; and the 
event was considered so important that a medal 
was struck to commemorate it. In the same 
year Jean Bart took three English frigates and 
their convoy of transports, loaded with provisions 
and stores. 

In 1694, Louis XIV. gave Jean Bart lettres 
de noblesse, with the cross of Saint Louis, and 
the right to wear the fleur-de-lis in his arms. 

In the same year the ennobled sailor nar 
rowly missed capturing, in the North Sea, Wil 
liam of Orange, who was returning from Hol 
land to England. A curious speculation could 
be elaborated upon the result of such a capture. 
Certainly William would have fared badly as 
prisoner of Louis XIV., and most likely James 
II. would have had the English throne. 

In 1696, Jean Bart went cruising in the North 
Sea again, and though, as usual, blockaded in 
Dunquerque by a strong Anglo-Dutch fleet, he 
succeeded in eluding them and getting to sea. 
Just north of the Texel he encountered the Dutch 
Baltic fleet, and captured their escort of frigates 
and some forty merchant vessels. When about 
to take possession of them a very superior force 
of the enemy hove in sight, and Jean Bart was 
obliged to burn his prizes, which he did thor 
oughly, and then made sail in retreat in line of 
battle, the enemy not caring to pursue. His 
thorough ability and boldness on this occasion 
elicited the admiration of the very men opposed 
to him. Forbin, in his " Memoires," pretends 
that Jean Bart was only fitted for frigate actions 
and coups de main, but we have seen that he 
handled squadrons well, and his dispatches con 
cerning such affairs were always clear and well 
considered. On his return from this cruise Louis 
XIV. sent for him, and said, "Jean Bart, I 
have made you chef d escadron" (commodore, 
a higher rank than in our day). " Sire," Jean 
Bart replied, "you have done well." In the 
previous year the "Grand Monarque" had hurt 
Jean Bart s feelings by telling him he had not 
done as well as usual. 



In 1697, Jean Bart took the Prince de Conti to 
Dantzic, where he went in the hope of obtaining 
the throne of Poland. On their voyage they 
were met by an enemy s squadron of no less than 
nine line-of-battle ships, but they succeeded in 
escaping from them. The prince said, " We 
were near being taken!" "Oh, no," said Jean 
Bart : "I had my son in the magazine, to blow 
us up before that should happen." The prince 
was, naturally, shocked at this, and said, "Your 
remedy is worse than the evil ! I forbid any 
thing of the kind while I am on board." Conti 
got safe to Dantzic, but, as we all know, effected 
nothing. 

In 1697 occurred the peace of Ryswick, and 
then Jean Bart, for the first time in his life, had 
a period of repose, which he spent most simply, 
with his family, at Dunquerque. 

As soon as the war of the Spanish Succession 
broke out he was ordered to command a fleet 
again. Unfortunately, in his personal exertions 
in pressing on the preparations he caught cold, 
had a pleurisy, and died, in April, 1702, just at 
the time that France had most need of him, for 
she was soon to be brought to suffer great dis 
asters, both by sea and land. 

His successor in the fleet never tried to pass the 
blockade, as Jean Bart had done so often, and 
by so doing kept ten times his number employed 
against him. 

Jean Bart was only fifty-two years old when he 
died, and the loss of no man of his time was more 
deplored. 

In spite of all his prizes he had saved very 
little money, but the king gave his widow a pen 
sion of 2000 crowns. 

In 1845 a statue to Jean Bart, by the cele 
brated David, was erected at Dunquerque. As 
has been stated, his son became a vice-admiral, 
and died at the age of 78. His grandson became 
a chef d escadron, and died in 1784, being the 
last of his direct descendants. 

The last of the descendants of his brother, and 
the last who bore the name of the great French 
sailor, died a lieutenant de vaisseau in 1843. 
E. Shippen, 

Barton, Wm. P. C., Surgeon U.S. Navy. 
Born in Philadelphia, Pa., November 17, 1786. 
He was descended from Rev. Thomas Barton, an 
Episcopal clergyman who came to America under 
the patronage of the Penn family, and married 
in Philadelphia the sister of David Rittenhouse, 
the celebrated mathematician and astronomer, 
and the first president of the Philosophical So 
ciety. Dr. Barton received his classical educa 
tion at Princeton College, where he graduated 
with distinction at an early age. He commenced 
the study of medicine under the direction of his 
uncle, Dr. Benjamin Smith Barton, and gradu 
ated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1808. 
After graduating Dr. Barton commenced the 
practice of medicine in Philadelphia. He was 
surgeon at the Pennsylvania Hospital, and upon 
recommendation of the celebrated Dr. Benjamin 
Rush and Dr. Physick he was appointed surgeon 
in the navy. He was for many years on active 
duty, and distinguished himself in the treatment 
of cases, and by his great skill in the perform 
ance of difficult and delicate operations. During 
his reliefs from sea service he was not content to 
pass his time unemployed, but devoted himself 
with great professional ardor to the publication 



BARUTH 



69 



BATED 



of various works, which acquired at the time 
cpnsiderable reputation. Among others, his 
work on " Marine Hospitals" (published in 1814) ; 
his " Vegetable Materia Medica," and " Flora of 
North America," with drawings from nature, 
made by himself and colored by his wife (pub 
lished in 1817 and 1818) ; his translation of the 
work of the celebrated Gregory on the Influences 
of climate, and other treatises, were extensively 
circulated, and gained for their author consider 
able celebrity. He was chosen professor of bot 
any in the University of Pennsylvania, became 
a Fellow of the College of Physicians of Phila 
delphia, a member of the American Philosophi 
cal Society, president of the Linnsean Society, 
and honorary member and surgeon of the First 
City Troop. Upon the creation of the Bureau 
of Medicine and Surgery in the navy, Dr. Barton 
was tendered and accepted the appointment of 
chief of that bureau. In this position he intro 
duced many reforms, corrected and abolished 
many abuses, and secured the warm commenda 
tion and approval of the government. He re 
signed his position as head of the bureau, but re 
tained his commission in the navy, and had been 
at the time of his death for several years the se 
nior surgeon of the navy. He died at Philadel 
phia, February 29, 1856. 

Baruth. An East Indian measure, with a 
corresponding weight of 3 pounds avoirdupois. 

Base. The hemispherical portion of the 
breech of a gun. The lowest part of the perim 
eter of a geometrical figure. When applied to 
a delta it is that edge of it which is washed by 
the sea, or recipient of the deltic branches. The 
lowest part of a mountain or chain of mountains. 
The level line on which any work stands, as the 
foot of a pillar. An old boat-gun ; a wall-piece 
on the musketoon principle, carrying a 5-ounce 
ball. 

BASE-LINE. In surveying, the base on which 
the triangulation is founded. In gunnery, a line 
traced around the breech of a gun, which marks 
the division between the breech and cylinder. 

BASE OF OPERATIONS. That secure line of 
frontier or fortresses, or strong country occupied 
by troops, or of sea occupied by fleets, from 
which forward movements are made, supplies 
furnished, and upon which a retreat may be 
made, if necessary. 

BASE-RING. A molding around the breech 
of a gun, between the base and first reenforce. 

Bashaw. A Turkish title of honor and com 
mand ; more properly pacha. 

Basil. The angle to which the edge of ship 
wrights cutting tools is ground away. 

Basilicus. A name of Regulus, or the Lion s 
Heart, a Leonis ; a star of the first magnitude. 

Basilisk. An old name for a long 48-pounder, 
the gun next in size to the carthoun : called 
basilisk from the snakes or dragons sculptured 
in the place of dolphins. Also, in still earlier 
times, a gun throwing an iron ball of 200 
pounds weight. 

Basillard. An old term for a poniard. 

Basin. A wet-dock provided with flood-gates 
for restraining the water, in which shipping may 
be kept afloat at all times of tide. Also, all those 
sheltered spaces of water which are nearly sur 
rounded with slopes from which waters are re 
ceived ; these receptacles have a circular shape 
and narrow entrance. Geographically basins 



may be described as upper, lower, lacustrine, 
fluvial, mediterranean, etc. 

Basket-fish. A name for several species of 
Euryale; a kind of star-fish, the arms of which 
divide and subdivide many times, and curl up 
and intertwine at the ends, giving the whole 
animal something of the appearance of a round 
basket. 

Basket-hilt. The guard continued up the 
hilt of a cutlass, so as to protect the whole hand 
from injury. 

Basking Shark. So called from being often 
seen lying still in the sunshine. A large carti 
laginous fish, the Squalus maximus of Linnaeus, 
inhabiting the Northern Ocean. It attains a 
length of 30 feet, but is neither fierce nor vora 
cious. See SAIL-FISH, 

Bass, or Bast. A soft sedge or rush (Juncus 
Icevis), of which coarse kinds of rope and mat 
ting are made. A Gaelic term for the blade of 
an oar. 

Basse. A species of perch (Perca labrax), 
found on the coast and in estuaries, commonly 
about 18 inches long. 

Bassos. An old term for shoals. Rocks 
a- wash, or below water. 

Bast. The inner bark of the lime-tree or 
linden, hence the cordage or mats made from 
this bark. See BASS. 

Basta. A word from the Italian, in former 
use for enough. 

Bastard. A term applied to all pieces of ord 
nance of unusual or irregular proportions. A 
square-sail in use in some Mediterranean craft; 
it was occasionally used as an awning. 

Bastard-mackerel, or Horse-mackerel. The 
Caranx trachurus, a dry, coarse, and unwhole 
some fish of the family Scomberidce. 

Bastard-pitch. When a mixture of equal 
parts of colophony, black pitch, and tar is boiled 
down, it forms a liquid substance called by the 
French bray gras. When a thicker consistence 
is required more colophony is added, and it is 
then called bastard-pitch. 

Baste. To beat; to cudgel. To sew with 
long stitches. 

Bastile. A temporary wooden tower used 
formerly in military and naval warfare. The 
name is specifically applied to an old fortification 
in Paris built in the 14th century, long used as a 
state prison, but demolished by the populace in 
1789. 

Bat, or Sea-bat. An Anglo-Saxon word for 
boat or vessel. A broad-bodied thoracic fish 
(Chcetodon vespertilio}. 

Batardate. A square-stemmed row-galley. 

Batardeau. Planks to prevent the entrance 
of water when a ship is hove down for repairs. 

Batardelle. A galley less strong than the 
capitana. 

Batavia. A city and seaport of Java, at the 
mouth of the Jukatra River, on the N. coast of 
the island, with a free port, extensive and safe. 
Lat. 6 8 S. ; Ion. 106 50 E. The bay or har 
bor forms a roadstead of great beauty, and may 
be entered by vessels of the largest class. Pop. 
100,000. 

Bateau. A flat-bottomed, sharp-ended, clumsy 
boat used on the lakes and rivers of Canada. A 
peculiar army pontoon. 

Bated. A plump, full-roed fish is said to be 
bated. 



BATELLA 



70 



BAY 



Batella. A small plying-boat. 

Bath (Maine). A city and port of entry on 
the right bank of the Kennebec Kiver, 12 miles 
from the ocean, 36 miles N.E. of Portland. 
Wooden ship-building is carried on at Bath to a 
very large extent. Pop. 11,000. 

Bath-brick. A preparation of calcareous 
earth in the form of a brick, used for cleaning 
bright-work. 

Bathometer. A sounding apparatus, which 
see. 

Bathymetry. The art or science of measuring 
the depth of the sea. 

Batillage. An old term for boat-hire. 

Batman. A weight used in the East, varying 
according to locality. 

Bat-swain. An Anglo-Saxon expression for 
boatswain. 

Battard. An early cannon of small size. 

Batteloe. A lateen-rigged vessel of India. 

Batten. Scantlings from one inch to three 
inches broad. Long slips of timber used for set 
ting fair the sheer lines of a ship, for staying the 
lower masts, and for setting off distances gener 
ally. Strips of wood secured to masts, yards, or 
rigging to protect them from chafe. Slips of 
wood used for confining the edges of the tarpau 
lins over the hatches. 

To BATTEN DOWN THE HATCHES, to haul over 
the tarpaulins and secure them by nailing bat 
tens over them. 

Battering Charge. A charge of powder 
heavier than the ordinary charge, to be used 
against ironclads or masonry at short range for 
a limited number of fires. 

Battering-guns, or Battering-pieces. Guns 
whose weight and power fit them for demolishing 
by direct force the works of the enemy. 

Battery. A place where guns or mortars are 
mounted. A body of cannon taken collectively ; 
as, the starboard battery. Two or more pieces 
of artillery in the field. Barbette battery, one 
without embrasures. Floating-battery, a vessel 
heavily clad with iron, and having little or no 
steam-power, used for harbor defense ; a battery 
mounted on a raft or hulk. Masked, or covered 
battery, one concealed from the enemy by a bank 
or breastwork until it opens fire. Water-battery, 
one close to and nearly on a level with the water. 
Mortar-batteries have no embrasures, the mortar 
being generally fired at an angle of 45. See 
ELECTRIC BATTERY, GALVANIC BATTERY. 

Battle-lantern. A lantern supplied to each 
gun for lighting up the decks during an engage 
ment at night. 

Battle-royal. A term derived from cock- 
fighting, but generally applied to a noisy, con 
fused row. 

Battle the Watch. To contend with a diffi 
culty ; to shift as well as one can ; to depend on 
one s own exertions. 

Bat-ward. An old term for a boat-keeper. 

Bavin. See BORE. 

Baw-burd. An old expression for larboard. 

Bawdrick. A corruption of baldrick. 

Bawe. A species of worm used for bait for 
fish. 

Bawgie. One of the names given to the great 
black and white gull (Larus marinus). 

Bawkie. A name for the awk, or razor-bill. 

Baxios (Sp.). Bocks or sand-banks covered 
with water. 



Bay. An inlet of the sea, having a wide 
entrance, and usually smaller than a gulf, al 
though many large sheets of water are named 
bays. Of the many names adopted to designate 
inlets from the seas, those of fiord and viik may 
be properly included under the head of bays. 
The greater portion of inlets so named are of salt 
water, but many fresh-water bays exist, espe 
cially in the great American lake-region. An 
enumeration of the bays would require several 
pages, and some that are not from their size ge 
ographically important are remarkable never 
theless from the rivers that empty into them, as 
Delaware Bay ; the cities that are situated on 
them, as Boston Bay ; from natural causes, as 
Fundy Bay from its great rise of tides ; from 
historical reasons, as Aboukir Bay ; from stra 
tegical causes, as Gibraltar Bay ; or from some 
use made of them, rendering them peculiarly 
notable, as Botany Bay, the home of English 
convicts. 

Keith Johnston, in his "Royal Atlas," enu 
merates more than a thousand bays, and this 
number would doubtless increase threefold on a 
careful count of our charts of the known coasts 
of the world. Of these, Europe has by far the 
greater number, there being about 440 on the 
chart, and North America comes next with 230, 
while South America and Oceanica have up 
wards of 100 each, and Asia has upwards of 80, 
Africa having no more than 60. Of European 
countries, the British Isles have the most bays, 
and Norway comes next with her fiords. Hol 
land, Belgium, and Corsica have none; Italy, 
Portugal, Austria, and Turkey one each. 

The principal bays of Asia are the Tidanski, 
Taimurski, Katangski, and Borkaia on the Arctic 
Ocean, Avatcha, Ulbansk, Vladimir, Victoria, 
Broughton, Hangchow, Yeddo, Hakodadi, Wan- 
chow, Manila to the eastward, and the great 
Bay of Bengal on its south shores. 

The principal African bays are Sofala, Dela- 

oa, and Algoa to the eastward, False, Table, 
t. Helena, and Walfisch on the west, Algiers, 
Tunis, and Arab bays to the northward. Neu- 
stadt, Kiel, and Liibeck on the Baltic, Cardigan, 
Donegal, and Galway in the British Isles, and 
Biscay, Cancale, and Fetubal on the west coast, 
comprise the principal European bays. North 
America has many large bays, chief of which 
are Mackenzie, Baffin s, Frobisher s, Hudson, 
James, Ungava, and Cumberland on the north 
coast, Melville and Disco in Greenland, Bay of 
Fundy, Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Delaware, 
Chesapeake, Long, and Onslow bays on the east 
coast, Appalachicola, Pensacola, and Galveston 
on the Gulf, Campeachy, Fonseca, and Tehuan- 
tepec in Mexico and Central America, and Mag- 
dalena, Seb. Vizcaino, Monterey, San Francisco, 
and Bristol bays on the west coast. South 
America has Bahia de Todos os Santos, Rio 
Janeiro, and White bays on its east coast, and 
Arauco, Coquimbo, Salado, Moreno, Pisco, Se- 
chura, and Buenaventura on her west coast. 
Australia is well provided with bays, Prince 
Charlotte, Hervey, Encounter, Geographe, and 
Shark bays being the most important. 

Three bays are particularly noticeable from 
their great size, viz. : 1. Bay of Bengal. This 
is a triangular sheet of water, an arm of the 
Bengal Sea, washing the northeastern shores of 
Hindostan and the west coast of Pegu. It ex- 



BAY 



71 



BEAM 



tends over 6 degrees of latitude and 10 of longi 
tude, being about 200,000 square rniles in area. 
It is the recipient of the great Brahmapootra, 
Ganges, and Shina rivers, but contains no ob 
stacles to navigation except near the land. 2. 
Bay of Biscay. This is a trapezoidal-shaped bay, 
an arm of the Atlantic, washing the southwest 
coast of France, where its shores are low and 
marshy, and the rocky and mountainous north 
coast of Spain. It embraces some 8 degrees of 
latitude and 5 of longitude, being about 125,000 
square miles in area. It receives the waters of 
the Adour, Garonne, and Loire. 3. Hudson^s 
Bay, discovered in 1615 by Hendrik Hudson. 
It is situated wholly within the North American 
continent, and is nearly square, having, as an 
addition, James Bay, itself of some extent. 
Hudson s Bay occupies some 9 degrees of lati 
tude and 14 of longitude, and contains some 
300,000 square miles "of area. It communicates 
with the Atlantic by a strait of the same name, 
and with the Arctic Ocean by several passages. 
Some idea of the great size of these bays is ob 
tained by a comparison with countries. The 
Bay of Bengal is as large as Germany, or its own 
neighbor, Siam. The Bay of Biscay is as large 
as Holland, and Hudson s Bay would about cover 
Spain. F. S. Bassett, Lieutenant U.S.N. 

Bay. The fore part of the ship between decks. 
See SICK-BAY. 

Bayamos. Violent blasts of wind blowing 
from the land, on the south coast of Cuba, and 
especially from the Bight of Bayamo. They are 
accompanied by wind and lightning, and gen 
erally terminate in rain. 

Bay-bolt. A bolt with a barbed shank. 

Bay-gulf. A branch of the sea of which the 
entrance is the widest part, as contradistin 
guished from the strait-gulf. 

Bay-ice. Ice newly formed on the surface of 
the sea, and having the color of the water ; it is 
then in the first stage of consolidation. The 
term is sometimes applied to ice a foot or two in 
thickness in bays. 

Bayle. An old term for bucket. 

Bayonet. A short triangular dagger fitted to 
the muzzle of a musket or rifle, for the purpose 
of giving the fire-arm effect as a thrusting 
weapon. It takes its name from Bayonne, 
France, where it is said to have originated. It 
was first used by the French in the Netherlands 
in 1647. Formerly the handle of the bayonet 
was inserted into the bore of the fire-arm, and 
had to be unfixed when the piece was fired; to 
remedy which it is now made with a hollow 
handle and a shoulder so that it fits over thebarrel, 
and sets otf from the line of fire. Modifications 
affecting the shape of the blade have also been 
made, of which the sabre-bayonet and the more 
recent trowel-bayonet are examples. The latter 
form of bayonet, invented by Bvt. Lt.-Col. Rice, 
"U.S.A., is less sightly than the triangular, either 
fixed or worn as a side-arm, but is most valuable 
as an intrenching tool to forces operating on 
land. 

Bayou. The outlet of a small lake ; a creek 
or small river. 

Bazaras. A large pleasure-boat of the Ganges 
impelled by oars and sails. 

Beach. A shelving tract of sand or shingle 
washed by the sea or a lake, and interposed be 
tween the water and the land on which vegeta 



tion grows. The beach of the ocean is, generally 
speaking, little more than the space between low- 
and high- water mark ; the beach of a lake that 
between the water-marks of the highest and 
lowest ordinary level of the lake. An inland 
sea without tide, such as the Mediterranean, has 
generally little beach, except on flat coasts, where 
the waters are apt to rise and fall considerably, 
according to the prevailing winds. To land a 
person with the intention of deserting him, an 
old buccaneer custom. To run a boat or a vessel 
on the beach, either to land or for the purpose of 
repairs where there are no other accommodations. 
See SURF. 

BEACH-COMBERS. Long waves rolling in from 
the ocean. Loiterers around a bay or harbor. 

BEACH-COMBING. Loafing about a port to 
filch small things. 

BEACH-FLEA. A small crustacean (Talitra) 
frequenting sandy shores. 

BEACH-GRASS. Alga marina thrown up by the 
surf or tide. 

BEACH-MAN. A person on the coast of Africa 
who acts as interpreter to shipmasters, and 
assists them in conducting trade. 

BEACH-MASTER. An officer appointed to su 
perintend the disembarkation of an attacking 
force, who holds plenary powers, and generally 
leads the storming party. 

BEACH-MEN. A name applied to boatmen and 
those who land people through a heavy surf. 

BEACH-RANGERS. Men hanging about sea 
ports, who have been turned out of vessels for 
bad conduct. 

BEACH-TRAMPERS. A name applied to the 
coast-guard of England. 

Beacon. A post or stake erected over a shoal 
or sand-bank, as a warning to seamen to keep at 
a distance ; also a signal-mark placed on the top 
of hills, eminences, or buildings near the shore 
for the safe guidance of shipping. 

BEACONAGE. A payment levied for the main 
tenance of beacons. 

Be -aft. A term frequently used by sailors for 
abaft. 

Beak, or Beak-head. A piece of brass like a 
beak, fixed at the head of the ancient galleys, 
with which they pierced their enemy s vessels. 
Pisjeus is said to have first added the rostrum or 
beak-head. Later it was a small platform .at the 
fore part of the upper deck, but the term is now 
applied to that part without the ship before the 
forecastle, or knee of the head, which is fastened 
to the stem and is supported by the main knee. 
Latterly the whole of this is enlarged, strength 
ened, and armed with iron plates, and thus the 
armed stem revives the ancient strategy in sea- 
fights. 

Beam. A long double stratum of murky 
clouds generally observed in the Mediterranean 
previous to a violent storm. A collection of 
parallel rays emitted from the sun or other lu 
minous body. Any large piece of timber or iron 
long in proportion to its other dimensions. One 
of the heavy transverse timbers which support 
the deck and retain the sides of a ship in shape. 
Beam, or breadth of beam, the width of a ship. 
On the beam, in a line with the beams, or at 
right angles to the keel. 

"BEAM^CENTRE. The fulcrum on which the 
walking-beam vibrates. 

BEAM-ENDS. A ship is said to be on her beam- 



BEAN-COD 



72 



BEAUMONT 



ends when she has heeled over so much that her 
beams approach a vertical position. The expres 
sion is used figuratively for a person in distress. 

BEAM-ENGINE. An engine with an oscillating 
beam, by which the power is transmitted from 
the piston to the shaft. 

BEAM-FILLINGS. Short pieces of wood to fit 
between the beams, to complete a cargo of timber. 

BEAM-LINE. A line which indicates the in 
tersection of the upper part of the beams with the 
frames of a ship. 

BEAM, WALKING-. The beam of a beam-en 
gine, called also working-beam. 

Bean-cod. A small fishing-vessel, or pilot- 
boat, common in Spain and Portugal. It is 
fitted with a large lateen-sail, and sometimes has 
an outrigger over the stern. It is extremely 
sharp forward, and works well to windward. 

Bear. A coir-mat filled with sand, or a block 
of stone, matted, loaded with shot, and fitted 
with ropes, for hauling to and fro to grind the 
decks. 

Bear. To bear down upon a vessel is to ap 
proach her from to windward. To bear up, to 
put the helm up and run oif to leeward. To bear 
sail, stiff under canvas. To bring the guns to 
bear, to so lay the ship s head that the guns may 
be pointed at the enemy. To bear in with (or 
off from) the land is to stand in toward (or off 
from) the coast. To bear off, to push one object 
off from another ; as, a lighter from the ship s 
side. 

BEAK A BOB, or A FIST. Jocular for lend a 
hand. 

BEAR A HAND Hasten. 

Beard. The silky filaments by which some 
testacea adhere to the rocks. The gills of an 
oyster. The rays of a comet emitted toward that 
part of the heavens to which its proper motion 
seems to direct it. 

Bearding. The diminution of the edge or 
surface of a piece of timber from a given line; 
as, on the stem, deadwood, etc. 

Bearding-line. The trace of the inner surface 
of the ship s skin on the keel, stem, and stern-post. 

Bearer. An instrument used in handling 
heavy shells. 

Bearing. The manner in which a person 
conducts himself. The portion of an axle or 
shaft in contact with its supports. The bearing 
of an object or place is the angle contained be 
tween the meridian and the vertical plane 
through the object. It is the same as the course 
to the place. 

BEARING, COMPASS. The bearing of an ob 
ject as observed by the compass. It is the angle 
between the needle of the standard compass on 
board the ship of the observer and the direction 
of the object : it is, therefore, affected by the de 
viation and variation of the compass. If the 
correction for deviation be applied, the True 
Magnetic Bearing is obtained ; and if, further, 
the correction for variation be applied, the True 
Bearing or Azimuth is deduced 

BEARING, MAGNETIC. The magnetic bearing, 
or " True Magnetic Bearing," of an object is the 
angle which its direction makes with the mag 
netic meridian. This is the bearing which "is 
observed with the azimuth compass after being 
corrected for local deviation ; from it the True 
Bearing is deduced by applying the correction 
for variation. 



BEARING, TRUE. The true bearing of an ob 
ject, or the " Bearing," properly so called, is the 
angle which the direction of the object makes 
with the meridian. It is thus qualified to dis 
tinguish it from the Compass and Magnetic Bear 
ing. See AZIMUTH. 

BEARING, TAKING A. Taking a bearing of an 
object is to ascertain its direction by the com- 



BEARINGS, CROSS. " Cross Bearings" are the 
bearings of two or more objects taken from the 
same place, and therefore intersecting or " cross 
ing" each other at the station of the observer. 
"When near a coast where the landmarks are 
well laid down on the chart, cross bearings give 
the position with ease and accuracy. 

BEARING, LINE OF. If a ship is in the vicin 
ity of land, one " Circle of Equal Altitude" 
(Sumner s Method) is often of great use to the 
navigator who is uncertain of his exact position. 
He is on some point of this circle, but does not 
know where. Let him project it on his chart 
and produce the resulting line till it meets or 
passes near the land. Such a line is called a 
"Line of Bearing." If it hit any prominent 
mark or light, the bearing of this is known, and 
by sailing along the line of bearing till the object 
is sighted, the exact position of the ship may be 
picked up. The line of bearing may cross the 
range of a light-house, and consequent!} , when 
the light is first sighted, the exact position of the 
ship is known. Or the position on the line of 
bearing may be found by soundings. When 
the coast trends parallel to the line of bearing, 
the distance of the ship from the shore is indi 
cated, though her absolute position is uncertain. 

Bearing Binnacle. A small binnacle, gener 
ally placed in the centre of the forward part of 
the poop-deck. 

Bearings. The widest part of a vessel below 
the plank-shear. The line of flotation when 
properly trimmed with stores and ballast on 
board. To bring a person to his bearings is to 
bring him to his senses ; to put him under control. 

Beat. To make progress against a head wind 
by a series of zigzag courses. 

Beaten Back. Forced to return on account 
of a head wind and sea. 

Beating Wind. A wind which necessitates 
tacking to make progress. 

Beating the Booby. Swinging the arms from 
side to side to create a warmth by accelerating 
the circulation of the blood. 

Beaufort (S. C.), a port of entry, on Port 
Royal or Beaufort Island, on an inlet called 
Port Royal River, about 14 miles from the 
ocean, and 55 miles W.S.W. of Charleston. 
Pop. 2000. 

Beaumont, J. C., Commodore U.S.N. Ap 
pointed midshipman, March 1, 1838; sloops-of- 
war "Ontario" and "Erie," 1838-40; frigate 
"Constellation" during her cruise around the 
world, 1840-44. 

Promoted to passed midshipman, 1844; sloop- 
of-war " Jamestown," coast of Africa, acting mas 
ter, 1844-46; ship-of-the-line "Ohio," West 
India Squadron, 1846; at the fall of Vera Cruz ; 
frigate " Columbia," 1847, acting lieutenant ; 
Naval Observatory, Washington, D. C., 1848; 
razee " Independence," Mediterranean Squadron, 
master and acting lieutenant, 1849-52. 

Promoted to lieutenant in 1852; Naval Ob- 



BECALM 



BELFRY 



servatory, 1852-54; steamer "San Jacinto," on 
the coast of Europe and the West Indies, 1854- 
55; frigate "Potomac," Home Squadron, 1856; 
steam-frigate " Wabash," Home Squadron, 1857 ; 
receiving-ship at New York, 1857-58; steam- 
sloop "Hartford," East India Squadron, 1859- 
60; sloop-of-war "John Adams," executive- 
oificer, 1860-61 ; lieutenant-commander, com 
manding steamer " Aroostook," North Atlantic 
Squadron, 1862; was an active participant in 
the engagements with the enemy s batteries in 
the James River and at Fort Darling, in May, 
1862. 

Promoted to commander, 1862 ; commanded 
the steam-gunboat "Sebago," South Atlantic 
Squadron, 1862-63; commanded monitor "Nan- 
tucket," 1863, in various engagements with the 
rebel fortifications in Charleston harbor, and 
took a leading part in the capture of Fort 
"Wagner; commanded steamer "Mackinaw," 
1864-65, in the North and South Atlantic 
Squadrons ; participated in all of the attacks on 
Fort Fisher, where his vessel was badly cut up 
by the enemy s shell ; participated in all of the 
subsequent engagements with the rebel batteries 
on the Cape Fear River ; commanded the iron 
clad " Miantonomah," special cruise on the coast 
of Europe, 1866-67 ; retired in 1868. 

Restored to the active list in 1873, as captain ; 
commanded the steamer "Powhatan," 1873-74, 
special service. 

Promoted to commodore in 1874 ; chief signal- 
officer of the navy, 1875-79 ; commandant navy- 
yard, Portsmouth, N. H., 1879-80. 

Becalm. To render quiet or calm by inter 
cepting the current of air in its passage to the 
object ; thus the jib is becalmed by the foresail 
when before the wind. 

BECALMED. Rendered quiet. State of a ves 
sel at sea when there is no wind. 

Becket. A small grommet used for various 
purposes ; as, for reefing with toggles, for hitch 
ing the standing part of a fall, "etc. A sailor s 
name for pocket. 

Bed. Flat thick pieces of wood, lodged under 
the quarters of casks containing any liquid, 
and stowed in a ship s hold, in order to keep 
them bilge-free ; being steadied upon the beds by 
means of wedges called quoins. The impres 
sion made by a ship s bottom on the mud when 
aground. The bite made in the ground by the 
fluke of an anchor. A kind of false deck, or 
platform, placed on those decks where the guns 
were too low for the ports. A platform for sup 
porting a mortar. That part of the channel of a 
stream over which the water generally flows, as 
also that part of the basin of a sea or lake on 
which the water lies. Bed of a gun-carriage, or 
stool-led. The piece of wood between the brackets 
which, with the intervention of the quoin, sup 
ports the breech of the gun. It is itself sup 
ported, forward, on the bed-bolt, and aft on the 
rear axle. Red of the bowsprit, a bearing formed 
out of the stem and apron, to support the bow 
sprit ; it is lined with lead to prevent the water 
from getting below on account of any shrinkage 
in the timber. 

BED-BOLT. A horizontal bolt passing through 
both brackets of a gun-carriage, and on which 
the forward end of the stool-bed rests. 

BEDDING A CASK. Placing dunnage round it. 

Bedlamers. Young Labrador seals, which 



set up a dismal cry when they cannot escape 
their pursuers. 

Bed- or Barrel-Screw. A powerful machine 
for lifting large bodies, and placed against the 
gripe of a ship to be launched for starting her. 

Be-dundered. Stupefied with noise. 

Bee-blocks, or Bees. Pieces of hard wood 
bolted to the sides of the bowsprit, through 
which are rove the fore-topmast stays. 

Beef. A figurative term for strength. More 
beef ! more men on. 

Beef-eater. A man more distinguished for 

Shysical strength than for mental weight. It is 
ack s term for an Englishman. 

Beetle. A shipwright s heavy mallet for 
driving the reeming-irons. 

Beetle-head. A large beetle used in pile- 
driving. 

Before the Mast. A term used to distin 
guish the ship s crew from the officers. 

Before the Wind. A vessel having the wind 
aft is before the wind. The yards are squared, 
and as the mainsail becalms the foresail and 
causes the ship to steer badly, it is generally 
taken in, though in the very long ships of the 
present day it is sometimes carried. 

Beggar-bolts. A contemptuous term for the 
missiles which were thrown by the galley-slaves 
at an approaching enemy. 

Behavior. The action and qualities of a ship 
under different impulses. Seamen speak of the 
manner in which she behaves as if she acted by 
her own instinct. 

Behring, Vitus, a celebrated Danish navigator. 
Born in Jutland, 1680, entered the Russian navy 
at an early age, and fought with distinction 
against the Swedes. In 1725 engaged in com 
mand of an expedition to explore the Sea of Kamt- 
chatka, this skillful Danish navigator discovered 
in 1728 the straits which connect the Pacific and 
the Atlantic, and they received his name. In a 
subsequent voyage he was wrecked on Behring s 
Island, where he died December 8, 1741. 

Beikat. See BYKAT. 

Beiled. A sea-term in the old law-books, ap 
parently for moored. 

Belay. To secure a rope with turns around a 
pin, cleat, or cavil. 

BELAYING-PIN. A small pin of wood or iron 
to which are made fast the hauling parts of the 
running-gear. 

Belcher, Sir Edward. Born in 1799, entered 
the navy in 1812 as a volunteer ; in 1816 took 
part in the bombardment of Algiers. Distin 
guished above every other British admiral for 
his voyage round the world and his exploration 
of the* American shores of the Pacific, he was 
nevertheless unfortunate in an attempt that he 
made in 1852 to trace the whereabouts or the 
fate of Sir John Franklin. He lost both of his 
ships in the enterprise, and was, according to 
custom, tried by court-martial for the disaster. 
The verdict was honorable acquittal. In 1864 he 
became rear-admiral of the red. 

Belfast (Me.). A city and port of entry on 
the W. side of Penobscot Bay (which is the es 
tuary between the Penobscot River and the 
ocean), 42 miles E. by N. from Augusta, and 30 
miles from the ocean. Many of the inhabitants 
are employed in ship-building. Pop. 6200. 

Belfry. A frame or shelter under which the 
ship s bell is suspended. 



BELL 



74 



BENDS 



Bell. The rapid ringing of a ship s bell is the 
fire-alarm, which see. The tolling of the bell is 
the summons to divine service. The principal 
use of the bell on board ship is to mark the time. 
At four, eight, and twelve o clock the bell is 
struck eight times, half an hour afterwards it is 
struck once, and an hour afterwards it is struck 
twice, and so on until the end of the watch, 
when it is struck eight times, after which the 
preceding routine is again carried out. Time is 
reckoned by bells, thus three bells in the fore 
noon is half-past nine o clock, and four bells in 
the afternoon is two o clock, etc. 

Bell, Charles H., Rear-Admiral U.S.N. 
Born in New York, 1798. Appointed midship 
man June 18, 1812 ; attached to Commodore De- 
catur s squadron all of 1813 and until the spring 
of 1814; in the summer of 1814 was transferred 
to the squadron of Commodore Chauncey, on 
Lake Ontario, where he remained until the war 
ended ; attached to Commodore Decatur s squad 
ron, in the Mediterranean, in 1815. 

Commissioned as lieutenant, March 28, 1820; 
serving in sloop-of-war "Erie," West India 
Squadron, 1829 ; navy-yard, New York, 1833 ; 
sloop " Vincennes," Pacific Squadron, 1834-35; 
commanding schooner * Dolphin , Pacific Squad 
ron, 1836. 

Commissioned as commander, September 10, 
1840, and ordered to command the schooner 
"Dolphin," Brazil Squadron; commanding 
sloop-of-war "Yorktown," coast of Africa, 
1846 ; navy-yard, New York, 1850 ; special duty, 
1851-54. 

Commissioned as captain, August 12, 1854 ; 
commanding frigate " Constellation," Mediter 
ranean Squadron, 1856-58; commandant Norfolk 
navy-yard, 1860. 

Commissioned as commodore, July 16, 1862 ; 
commanding Pacific Squadron, 1862-64 ; special 
duty, James River, 1865. 

Commissioned as rear-admiral, July 25, 1866; 
commandant navy-yard, New York, 1866-68; 
died 1872. 

Bell, Henry H. f Rear-Admiral U.S.N. Born 
in North Carolina, 1808 ; midshipman, August 
4, 1823 ; lieutenant, March 3, 1831 ; commander, 
August 12, 1854 ; captain, 1861 ; commodore, 
July 16, 1862 ; rear-admiral, July 25, 1866. First 
served in the "Grampus" in clearing the coast 
of Cuba of pirates. He commanded one of the 
vessels of the East India Squadron, which, in 
November, 1856, captured and destroyed the four 
barrier forts near Canton, China. Assigned to 
the Gulf Squadron in 1861, and as fleet-captain 
took an active part in the capture of New Or 
leans and siege of Vicksburg. He was for a 
time in 1863 in command of the West Gulf Squad 
ron, and when Admiral Thatcher was ordered to 
other duty its command again devolved on him. 
In July, 1865, he was ordered to command the 
East India Squadron, and was very active in 
putting down the pirates that infested the Chi 
nese seas. In 1867 he was retired, but had not 
been relieved when he was drowned at the mouth 
of the Osaka River, Japan, January 11, 1868. 

Bella Stella. A name used by old seamen for 
the cross-staif. 

Bellatrix (Lat. warlike). The name for the 
bright star y Orionis. 

Bell-buoy. A buoy on which is placed a bell, 
which is sounded by the action of the waves. 



Belligerent (Lat. bellum, war, and gerens, 
gerentis, waging). Waging war. Tending ot 
pertaining to war ; as, belligerent rights. A nation, 
power, or state carrying on war. See INTER 
NATIONAL LAW. 

Bellona. The goddess of war. 

Bellows. An old hand at the bellows, a phras( 
equivalent to saying that a person is well posted 
in all his duties. When a gale increases th( 
sailors say there is afresh hand at the bellows. 

Bell-rope. A piece of rope spliced around the 
clapper for convenience in striking the bell. 

Belly. The inner or hollow part of comps 
timber. The swell of a sail. Bellying canvas, 
sails inflated with wind. 

BELLY-BAND. A strengthening band of canvas 
from leech to leech, half-way between the lower 
reef-band and the foot of the sail. 

BELLY-GUY. A rope or tackle applied half-way 
up a sheer-leg, or long spar, to keep it from 
buckling. 

BELLY-MAT. See PAUNCH-MAT. 

BELLY-STAY. See BELLY-GUY. 

Belone. A genus of abdominal fishes of the 
Esox or pike family. 

Below. The opposite of on deck. Below the 
spar-deck. 

Belt. A zone ; as, a calm belt. To strike. 

Belting. A beating. 

Beluga. A fish of the cetaceous order and 
dolphin family. The northern beluga is the 
white whale and white-fish of the whalers. 

Benbow, John, Admiral. Born in Shrop 
shire in 1650. Beginning life as a midshipman 
in the reign of James II., Benbow became a 
favorite of his successor, William III. After 
much hard service in different quarters he was 
engaged with a superior French force under Ad 
miral Ducasse off St. Martha, in the West In 
dies, where he lost his right leg. In the midst 
of the fight he was deserted by a part of his 
squadron, which sorely galled him, as it reflected 
on the honor and credit of the navy. He ex 
claimed that he would rather have lost both legs 
than witnessed the disgrace of the service. Died 
November 29, 1702. 

Bench-mark. One of a number of marks 
along a line of survey indicating a series of levels 
at different elevations. 

Bend. To make fast a rope to an anchor, spar, 
or another rope. (See STUN -SAIL-HALLIARD-, 
FISHERMAN S-, SINGLE-, DOUBLE-, and CAR- 
RICK-BEND.) To bend a sail is to make it fast to 
its proper yard, gaff, or stay, and reeve all the 
gear belonging to it. To bend to the oars, to give 
way strong. To bend the cable, the operation of 
making fast the cable to the ring of the anchor. 
The term is still used for shackling the chain to 
the anchor. 

Bender. A spree or jollification. 

Bend-mold. A mold made to form the fut- 
tocks in the square body. 

Bends. The thickest and strongest planks on 
the outward part of a ship s side. They are more 
properly called wales. They are reckoned from 
the water, and are distinguished by the titles of 
first, second, or third bend. They are the chief 
strength of a ship s sides, and have the beams, 
knees, and foot-hooks bolted to them. Bends 
are also the frames or ribs that form the ship s 
body from the keel to the top of the side, indi 
vidualized by each particular station. That at 



BE-NEAPED 



75 



BIDDLE 



the broadest part of the ship is denominated the 
midship-bend or dead-flat. 

Be-neaped. The situation of a vessel when 
she is aground at the height of spring-tides. 
See NEAPED. 

Bengal-light. See BLUE-LIGHT. 

Benicia (Cal.). On the north side of the 
Strait of Carquinez, about 40 miles N.E^. of San 
Francisco, and 56 miles S.W. of Sacramento. 
It is at the head of navigation for the largest 
ships, and contains the depot and machine-shops 
of the Pacific Mail Company. Pop. 2000. 

Benjy. A low-crowned straw hat, with a very 
broad brim. 

Benk. A term for a low bank, or ledge of 
rock ; probably the origin of bunk, or sleeping- 
places in merchant vessels. See BUNK. 

Benn. A small kind of salmon. 

Bent. The trivial name of the Arundo are- 
naria, or coarse unprofitable grass growing on 
the sea-shore. 

Bentinck-boom. The boom which stretches 
the foot of the foresail in many small square- 
rigged merchantmen ; particularly used in 
whalers in the ice, with a reefed foresail to see 
clearly ahead. The tack and sheet are thus 
dispensed with, a tackle amidships bringing the 
leeches taut. 

Bentincks. Triangular courses, so named 
after Captain Bentinck, by whom they were 
invented. 

Bentinck Shrouds. Ropes of the size of the 
topmast rigging, seized on to the weather futtock- 
staff and set up to the lee channels, to support 
the mast when rolling heavily. They are not 
now in use. 

Bent on a Splice. Going to be married. 

Bergen, a fortified city and seaport of Nor 
way, is on a peninsula at the end of a deep bay 
on the Atlantic, 190 miles W.N.W. of Chris- 
tiania. Lat. 60 24 N. ; Ion. 5 18 E. Bergen 
is the station of a naval squadron. Its harbor is 
deep and sheltered, and defended by several forts. 
Ship-building is carried on ; the fishery is, how 
ever, the principal employment. Pop. 36,000. 

Bermuda Sails. See MuGiAN. 

Bermuda Squall. A sudden and strong wintry 
tempest experienced in the Atlantic Ocean, near 
the Bermudas ; it is preceded by heavy clouds, 
thunder, and lightning. It belongs to the Gulf 
Stream, and is felt, throughout its course, up to 
the banks of Newfoundland. 

Bermudez, Juan. A Spaniard who, in the 
era of Spanish discoveries (1522), came upon 
the cluster of islands in the "West Indies, to 
which he gave his own name. The Bermudas, 
though often "vexed" with storms, are among 
the most beautiful of the isles of the west, and 
are particularly valuable as harbors for vessels 
bound either to the north or south of the Amer 
ican continent. They are now the property of 
Great Britain. "Somerset Island" derives its 
name from a navigator who was driven upon it 
in a gale. 

Bermudians. Three-masted schooners, built 
at Bermuda for the English during the war of 
1814 ; they went through the waves without 
rising to them, and consequently were too tick 
lish for northern stations. 

Bernak. The barnacle goose (Anser bernicla). 

Bersis. A species of cannon formerly much 
used at sea. 



Berth. The place in which a ship lies when 
she is at anchor. Situation, position, or em 
ployment of an individual. The space allotted 
to a sailor to sleep in. To give a point or rock a 
wide berth, to keep at a considerable distance 
from it. To berth a ship s company, to allot to 
the crew the place in which they are to swing 
their hammocks. The watches are distributed 
in equal numbers on each side of the ship. The 
boys are berthed apart from the men. Marines, 
quartermasters, and others who sleep in till six 
bells are berthed well aft, so they will not be 
disturbed when all hands are called. Boat 
swain s mates swing near the hatches. Over 
each man s hammock-hook is hung a tin plate 
with his hammock-number. 

BERTH-DECK. The deck next below the lower 
gun-deck. 

Berthing. The rising or working up of the 
planks of the ship s side. Berthing also denotes 
the planking outside above the sheer-strake. 

Bervie. A haddock split and half dried. 

Berwick Smack (Eng.). The old and well- 
found packet of former days. 

Bessemer Process. See STEEL. 

Best Bower. See ANCHOR. 

Betelguese, or Betelgeux. The name for the 
bright star a Orionis. 

Betty Martin. My eye and Betty Martin is 
an expression implying disbelief. It is a corrup 
tion of the Romish mtAt, beate Marline I 

Between-decks. The space comprised be 
tween any two whole decks. 

Betwixt Wind and Water. That portion of 
a vessel s side which is sometimes below and 
sometimes above the surface of the water. This 
is the most dangerous place to receive a shot, 
hence the figurative phrase " a shot betwixt wind 
and water," to express a palpable hit in an 
argument. 

Bevel. Any angle except a right angle ; 
a sloped surface. An instrument composed of a 
stock and movable tongue, used by shipwrights 
in getting out frame timber, plank, etc., to the 
desired angle. 

BEVELING,. The angle formed between one 
surface and another. When it is an obtuse 
angle it is called a standing beveling ; when the 
angle is acute it is called an under beveling. 

BEVELING-BOARD. A piece of white pine board 
on which the beveling of the frame timbers is 
described. 

BEVELING-EDGE. The edge of a ship s frame 
which is in contact with the skin. 

Bewpar. The old name for bunting. 

Bezant. An early gold coin, so called from 
having been first coined at Byzantium. 

Bhur. A lighter used for discharging cargo 
at Calcutta. 

Bibbs. Pieces of timber bolted to the hounds 
of a mast, to support the tressle-trees. 

Bible. A small holystone. It is also called 
a prayer-book. It is so named because sailors 
kneel in using them to clean the decks. 

Bible-press. A hand rolling-board for car 
tridges, rocket, and port-fire cases. 

Biiddle, James, Commodore U.S.N., was born 
in Philadelphia in 1783, and entered the navy as 
midshipman in 1800. On his second cruise he was 
captured, with Capt. Bainbridge and the other 
ofiicers and crew of the frigate " Philadelphia," 
by the Tripolitans, when that ship had struck 



BIDDLE 



76 



BILGE 



upon an unknown rock off the harbor. After an 
imprisonment of twenty months the captives were 
released. From that time until the war of 1812 
Biddle was actively employed, end upon the 
breaking out of hostilities sailed in the sloop-of- 
war "Wasp," Capt. Jacob Jones, as first lieu 
tenant. In October, 1812, the "Wasp" cap 
tured the British sloop-of-war "Frolic," of 
about equal force, this being the second of those 
famous naval combats of which Alison says, 
" No words can convey an adequate idea of the 
impression which the successive capture of these 
three frigates and two sloops made, not only in 
Great Britain and America, but over the whole 
civilized world." For gallantry on this occa 
sion Lieut. Biddle was promoted, and placed in 
command of the sloop-of-war "Hornet." On 
this ship he was blockaded, with Commodore 
Decatur s squadron, in New London. Escaping 
the blockade he sailed for the East Indies, and 
off the island of Tristan d Acunha encountered 
the British brig " Penguin," of equal force with 
the "Hornet." After an action of twenty-two 
minutes, in which the British ship lost a third 
of her officers and crew killed and wounded, the 
"Penguin" surrendered, but was so damaged 
that it was necessary to scuttle her. Biddle was 
severely wounded in the neck, and on his return 
to the United States was promoted to the rank 
of captain. 

After the termination of the war he was con 
stantly employed both in the ordinary routine of 
duty and also upon special services of more impor 
tance. In 1817 he took possession of Oregon Ter 
ritory ; in 1826 he signed a commercial treaty with 
Turkey. From 1838 to 1842 he was governor of the 
Naval Asylum, Philadelphia ; and at his sugges 
tion Secretary Paulding sent thither unemployed 
midshipmen for instruction, thus laying the foun 
dation of a naval school. His last cruise was in 
command of a squadron in the East Indies. 
After exchanging the ratifications of the first 
treaty with China, in 1845, he touched at Japan, 
and was for a short time in command on the 
coast of California during the Mexican war. He 
died in Philadelphia in October, 1848. 

Biddle, Nicholas, Captain U.S.N. An officer 
of the Colonial period. In command of the 
" Andrew Doria," of 14 guns, he displayed great 
activity, zeal, and intelligence. He made a num 
ber of prizes, and had at an early period raised 
the expectations of his friends to such a height 
that by many of them he was pronounced, and 
probably justly, not to have his superior in merit 
in the service. While cruising near the banks 
of Newfoundland he intercepted two transports, 
with 400 Highland troops on board, and was so 
successful in making captures that it is said he 
returned to the Delaware with five only of the 
men which composed his crew when he last left 
that river. He had distributed them among the 
captured, and received in return such of the crews 
of his prizes as were disposed to enter the Con 
tinental service. Capt. Biddle was appointed by 
Congress (June 6, 1776) to command one of the 
frigates then building in Philadelphia, the 
" Randolph," of 32 guns. In February, 1777, 
she sailed on a cruise. In a few days a defect 
discovered in his masts induced him to put into 
Charleston, S. C., to repair them. Having re 
fitted, he again sailed, and three days after 
being out tie fell in with four vessels from 



Jamaica, one of them, the "True Briton," of 
20 guns. Having captured the whole four, he re 
turned with them to Charleston. This success 
gave such animation and encouragement to the 
State authorities of South Carolina that they 
fitted out four small vessels of war (" General 
Moultrie," "Fair American," "Polly," and 
"Notre Dame"), and placed them under the 
orders of Capt. Biddle. The immediate object 
was an attack upon the " Carrysfort," 32, the 
"Perseus," 24, the " Hinchinbrook," 16, and 
a privateer then cruising off Charleston. The 
bar of Charleston and adverse winds detained 
Capt. Biddle so long in Rebellion Road, that 
when he got to sea the British cruisers had dis 
appeared. He captured a small schooner, and 
proceeded on his cruise till, between 8 and 
o clock at night of March 7, 1778, he fell in 
with the "Yarmouth," Capt. Vincent, of 64 
guns. An action immediately commenced by a 
broadside from the " Randolph," and was main 
tained with great energy for twenty minutes or 
more, when the "Randolph" blew up, and the 
gallant Biddle, with 310 of his crew, perished in 
a blaze of glory. Four only of his men escaped, 
and they were picked up by the " Yarmouth" 
four days after the action, having supported 
themselves on a piece of the wreck, without any 
thing to subsist on or quench their thirst ex 
cepting rain-water sucked from a blanket, which 
they had providently preserved. 

Bid-hook. A small kind of boat-hook. 

Biel-brief. The bottomry contract in Den 
mark, Sweden, and the north of Germany. 

Bierling. An old name for a small galley. 

Bifurcate. A river is said to bifurcate, or to 
form a fork, when it divides into two distinct 
branches, as at the heads of deltas and in fluvial 
basins. 

Bight. The loop of a rope. A bend of the 
coast forming a wide-mouthed bay. 

Bilander. A small merchant vessel with two 
masts, particularly distinguished by the form of 
her mainsail. It is bent to the whole length of 
the yard, hangs fore-and-aft, and is inclined at 
an angle of 45 to the horizon. Few vessels are 
now rigged in this manner, and the name is in 
discriminately used. 

Bilbo. An old term for a flexible kind of 
cutlass from Bilboa, where the best Spanish 
sword-blades were made. 

Bilboa. A city and seaport of Spain, on the 
Nerva, 6 miles from its mouth. Lat. 40 14 
3" N. ; Ion. 2 56 / 5" W. Bilboa has large rope- 
walks and docks for ship-building, and the an 
chors for the Spanish navv are here manufactured. 
Pop. 27,000. 

Bilboes. Bolts and shackles used by the 
Spanish to confine the legs of their prisoners. 

Bilge, or Bulge. The largest circumference 
of a cask. That part of the hull of a ship which 
approaches more nearly to a horizontal than to 
a vertical position. W hen a ship runs aground 
and receives an injury in this part of the hull 
she is said to be bilged. To bilge, in a figurative 
sense, means to be dropped from the service for 
failure to pass an examination. 

BILGE-BOARD. The board covering the lim 
bers. 

BILOE-FEVEK. A fever caused by the foulness 
of the hold. 

BILGE-FREE. The situation of a cask when it 



BILL 



77 



BILL OF LADING 



rests entirely on its beds, and the bilge is clear 
of everything. 

BILGE-KEEL. A projection on the bilge of a 
vessel parallel with the keel. Used in flat-bot 
tomed light-draft vessels to check the rolling. 

BILGE-KELSON. A timber extending fore-and- 
aft inside the bilge to strengthen the frame. 

BILGE-PLANK. A strengthening plank at the 
bilge outside or inside. 

BILGE-PUMP. A pump for clearing the hold 
of water. A small pump for drawing off the 
bilge- water when the ship is careened so that the 
water cannot make its way to the pump-well. 

BILGE-WATER. "Water that has collected in 
the bottom of a ship. It should be pumped out 
frequently, as it soon gives off an offensive odor 
and endangers the health of the crew. 

BILGE-WATER ALARM. A bilge water gauge 
(which see), to which is an attachment that 
sounds an alarm when the water has risen to a 
certain height. 

BILGE- WATER DISCHARGE. An apparatus for 
discharging the bilge- water automatically ; a 
tube from the pump-well through the stern, 
through which a current is induced by the 
vacuum which is formed at the rear orifice by 
the passage of the ship through the water. 

BILGE-VATER GAUGE. An apparatus to in 
dicate the depth of water in the hold. 

BILGE-WAYS. A series of timbers on either 
side of a vessel on the launching-ways, on which 
rests the cradle which supports the body of the 
ship in launching. 

Bill. The end of a compass or knee-timber. 
The extremity of the arm of an anchor. A 
point of land, as Portland Bill. The point of a 
hook. See FIRE-BILL, WATCH-BILL, QUARTER- 
BILL, and STATION-BILL. 

Bill of Entry. A document containing an 
account of goods entered at a custom-house, 
either inward or outward. 

Bill of Exchange. A note ordering the pay 
ment of a sum of money at a specified time and 
place, to a person therein appointed, in consider 
ation of value received by the drawer at another. 

The negotiation of inland bills of exchange, or 
those drawn by one person on another residing in 
the same country, may be effected either with or 
without the agency of bankers. 

Usually there are three parties to a bill of ex 
change, viz., the drawer, the acceptor, and the 
indorser. When a party refuses to accept a bill 
drawn upon him, the holder s notary takes pro 
test upon it, whereupon it is returned to the 
original drawer, who is liable in damages to the 
holder. Should the bill be accepted, but not 
paid when due, the holder s notary protests for 
non-payment. The acceptor is always liable to 
the holder ; and the holder has recourse also 
against the drawer and the indorsers : the acceptor 
is liable only for the expenses of an action against 
himself, therefore the holder must make his elec 
tion whom to sue. To preserve this recourse the 
earliest possible notice of the non-payment of a 
bill, to the drawer, and also to the indorsers, must 
be given. Every bill must be for payment of 
money only ; but it does not affect the validity of 
a bill that its payment should depend upon some 
contingency, provided it be a contingency which 
must eventually happen, such as the death of a 
party now living. An alteration in the date, sum, 
or time of payment of a bill, will invalidate it ; 



but it has been ruled that the words " or order" 
may be interlined in it. A bill may be accepted 
either absolutely or with qualifications. When 
accepted qualifiedly, it does not bind the acceptor 
till the contingency stipulated shall have hap 
pened. A bill may be also accepted partially, 
that is, it may be drawn for $200, but accepted 
only for $150. In all cases of conditional or 
partial acceptance, it is the duty of the holder, 
if he wish to preserve his recourse against the 
drawer and indorsers, to give notice to them 
of such partial or conditional acceptance. When 
a bill is made payable a certain time after sight, 
the holder must get the acceptor to note upon 
it the day when it was presented for his ac 
ceptance. Notice of the dishonoring of a bill 
by non-payment, or non-acceptance, should al 
ways be given to the immediate indorser, next 
day, through the post-office. Bills may be trans 
ferred either by delivery only or by indorsation 
and delivery. Bills payable to order require in 
dorsation and delivery ; but bills payable to 
bearer may be transferred by either mode. A 
special indorsement precludes the person in 
whose favor it is made from making a transfer. 
After the payment of a part, a bill may be in 
dorsed over for the residue. If a bill is not pre 
sented for payment when due, the drawer and 
indorser will be exonerated from liability. , If a 
bill fall due on Sunday, or a holiday, it must be 
presented for payment on the day preceding. 
The days of grace ought to have expired before 
a bill is presented for payment. No days of 
grace are allowed on bills payable on demand, or 
where no time of payment is expressed. 

Bills of exchange may be drawn payable at 
sight, or so many days or months after date, or 
at usance, as it is termed ; that is, the usual term 
allowed by the law of the place where the bill is 
payable. Most countries, however, allow a few 
days beyond the term of payment for settling or 
taking up a bill. These are called days of grace. 

Bill of Freedom. A full pass for a neutral in 
time of war. 

Bill of Health. A certificate properly authen 
ticated by the consul, or other proper authority 
at any port, that the ship comes from a place 
where no contagious disorder prevails, and that 
none of the crew, at the time of her departure, 
were infected with any such distemper. Such 
constitutes a clean bill of health, in contradis 
tinction to &foul bill. 

Bill of Lading. A document signed by the 
master of a ship by which he acknowledges the 
receipt of a merchant s goods, and undertakes to 
deliver the same at the place to which they are 
consigned. Bills of lading are generally printed, 
leaving blanks to be filled in. Three sets are 
made out, one of which should be sent to the 
consignee by mail ; the second transmitted to 
him by the vessel itself ; and the third retained 
by the shipper. Bills of lading are transferable 
by indorsement. The indorsement and delivery 
of the bill of lading transfers the property in 
the goods from the time of such delivery. The 
bona fide holder of the bill, indorsed by the con 
signee, is entitled to the goods if he purchased 
the bill for a valuable consideration. Where 
there are several bills of lading, each is a con 
tract in itself as to the holder of it, but the whole 
make only one contract as to the master and 
owners. If the several parts of the bill of lading 



BILL OF PARCELS 



78 



BLACK-HOLE 



be indorsed to different persons, a competition 
may arise for the goods ; and the rule generally 
is that if the equities be equal, the property passes 
by the bill first indorsed. See CHARTEK PARTY. 

Bill of Parcels. A written account, given by 
seller to buyer, of the quantities, sorts, and prices 
of goods bought. 

Bill of Rights. In English law the declara 
tion delivered by the two houses of Parliament 
to the Prince of Orange, February 13, 1688, at the 
period of his succession to the British throne, in 
which, after a full specification of various acts 
of James II. which were alleged to be illegal, 
the rights and privileges of the people were as 
serted. In the United States the term is applied 
to a declaration of the fundamental rights and 
liberties of the people which, in the shape of ab 
stract propositions and elementary principles, 
forms part of the constitutions of many of the 
States. 

Bill of Sale. See VESSELS, TITLE TO. 

Bill of Sight. "When an importer, from 
ignorance of the actual quantities or qualities 
of goods assigned to him, is unable to make an 
exact entry at the custom-house, he is allowed to 
make an entry by bill of sight, that is, accord 
ing to the best description that can be given. 
On this, the collector or comptroller is empow 
ered to grant warrant for the landing of the 
goods, the importer being bound to make, within 
three days afterwards, a perfect entry, and either 
to pay down the duties or to warehouse the 
goods. 

Bill of Store. A license granted by the cus 
tom-officers for carrying, free of duty, such stores 
as may be necessary for a voyage. Returned 
goods may be entered by a bill of store. 

Bill-boards. Projections of oak plank se 
cured to the bow of the ship abaft the cat-heads 
for the fluke of the anchor to rest on. 

Billet. The tin tag hung above the ham 
mock-hook on which the number is painted. 
An individual s situation or employment. A 
memorandum of the various duties and stations 
of a seaman, which is given to him when he first 
comes on board for duty. 

Billet-head. A scroll-head. A round piece 
of wood fitted to the bow or stern of a whale- 
boat, around which the line is veered when the 
whale is struck. 

Billet-wood. Small wood used for dunnage. 

Bill-fish. See GAR-FISH. 

Billow. A great wave or surge of the sea. 

Bindings. A general term for beams, knees, 
clamps, transoms, and other connecting parts of 
a vessel. 

Binding Strakes. Thick planks on the decks, 
running just outside the line of hatches, jogged 
down over the beams and ledges. The principal 
strakes of plank in a vessel, especially the sheer- 
strake and wales. 

Binge. To rinse a cask. 

Bingid. An old term for locker. 

Bink. See BENK. 

Binnacle. A case or box to contain the com 
pass. It is fitted with a lamp to light up the 
card at night. 

BINNACLE-LIGHT. The lamp used in a bin 
nacle. 

Binocle. A telescope adapted to the use of. 
both eyes. 

BINOCULAR TELESCOPE. A two-barreled tele 



scope invented by Galileo in 1617, though the 
invention is sometimes credited to Schyrleus de 
Rheita. 

Bior-linn. A very old word for boat. 

Bird s-foot Sea-star. The Palmipes me 
branaceous, one of the Arteriadce, with a fl 
thin, pentagonal body, of a bright scarlet color. 

Bird s-nest. A round top at a mast-head f< 
a look-out station. A smaller crow s-n 
Chiefly used in whalers, where a constant loo 
out is kept for whales. See EDIBLE BIRD 

NEST. 

Bireme. In Roman antiquity, a vessel wi 
two rows of oars. 

Birt. A kind of turbot. 

Birth-marks. Marks denoting the depth 
which a ship may be loaded with safety. 

Biscuit. Hard bread for naval use. 

Bishop. A name of the great northern div 
(Colymbus glacialis). 

Bismer. A name of the stickleback (Qast\ 
osteus spinachia}. 

Bissextile (Lat. bis, twice, and sextus, sixth 
"Leap-year." In the Julian calendar eve 
fourth year consisted of 366 days. The add 
tional day was inserted after the 24th of Febru 
ary, which in the Roman calendar was called 
"the sixth day before the Calends of March," 
and being reckoned twice over every fourth year 
it was called bissextus dies, and the year was 
named Bissextilis. 

Bit. A short bit is equal to 12 cents, a long 
bit to 25 cents. The term arose from the cutting 
of Spanish silver coins into " bits." It is still in 
use in the west, especially in California. 

Bite. The hold which the short end of a lever 
has under the object to be lifted. When the 
fluke of an anchor enters the ground it is said 
to bite. 

Bitt. To take a turn with the cable around 
the head of the bitts. To double bitt or to 
weather-bitt the cable is to take an extra turn 
around the head of the bitts. 

Bitter. Any turn of the cable around the 
bitts. Hence a ship is brought to a bitter when 
the chain has run out to that point. 

Bitter-end. The last end. The end of the 
cable not bent to the anchor. 

Bitt-head. The upper part of the bitts. 

Bitt-pin. A large iron pin in the head of the 
bitts to prevent the chain from slipping off in 
veering. 

Bitts. Vertical timbers projecting above the 
decks. The bitts for the cable are circular, and 
are coated with iron. There are generally two 
pairs of them, the after pair being used for the 
sheet-chains. The topsail-sheet bitts are fixed 
near to, and forward of, the masts. 

Bitt-stopper. A stopper used at the bitts for 
securing the cable. See STOPPER. 

Bize. A cold wind from the summits of the 
Pyrenees. 

Blackamoor. A thoroughly black negro. 

Black-and-tan. An epithet applied to a 
mulatto. 

Black-bird Catching. The slave-trade. 

Black-birds. Negroes. 

Black-fish. A name applied to many differ 
ent species of cetaceans. 

Black-head. The pewitt-gull (Larus ridi- 
bundus). 

Black-hole. A place of solitary confinement. 



n 



BLACK INDIES 



79 



BLAKE 



Black Indies. Newcastle, Sunderland, and 
Shields. 

Blacking down. The operation of tarring and 
blacking the rigging. 

Black-jack. A piratical-looking individual. 
The ensign of a pirate. 

Black-list. A record of misdemeanors for 
merly kept by officers for their private use. The 
list of men who are detailed for extra duty as a 
punishment. 

Black Ship. A term applied to a ship built 
in India, of teak. 

Black South-easter. A well-known violent 
wind at the Cape of Good Hope, in which vapory 
clouds, called the Devil s Table-cloth, appear on 
Table Mountain. 

Black Squall. This squall may be principally 
ascribed to the heated state of the atmosphere 
near the land. 

Black-strake. The range of planks just above 
the wales. 

Black-strap. Bad port wine. The dark wines 
of the Mediterranean. 

Black-tang. The sea-weed Fucus vesicolosus, 
or tangle. 

Blackwall-hitch. A hitch made by putting 
the bight of a rope over the back of a hook, and 
jamming the end under the standing part. It 
is used principally for the hauling part of a 
tackle when there is not sufficient length to 
make a cat s-paw. 

Black Whale. A name for the right whale 
of the south seas (Balcena australis), 

Black Vomit. A copious vomiting of dark- 
colored matter, or the substance so discharged ; 
one of the most fatal symptoms in yellow fever. 

Blad. A term used on the northern coasts of 
Great Britain for a squall accompanied by rain. 

Bladder-fish. A name for the tetrodon. See 
BALLOON-FISH. 

Blade. The cutting part of a sword or cutlass. 
The part of the arm of an anchor prepared to 
receive the palm. One of the projecting arms 
of a screw-propeller. The part of an oar which 
is immersed in the water in rowing. 

Blae, or Blea. The alburnum or sap-wood of 
timber. 

Blake, George S., Commodore U.S.N. Born 
in Massachusetts. Appointed midshipman, April 
23, 1818 ; commissioned as lieutenant, March 31, 
1827; West India Squadron, 1829; survey of 
Narragansett Bay, 1831-33 ; navy-yard, Phila 
delphia, 1834 ; coast survey, 1837-48 ; navy-yard, 
Philadelphia, 1848 ; commissioned as commander, 
February 27, 1847 ; fleet-captain, Mediterranean 
Squadron, 1850-52 ; bureau construction, 1853- 
55 ; commissioned as captain, September 14, 1855 ; 
special duty, 1856-57; superintendent Naval 
Academy, 1858-65 ; commissioned as commo 
dore, July 16, 1862 ; light-house inspector, 1866- 
69; died "at Longwood, Mo., June 24, 1871. 

Blake, Homer C., Commodore U.S.N. Born 
in New York, 1822. Appointed midshipman, 
March 2, 1840; frigate "Constellation," East 
India Squadron, 1841-43 ; sloop " Preble," coast 
of Africa, 1843-45; naval school, 1846; sloop 
"Preble," Pacific Squadron, 1846-48. 

Promoted to passed midshipman, July 11, 
1846; receiving-ship, New York, 1849-50; 
frigate " Raritan," Pacific Squadron, 1850-52; 
receiving-ship, Boston, 1853-56. 

Commissioned as lieutenant, September 14, 



1855 ; frigate " St. Lawrence," Brazil Squadron, 
1857-59; frigate "Sabine," Home Squadron, 
186162. 

Commissioned as lieutenant-commander, July 
16, 1862; commanding steamer "Hatteras," West 
ern Gulf Blockading Squadron, 1862-63. On 
January 11, 1863, the "Hatteras," while at an 
chor off Galveston, Texas, was ordered by signal 
from the "Brooklyn," flag-ship of the division 
blockading Galveston, to chase a sail to the 
southward and eastward. Commander Blake at 
once obeyed the signal, and steamed at all speed 
in the direction indicated, and rapidly gained 
upon the suspicious vessel, which was discovered 
to be a steamer. When within about four miles 
of the vessel, it was observed that she had ceased 
to steam, and was lying "broadside on," await 
ing the approach of the " Hatteras." When at 
about the distance of seventy-five yards, Com 
mander Blake hailed, and asked, " What steamer 
is that?" The reply was, " Her Britannic Ma 
jesty s ship Vixen. " Commander Blake ordered 
a boat to be sent aboard, but before the order 
could be obeyed, the commander of the strange 
craft hailed and said, " We are the Confederate 
steamer Alabama, " which was accompanied by 
a broadside. The " Hatteras" returned the fire 
almost instantly, and steamed directly for the 
"Alabama" in the hope to carry her by board 
ing ; but the attempt was defeated by the com 
mander of the piratical craft. At length a shell 
entered the hold of the " Hatteras," and at the 
same instant another shell passed through the 
"sick bay," exploding in an adjoining compart 
ment, and setting fire to the vessel. Still another 
shell entered the cylinder, filling the engine-room 
and deck with steam, and depriving Commander 
Blake of all power to manoeuvre his vessel or 
work the pumps, upon which the reduction of 
the fire depended. With the vessel on fire in 
two places and her engine disabled, Commander 
Blake felt that it was useless to sacrifice the lives 
of his command, and so ordered a lee gun to be 
fired. The "Alabama" then asked if assistance 
was desired, to which an affirmative answer was 
given. After considerable delay, the " Ala 
bama" sent assistance, and the crew and officers 
of the " Hatteras" were transferred to the " Ala 
bama." Ten minutes after the crew left her 
decks, the "Hatteras" went down bow first. 
The battery upon the " Alabama" brought into 
action against the "Hatteras" numbered seven 
guns, consisting of four long 32-pounders, one 
100-pounder rifled gun, one 68-pounder, and one 
24-pounder rifled gun. The guns used in the action 
by the "Hatteras were two short 32-pounders, one 
30-pounder rifled Parrot, and one 20-pounder 
rifled gun. The action was fought at a distance of 
about seventy-five yards. The crew of the " Hat 
teras" was landed at Port Royal, Jamaica, and 
was with all dispatch conveyed from Port 
Royal to Kingston, under the guidance of the 
American vice-consul, John N. Camp. Com 
manding steamer < Utah , North Atlantic Block 
ading Squadron, 1863-65; shelled three divisions 
of rebel army at Malvern Hill, 1864 ; assisted 
to repulse an attack of the rebels on the right of 
the army of the James, October, 1864; engage 
ment with rebel batteries at Trent Reach, James 
River, 1865; navy-yard, Portsmouth, N. H., 
1866-68. 

Commissioned as commander, March 3, 1866 ; 



BLAKE 



BLOCK 






commanding steam-sloop " Swatara," European 
Squadron, 1868-69 ; commanding steam-sloop 
"Alaska," Asiatic Fleet, 1870-72. 

Commissioned as captain, May 25, 1871 ; com 
manding naval rendezvous, New York, 1873-78. 

Promoted to commodore, 1880, and died in 
February of that year. 

Blake, Robert. Born at Bridgewater, in 
Somersetshire, in 1599. In the annals of the 
Commonwealth of England few names stand 
higher than that of this bold seaman. He was 
appointed for his pre-eminent ability and singu 
lar intrepidity "General of the Sea" in 1649, 
yet he was fifty years of age before he became a 
sailor. One of his earliest exploits was the de 
feat of Prince Rupert s fleet on the Tagus in 
1651. In 1652 he gained a victory over Van 
Tromp after a running fight of three days. The 
piratical Tunisians had no mercy at his hands. 
His greatest achievement was at Santa Cruz, in 
1657. The Spaniards, with several treasure- 
ships, were, as they supposed, impregnable with 
in the fortified harbor; but Blake dashed in, 
faced the fire of the castle, silenced the smaller re 
doubts, and, seizing the richly-laden galleons, 
sailed out without the loss of a single ship. It 
was truly said of him that " it would have been 
hard to find the thing which Blake dared not 
do." Died at Plymouth, August 17, 1657. 

Blakeley, Johnston, Captain U.S.N. Born 
at Seaford, county Down, Ireland, October, 1781; 
lost at sea in 1814. His father emigrated to Wil 
mington, N. C. The members of his family dying 
one by one, he was left alone in the world, and had 
also the misfortune to lose the little remnant of 
their property. A friend gave him an education, 
and procured for him a midshipman s warrant, 
February 5, 1800. Made lieutenant, February 10, 
1807; master-commander, July 24, 1813; captain, 
November 24, 1814. In 1813 he commanded the 
brig " Enterprise," and did good service in pro 
tecting our coasting trade. In August he was ap 
pointed to "The Wasp," in which, June 28, 1814, 
he captured, after an action of nineteen minutes, 
in latitude 48 36 north, H. B. M. ship " Rein 
deer," which he was obliged to burn. This 
severe action showed the manifest superiority of 
American gunnery. The "Reindeer" made 
three attempts to board, in the last of which her 
gallant commander was slain. For this exploit 
Congress voted him a gold medal with suitable 
devices. September 1, 1814, in a severe action 
with the brig "Avon," he compelled her to 
strike ; but the approach of another enemy pre 
vented his taking possession of her. " The 
Wasp" was afterward spoken off the Western 
Isles, and on September 21 captured the brig 
" Atalanta," which arrived safely in Savannah, 
and brought the last direct intelligence ever re 
ceived from " The Wasp." Being heavily armed 
and sparred, and very deep-waisted, she probably 
foundered in a gale. His only child, a daughter, 
was educated at the expense of the State of North 
Carolina. 

Blank. The white mark in the centre of a 
target. See POINT-BLANK and CARTRIDGE. 

Blanket. The layer of blubber under the skin 
of a whale. 

Blare. To bellow or roar vehemently. A 
mixture of hair and tar, used for calking the 
seams of boats. 

Blarney. Idle discourse ; obsequious flattery. 



Blashy. Watery or dirty ; as, a blashy day. 
In parlance, trifling, flimsy. 

Blast. A sudden and violent gust of wind. 

Blast-engine. An apparatus for urging the 
fire of a furnace. A ventilating machine to draw 
off the foul air from a ship s hold and force fresh 
air into it. 

Blast-furnace. A furnace in which the sup 
ply of air is furnished by a pneumatic apparatus. 

Blast-pipe. A pipe to convey steam into the 
smoke-stack to aid the draft. 

Blather. Thin mud ; idle nonsense. 

Blay. A name of the bleak (which see). 

Blazer. A term applied to a mortar-vessel, 
from the great emission of flame when the mor 
tar is fired. 

Blazing-star. A popular name for a comet. 

Bleak. The Leuciscus alburnus of naturalists, 
and the fresh-water sprat of Izaak Walton. The 
name of this fish is from the Anglo-Saxon blican, 
owing to its shining whiteness, its lustrous scales 
having long been used in the manufacture of false 
pearls. 

Bleed the Buoys. To let the water out. 

Bleeding the Monkey. The monkey was a 
tall pyramidal kid or bucket, which conveyed 
the grog from the grog-tub to the mess, stealing 
from this in transitu was termed bleeding the 
monkey. 

Blenny. A small acanthopterygious fish. 
(Blennius). 

Blether-head. A blockhead. 

Blethering. Talking idle nonsense ; insolent 
prate. 

Blind. A name on the west coast of Scot 
land for the pogge, or miller s-thumb (Coitus 
cataphractus}. 

Blind-bucklers. Those fitted for the hawse- 
holes, which have no aperture for the cable, and 
used at sea to prevent the water coming in. 

Blind-harbor. One, the entrance of which is 
so shut in as not readily to be perceived. 

Blind-rock. One lying just under the surface 
of the water, so as not to be visible in calms. 

Blind-shell. A shell with a large fuse-hole 
and filled with composition, to indicate the range 
at night. A shell which does not explode. 

Blind-stakes. A sort of river-weir. 

Blink. A term in Greenland for iceberg. 

Blink of the Ice. The reflection of an iceberg 
in the air above it. 

Blirt. A gust of wind and rain. 

Bloat. To dry by smoke ; a method applied 
almost exclusively to cure herrings. Bloated is 
also applied to any half-dried fish. i 

BLOATER. A herring dried by smoke. 

Blocco. Paper and hair used in calking a 
vessel s bottom. 

Block. The large piece of timber out of which 
a figure-head is carved. One of the transverse 
timbers on which a ship is built or placed for re 
pairs. A flat oval piece of wood containing one 
or more sheaves. Blocks are used either to gain 
an increase of power or to give a rope a fair lead. 
A block consists of the shell, sheave, pin, and 
strap. The shell is the frame or outside part, and 
is made of ash or elm. In the morticed block 
the shell is composed of but one piece of wood ; 
in the made block it consists of two or more pieces 
pinned together, the two principal outside pieces 
being called cheeks. On the sides and at each 
end of the shell is cut a single or a double score. 






BLOCKADE 



81 



BLUBBER-FORKS 



which allows the strap to set snugly on the block 
and prevents it from slipping off. The size of a 
block is determined by the length of the shell. 
The sheave is the wheel over which the rope runs, 
and is made of metal or lignum-vitse. It has a 
hole in the centre to receive the pin. In a ligr 
num-vitse sheave this hole is generally bouched, 
or lined with metal, to decrease the friction and 
to protect the sheave from chafe. Friction rollers 
are sometimes inserted in the sheave when it is 
not to be subjected to a very great strain. Around 
the circumference of the sheave a groove is cut, 
which serves to retain the rope in place and pre 
vent it from chafing against the shell. The pin 
is the bolt through the shell and sheave on which 
the latter revolves. The strap is a rope which 
encircles the shell, and by which it is attached to 
its particular place. The swallow is the aperture 
through which the rope reeves. The hook is 
attached to the strap, and is prevented from 
chafing by means of a thimble. Two of these 
thimbles joined together are called lock-thimbles. 
The breech is the end of the block farthest from 
the hook.. The becket is a small grommet to 
which the standing part of the fall is made fast. 
Blocks are single, double, threefold, or fourfold, 
according to the number of their sheaves, and 
vary in size from four to thirty inches. Iron 
blocks, and wooden blocks with iron straps, are 
now coming more generally into use. Under the 
general head of blocks come hearts, collar-hearts, 
dead-eyes, bull s-eyes, wooden thimbles, fair- 
leaders, euphroes, cleats, cavils, wooden belaying- 
pins, wooden rollers, chocks, toggles, travelers, 
wooden hanks, hoops, trucks, etc. (which see 
under their proper heads). Blocks receive their 
names from some peculiarity of form, from the 
position they occupy, or from the rope leading 
through them. For description of blocks, see 
under the following heads: BEE-BLOCKS, or 
BEES, BRAIL-, CAT-, CHEEK-, CLEW-GARNET-, 
CLEWLINE-, CHUNK-, CLUMP-, D-, DASHER-, 
DOUBLE-, FIDDLE-, FISH-, FIXED-, FLY-, GIRT- 
LINE-, GIN-, GUN-TACKLE-, HANGING-, JACK-, 
JEER-, JEWEL-, LONG-TACKLE-, MONKEY-, 
NINE-PIN-, NIB-, PATENT-, QUARTER-, RUN 
NING-, RACK-, SHOE-, SPAN-, SPRING-, SINGLE-, 
SHOULDER-, SISTER-, SECRET-, STANDING-, 
SNATCH-, TELEGRAPH-, TREBLE-, TAIL-, TOP-, 
TYE-, VIOL-, and WARPING-BLOCK. 

Blockade. The shutting up of a port or ports 
by troops or ships, so as to prevent egress or in 
gress, or the reception of supplies. To constitute 
a blockade the investing power must be able to 
apply its force to every point of practicable ac 
cess, so as to render it dangerous to attempt to 
enter or depart. See INTERNATIONAL LAW. 

Block-and-block. An expression denoting 
that the two blocks of a tackle have been drawn 
together, and that the tackle is inoperative. Syn 
onymous with two-blocks and chock-a-block. 

Blockmaker. A manufacturer of blocks. 

Blockmaking Machine. The first set of ma 
chinery for making blocks was invented by Bru 
nei early in the present century, and was set up 
at Portsmouth, England, in 1808. The saving 
in the cost of blocks is about $100, 000 per annum. 

Blood-sucker. A skulker; one who throws 
his proportion of work on the shoulders of his 
shipmates. 

Bloody. A slang superlative, principally used 
by Englishmen. 



Bloody Flag. A large red flag. 

Bloom. A warm blast of wind. A mass of 
iron which has been deprived of its dross by 
squeezing or shingling. 

Blore. An old word for a stiff gale. 

Blouse. A light single-breasted sack-coat. 

Blout. A name to denote the sudden break 
ing up of a gale. 

Blow. A gale of wind. The moving of the 
air ; as, the winds blow. A violent stroke of the 
hand, or any instrument. To eject wind from 
the mouth ; hence the term as applied to the 
breathing of cetaceans, the air expelled from 
the lungs, being heavily charged with moisture, 
condenses on contact with the atmosphere, and 
appears like a column of steam. There she 
blows! the cry of the look-out when a whale is 
sighted. 

Blowe. An old word for scold; hence the 
term "blowing-up" for a reprimand. 

Blow-holes. The nostrils of the cetaceans. 
In some species they are slits placed side by side ; 
in others there is but one opening. 

Blow Home. The wind does not blow home 
when its course is diverted by a chain of moun 
tains or other obstacle. 

Blowing Great Guns. An expression to de 
note a violent gale. 

Blowing Off. The operation of ejecting from 
the boiler the water which has become saturated 
with salt, to prevent the formation of scale. 

Blowing the Grampus. Throwing water over 
a sleeper on watch. 

Blowing Through. The operation of clear 
ing the valves, cylinders, and condenser of air 
before starting the engine. 

Blowing Weather. A term to signify a con 
tinuance of strong gales. 

Blow-off Pipe. A pipe leading from the 
bottom of the boiler to convey the sediment 
overboard. 

Blown. Half-dried ; applied to cod and her 
rings. 

Blown Itself Out. A gale is said to have 
blown itself out when its energy is expended. 

Blow-out. A jollification or spree. 

Blow-pipe. An engine of offense used by the 
Araucanians and Borneans, and with the latter 
termed sumpitan: the poisoned arrow, sumpit, 
will wound at the distance of 140 or more yards. 
The arrow is forced through by the forcible and 
sudden exertion of the lungs. A wafer can be 
hit at 30 yards to a certainty, and small birds 
are unerringly stunned at 30 yards by pellets of 
clay. 

Blow the Gaff. To reveal a secret; to expose 
or inform against a person. 

Blow-through Valve. A valve admitting 
steam into the cylinder and condenser, in order 
to clear them of air and water before starting the 
engine. 

Blow Up. To abuse angrily. 

Blow-valve. The snifting-valve. The valve 
which permits the steam to escape on blowing 
through. 

Blubber. The layer of fat in whales between 
the skin and the flesh, varying from 10 to 20 
inches in thickness, which is flinched or peeled 
off, and boiled for oil. See SEA-BLUBBER. 

Blubber-forks and Choppers. The imple 
ments with which blubber is "made off," or cut 
for stowing away. 



BLUBBER-GUY 



82 



BOARDING 



Blubber-guy. A large rope stretched from 
the main- to the foremast-head of whalers, to 
which the speck-falls are attached for the opera 
tion of flensing. 

Blue. Till aWsblue: carried to the utmost, 
a phrase borrowed from the idea of a vessel 
making out of port, and getting into blue water. 
To look blue, to be surprised, disappointed, or 
taken aback, with a countenance expressive of 
displeasure. 

Blue-book. The name by which the book 
containing the regulations for the navy is known ; 
also, a book containing the names of all persons 
in the employ of the United States government, 
with the amount of their pay. 

Blue-jackets. The seamen as distinguished 
from the marines. 

Blue-light. A pyrotechnical preparation for 
signals by night. Also called Bengal light. 

Blue-lightism. Affected sanctimoniousness. 

Blue Moon. An indefinite period. 

Blue-nose. A native of Nova Scotia, or a 
Nova Scotian vessel. 

Blue Peter. A flag with a blue ground and 
a white centre, which, when hoisted at the fore, 
denotes that the ship is ready to sail. It corre 
sponds to the cornet in the navy. 

Blue Pigeon. A nickname for the sounding 
lead. 

Blue Water. The open ocean. 

Bluff. An abrupt highland, projecting almost 
perpendicularly into the sea, and presenting a 
bold front, rather rounded than cliffy in out 
line. 

Bluff-bowed. . Applied to a vessel that has 
broad and flat bows, that is, full and square 
formed ; the opposite of lean. 

Bluff-headed. Built with the stem nearly 
straight up-and-down. 

Blunderbuss. A short fire-arm with a large 
bore and wide mouth. 

Blunk. A sudden squall. 

Blustrous. Stormy. 

Boadnash. Buckhemshein coins of Barbary. 

Boanga. A Malay piratical vessel impelled 
by oars. 

Board. A piece of sawed timber relatively 
broad and thin. The terms board and plank are 
often indiscriminately used. See PLANK. 

The deck or interior of a vessel. To board a 
vessel is to enter either in a friendly or a hostile 
manner. 

The side of a* vessel. Overboard, over the side, 
in the water. In-board, inside, or farther from 
the side. Out-board, nearer to the side. Board 
to board, or board and board, side by side. 

The stretch which a ship makes on one tack in 
beating to windward. To make a (jood board, to 
lose little or nothing to leeward. To make short 
boards, to tack frequently. When a ship luffs 
up into the wind until the headway has nearly 
ceased, and is then made to pay off on the same 
tack, she is said to make a half-board; with 
smooth water and a good working breeze a ship 
can eat her way up to windward in this manner. 
When the vessel goes astern she makes a stern- 
board. It is advisable in this case not to put the 
helm hard over, as great strain would be brought 
on the rudder. 

A word applied to certain individuals in a col 
lective capacity who are appointed by competent 
authority for the management of "some public 



office or trust ; as, The Light-house Board (which 
see); or to perform certain specified duties; as, 
The Board for the Examination of Officers for 
Promotion and Retirement (which see), and The 
Board of Inspection (which see). There are also 
boards convened from time to time for the pur 
pose of collating facts and expressing opinions, 
of an advisory character, respecting the matters 
submitted to them by the convening authority. 

BOARD, THE ACADEMIC. The collective des 
ignation of the heads of the departments of 
instruction at the Naval Academy. 

Boarders. The men detailed to attack the 
enemy by boarding. They are armed with pis 
tols and cutlasses, and are led by the executive- 
officer. Thej 7 are summoned by verbal order and 
by the springing of the rattle, and assemble in 
the part of the ship designated, keeping under 
cover as much as possible. 

Boarding. The act of entering a vessel, either 
with hostile intent or in a friendly manner. 

In boarding with hostile intent the way is 
cleared for the boarders by a brisk fire from the 
rifles and machine-guns, by hand-grenades, and 
by streams of hot water from the steam-pumps. 
The great guns are depressed, and, at the order 
board the enemy, the boarders gain the enemy s 
deck as quickly as possible, and use every en 
deavor to clear the decks by disabling or driving 
the men below. While the boarders are absent 
from their guns, the remaining men keep up as 
rapid a fire as is possible under the circumstances, 
and the ports of the guns not in use are closed. 

If the boarders are driven back they rally on 
the flanks of the riflemen, taking care to get 
quickly out of the line of their fire. 

If the enemy manifest a disposition to board, 
the marines and riflemen are called away, and 
open fire from favorable positions, and the great 
guns, howitzers, and machine-guns are brought 
to bear on the enemy s boarders. Every effort 
should be made to shake or disperse them, and, 
if not successful, it will be necessary, before the 
enemy closes, to call all hands repel boarders. 
The marines and riflemen form on the side which 
is engaged, opposite to the point where the en 
emy is likely to attempt to enter, the boarders 
being on the flank and in the rear. The re 
serves are posted in the rear of the flanks of the 
riflemen.. If the enemy gain a footing he must 
be charged in force, as the necessity for driving 
him back at once is absolute. Rallying-points 
should be designated, and barricades should be 
constructed. The shaft of a paddle-wheel ves 
sel, or a gun run in to a taut breeching, affords 
a good shelter. 

When at close quarters the sword is a more 
effective weapon than the rifle and bayonet, in 
which case the bayonets are unfixed and used as 
swords. 

When there is a possibility of being boarded, 
boarding-nettings are got up, and the torpedoes 
are got ready for use. 

BOARDING A VESSEL UNDER SAIL. Board to 
leeward, and do not go alongside while she has 
stern-way on. See that the line by which the 
boat rides is long enough to permit the boat to 
rise and fall with the sea. The line should not 
be belayed, but kept in hand ready for shipping. 
Be careful that the masts or oars do not take 
under the quarter-boats or chains. 

BOARDING A WRECK. The chief dangers to 



.. 



BOARDLING 



83 



BOATS 









be apprehended in boarding a wreck are the col 
lision of the boat with the ship, or with floating 
spars, and the swamping of the boat alongside. 
The greater violence of the sea on the weather 
side makes it preferable to board to leeward. The 
dangers to be guarded against in boarding on the 
lee side are the falling of the masts and collision 
with floating spars. 

The large life-boats that go off to wrecks 
anchor to windward and veer down, care being 
taken to prevent actual contact. 

BOARDING-BOOK. A book in which are entered 
the particulars in regard to every ship boarded. 
It is not taken on board men-of-war, but the 
particulars are afterwards registered. 

BOARDING-NETTINGS. A network of wire ropes 
or hemp ropes soaked in tar and sanded, to pre 
vent boarders from entering a ship. The lower 
edge is made fast to the rail, arid the upper edge 
triced up by whips or stopped to the ridge-rope. 

BOARDING-PIKE. A defensive lance against 
boarders. 

BOARD IN THE SMOKE. A figurative expres 
sion, signifying to create confusion or enthu 
siasm, and then to endeavor to attain one s ob 
ject before the effect has passed away. The 
expression arose from the custom of delivering 
a broadside as the boarders were thrown upon 
the enemy s decks. 

Boardling (Eng.}. A flippant understrapper 
of the admiralty or navy-board. 

Board of Trade. See TRADE, BOARD OF. 

Boat. A small open vessel, propelled by oars 
or sails, and sometimes by stearn. The name is 
also applied to large river-craft propelled entirely 
by steam, and also to a vessel having no motive 
power of its own ; as, a canal-boat. Boats are 
built of various materials ; as, wood, iron, paper, 
etc. Wood is used for boats for ordinary pur 
poses, iron for heavy boats, and wood or paper for 
racing-boats. 

The frame of a carvel-built boat generally con 
sists of a floor and two futtocks, and the planks 
do not overlap, but make flush seams, which are 
calked. In the clinker-built boat the lower edge 
of each plank laps over the upper edge of the 
one next below. A diagonal-built boat is one in 
which the outer skin consists of two layers of 
planking at right angles to each other, and 
making an angle of 45 with the keel. 

Boats are square-sterned, or sharp at both 
ends ; in the latter case they are called whale- 
boats. Single-banked boats have one oarsman to 
each thwart, and a double-banked boat has two. 
Oars are double-banked when each oar is pulled 
by two men. 

The boats in use in the navy are as follows : 
steam-launches, steam-cutters, launches, cutters, 
whale-boa ts, dingys, barges, and gigs. For a 
description of these various boats, with their 
various rigs, see under the proper heads. See 
LIFE-BOATS. 

Up boats, the order to hoist all the boats. To 
secure a boat for sea, to rig in the davits, and 
pass the gripes around the boat and strong-back. 
To call away a boat, to pass the word "for the 
crew to man their boat. To trim boat, to so dis.- 
pose the weight in her that she shall float up 
right. To bail a boat, to throw out the water 
that may be in her. To moor a boat, to secure it 
at a buoy or wharf. To wind a boat, to slue it 
around end for end. To man a boat, to send the 



crew in it to manage it. To boat the oars, to 
place them on the thwarts fore-and-aft ready for 
use. 

Boats, Equipment of. 

KUNNING-BOATS, or boats which do the or 
dinary duty of a ship, are supplied with oars, 
boat-hooks, fenders, breaker, anchor, colors, 
cushions, painter, etc. Masts, sails, compass, 
and awnings will be carried as ordered. 

ARMED BOATS are equipped according to the 
nature of the service they are to perform. 

DISTANT SERVICE. The boat is supplied 
with provisions, fuel, cooking utensils, ammu 
nition, arms and accoutrements, tools and arti 
cles for repairing damages, boat-gear, means of 
making signals, and a medical outfit. If a gun 
is c arried, ammunition and implements for the 
service of the piece afloat are supplied. 

CUTTING OUT VESSELS, or CONTENDING WITH 
OTHER BOATS. The boat is supplied with am 
munition, arms and accoutrements, tools and 
articles for repairing damages, medical outfit, 
means of making signals, a small quantity of 
provisions, and as many men as can be carried 
without undue crowding. If a gun is carried, 
ammunition and implements for the service of 
the piece afloat are supplied. See CUTTING OUT. 

LANDING WHERE LIKELY TO BE OPPOSED. 
The boat is supplied with ammunition, arms, 
and accoutrements, tools and articles for repair 
ing damages, and a small quantity of provisions. 
No masts or sails are carried. If a gun is car 
ried, ammunition and implements for the service 
of the piece afloat and ashore are supplied. For 
more minute details, see ORDNANCE INSTRUC 
TIONS, 1880. 

Boats, Management of. 

UNDER OARS. Before leaving the ship see 
that she is properly equipped for the service on 
which she may be going. Do not shove off 
during stern-way. Trim the boat. Keep the 
weights amidships. Do not allow the men to 
stand up in the boat, or to sit on the gunwale. 
Sand is much heavier when wet than when dry, 
therefore do not overload the boat with it. 
Water in breakers is safest for ballast ; iron or 
sand stows better, but in the event of a capsize 
would sink the boat. A loaded boat holds her 
way longer than when light. Make due allow 
ance for the tide; a little judgment may save a 
long pull. Keep clear of a vessel with stern-way 
on. Keep a boat bows-on to a heavy sea. A 
boat may ride out a heavy gale by lashing the 
spars, sails, etc., together and riding to leeward 
of them. See BOARDING, KEDGING, KOWING, 
SURF, SALUTES, TOWING, and WARPING. 

UNDER SAIL. When the ship is not head to 
wind, pull well clear of the ship before making 
sail. Hoist the jib before the foresail, that the 
mast-head may not be dragged aft. Do not 
belay the sheets, but keep them in hand. Run 
ning before a stiff breeze, reduce sail before luff 
ing up. Running dead before the wind in a 
light boat is dangerous ; it is safer to run half 
the distance with the wind on one quarter, and 
then bring the wind on the other quarter. In a 
moderate squall ease the sheets ; in a hard squall 
luff up and lower the sails. If there be any 
doubt about weathering a point, go about at 
once. If there be any doubt about going around, 
have an oar ready to leeward. If the men are 
sitting to windward, make them sit amidships on 



BOATSWAIN 



84 



BOBSTAY 



passing to leeward of a ship. In a stiff breeze 
get the masts down before going alongside of a 
ship. 

BOATABLE. Navigable for boats. 

BOAT-CHOCKS. Pieces of wood on which boats 
rest when stowed on deck. 

BOAT-CLOAK. A mantle for the use of officers 
in a boat. 

BOAT-DAVIT. The name applied to the timbers 
which project over the side or stern of a vessel, 
and to which the boats are hoisted. 

BOAT-DRILL. The objects of boat-drill are as 
follows : first, to accustom the men to rowing 
and to the handling of boats under sail (see 
MANAGEMENT OF BOATS) ; second, to instruct the 
men in the manipulation of boat-guns (see HOW 
ITZER) ; third, to familiarize the men with their 
duties in providing articles for the equipment of 
boats (see EQUIPMENT OF BOATS); fourth, to 
familiarize the officers and quartermasters with 
making and reading signals (see SIGNALS) ; and, 
fifth, to familiarize the officers \vith the princi 
ples of fleet tactics. The tactics for boats under 
sail are the same as for vessels under canvas, and 
when the boats are under oars they conform to 
the rules laid down for the regulation of vessels 
under steam. See NAVAL TACTICS. 

BOAT-FAST. The rope by which a boat is made 
fast. 

BOAT-GEAR. The rigging and furniture of a 
boat. 

BOAT-HIRE. Expenses for the use of shore- 
boats. 

BOAT-HOOK. A staff fitted with an iron or 
brass head, used in a boat when alongside of a 
wharf or a ship. 

BOATILA. A narrow-sterned, flat-bottomed 
boat of the Gulf of Manar. 

BOATING. Transporting men, munitions, or 
goods by boats. 

BOAT-KEEPER. One of the boat s crew who 
remains in charge during the absence of the 
others. 

BOAT-LINE. See BOAT-ROPE. 

BOAT-ROPE. A rope by which a boat is towed. 
A rope fitted to a boat to assist in managing it 
when lowered in a sea-way. 

BOAT S-CREW. The men detailed for duty in a 
particular boat. 

BOAT S-GRIPES. Lashings for securing davit- 
boats at sea. 

BOAT-SKIDS. Skids to keep a boat clear of 
the ship s side in hoisting or lowering. 

Boatswain (Fr. maitred equipage). Formerly 
pronounced and sometimes written bote-son, or 
boat s-son, and bo sun, is in the Spanish and Por 
tuguese navies styled " Master of the Canvass." 
The title is said to be derived from bat, a boat, 
and swan, a swain, or servant. His symbol of 
office the silver call, or whistle was once the 
proud insignia of the Lord High Admiral of 
England, and the decorative appendage of the Ad 
mirals of the Fleet, who wore it suspended from 
a golden chain, and with it " were wont to cheer 
their men in battle." The duties of a boat 
swain are constant and fatiguing; his station is 
the forecastle, whence he can direct the men 
aloft. He pipes "all hands" for general work, 
and his mates repeat the call on their respective 
decks. Boatswains in the United States navy 
are warrant-officers, and their principal duties 
are as follows : 



The boatswain is to be generally upon deck 
during the day, and at all times when any duty 
shall require all hands to be employed. He is 
with his mates to see that the men go quickly 
upon deck when called, and that they perform 
their duty with alacrity. He will every day at 
7.30 A.M., and at such other times as directed^ 
examine the rigging, and report to the officer of 
the deck the state in which he finds it. He is to 
be careful that the anchors, booms, and boats are 
properly secured, and is to have ready a suf 
ficient number of mats, plats, nippers, points, 
and gaskets, that no delay may be experienced, 
He will be careful that the masts of the ship are 
not crippled or strained in setting up the stays 
and rigging, and that they retain the same angle 
with the keel after the stays and rigging are set 
up that they had when they were only wedged. 
He is to see when junk is worked up that every 
part is applied to the purposes ordered. When 
preparing for battle, he is to see that everything 
necessary for repairing the rigging is in place. 

BOATSWAIN-BIRD (Phaeton cethcreus}. A trop 
ical bird, so called from the whistling noise it 
makes. It has two long feathers in its tail, called 
the marling-spike. 

BOATSWAIN-CAPTAIN. A term applied to a 
commanding officer who pays great attention to 
the minor details which are generally attended 
to by the boatswain. 

BOATSWAIN S MATE. The chief petty officer 
of the watch. He passes all the orders of the 
officer of the watch, and uses his call as circum 
stances require. 

BOATSWAIN S STORE-ROOM. An apartment 
for the boatswain s stores. 

Boat the Oars. To place the oars fore-and- 
aft on the thwarts ready for use. 

Bob. The ball or balance-Aveight of a clock s 
pendulum ; the weight attached to the plumb- 
line. , To fish. A knot of worms on a string, 
used in fishing for eels ; also colloquially, it 
means a berth. Shift your bob, to move about, 
to dodge. Bear a bob, make haste, be brisk. 

Bobbery. A disturbance, row, or squabble; 
a term much used in the East Indies and China. 

Bobbing. A particular method of fishing for 
e-els. 

Bobbing About. Heaving and setting with 
out making any way. 

Bobble. The state of waves when dashing 
about without any regular set or direction, as in 
cross tides or currents. 

Bobstay. A rope or chain extending from 
the bowsprit to the cutwater. Its use is to coun 
teract the strain of the head-stays. The bow 
sprit is also fortified by shrouds from the bows 
on each side, which are all very necessary, as the 
foremast and the upper spars on. the mainmast 
are stayed and greatly supported by the bowsprit. 

BOBSTAY-COLLAKS. These are made with large 
rope, and an eye spliced in each end ; they are 
secured round the bowsprit, on the upper side, 
with a rose lashing. They are almost entirely 
superseded by iron bands. 

Bo BST AY-HOLES. Those cut through the fore 
part of the knee of the head, between the cheeks, 
for the admission of the bobstay ; they are not 
much used now, as chain bobstays are almost 
universal, which are secured to plates by shackles. 

BOBSTAY-PIECE. A piece of timber to which 
the bobstays are secured. 



BOCCA 



85 



BOLSTERS 



BOBSTAY-PLATES. Iron plates by which the 
lower end of the bobstay is attached to the stem. 

Bocca (Sp. boca, mouth). A term used both 
in the Levant and on the north coast of South 
America, or the Spanish Main, for a rnouth or 
channel into any port or harbor, or the entrance 
into a sound which has a passage out by a con 
trary way. Bocca Tigris, Canton River. 

Body. The principal corps of an army, or the 
main strength of a fleet. The figure of a ship, 
abstractly considered, is divided into different 
parts or figures, each of which has the appella 
tion body, as fore-body, midship-body, square- 
body, etc. 

Body-hoops. The hoops of a made mast. 

Body-plan. A plan of a ship showing the 
breadth ; it is a transverse section of the ship at 
the broadest part. 

Body-post. The post at the forward end of 
the space in which the screw revolves. 

Boggs, Charies Stewart, Rear-Admiral 
U.S.N. Born in New Brunswick, N. J., Janu 
ary 28, 1811. Appointed midshipman from same 
State, November 1, 1826. Attached to Medi 
terranean Squadron, sloop of-war " Warren" 
and ship-of-the-line " Delaware," 1827-30; 
West India Squadron, schooner "Porpoise," 
from 1830-32. 

Promoted to passed midshipman, April 28, 
1832; receiving-ship, New York, 1832; West 
Indies, sloop " Fal mouth," 1833-34 ; rendezvous, 
New York, 1835-36. 

Promoted to lieutenant, September 6, 1837 ; 
Pacific Squadron, ship-of-the-line " North Caro 
lina" and schooner "Enterprise," 1837-38; re 
ceiving-ship " New York," in charge of appren 
tices, 1840-41; coast of Africa, sloop "Sara 
toga," 1842-43; participated in the destruction 
of the Bereby village on that coast ; Home 
Squadron, 1846-47, steamer "Princeton"; pres 
ent at siege of Vera Cruz ; commanded boat ex 
pedition from the " Princeton," which destroyed 
the U. S. brig " Truxtun" after her surrender to 
the Mexicans ; receiving-ship, New York, 1848 ; 
executive-officer of the frigate "St. Lawrence" 
to the World s Fair, London, 1848; first lieu 
tenant navy-yard, New York, and inspecting for 
Bureau of Provisions and Clothing, 1851-54. 

Commissioned as commander, September 15, 
1855 ; commanding United States mail-steamer 
" Illinois," 1856-58 ; light-house inspector, Cali 
fornia, 1860-61 ; commanding U. S. steamer 
"Varuna" at the passage of Forts Jackson and 
St. Philip, April 24, 1862. The " Varuna" was 
the only vessel of Farragut s squadron lost at the 
passage of the forts. From her great speed she 
was able to get ahead of all the fleet, and engage 
the rebel squadron above the forts. She was at 
tacked by two rams, and sunk after being run 
into the bank of the river ; causing, however, 
the destruction of the attacking vessels. 

Commissioned as captain, July 16, 1862 ; com 
manded steam-sloop " Sacramento" on the block 
ade of Cape Fear River ; left his command on 
account of serious sickness ; special duty under 
Admiral Gregory, at New York, 1864-65; super 
intended the construction of small steam picket- 
boats, and specially designed and fitted out the 
torpedo-boat which, under the dashing Gushing, 
destroyed the rebel ironclad " Albemarle" ; 1866, 
commanded the U. S. steamer "Connecticut," 
special cruise in the West Indies ; fell in with 



the rebel ironclad " Stonewall" in the harbor of 
Havana, and previous to her being given up to 
the Spanish government, demanded her surren 
der to the United States. 

Promoted to commodore, July 25, 1866 ; com 
manded steamer " De Soto," North Atlantic 
Squadron, 1866-68 ; special duty, to report on 
the condition of steam-engines afloat, 1869-70 ; 
commanding light-house depot, Tompkinsville, 
Staten Island, and light-house inspector, third 
district. 

Commissioned as rear-admiral, July, 1870; 
commanding European Fleet, 1871-72 ; retired, 
1873. 

Bogue. To fall off from the wind ; to edge 
away to leeward. The mouth of a river. 

Boiler. A close vessel in which steam is gen 
erated, to be used as the motive force in steam- 
engines, and for other purposes. It is usually 
made of wrought-iron plates, overlapping at the 
edges and fastened with rivets. See MARINE 
BOILERS. 

BOILER-ALARM. An apparatus to call atten 
tion to the low level of the water in the boiler. 

BOILER-FEEDER. An apparatus, usually auto 
matic and self-regulating, for keeping the boiler 
supplied with water. 

BOILER-FLOAT. A float which rises and falls 
with the water in the boiler, and which shuts 
off the feed-water when the water has risen to 
the requisite height. 

BOILER-IRON. Rolled plates of iron from one- 
fourth to one-eighth of an inch in thickness. 

BOILER-PROTECTOR. A non-conducting ma 
terial to prevent the escape of heat ; as, felt, lag 
ging, etc. 

Boiling, the Whole. A contemptuous ex 
pression to denote the whole number or entire 
quantity. 

Bold Bow. A broad bluff bow. 

Boldering Weather. Cloudy and thundery. 

Bold Shore. A coast where the Water deep 
ening rapidly permits the near approach of ships 
without danger of grounding. 

Bold-to. A term applied to land when the 
adjacent water deepens rapidly. Steep-to. 

Bole. A small boat. 

Bolide. A name for an aerolite. 

Boline. See BOWLINE. 

Bollard. A timber around which a turn of 
the line is taken when a whale is struck, in 
order that the line may be veered steadily. A 
vertical timber projecting above the ground, to 
which hawsers are secured. 

Bollard -timber. Usually called knight-head 
(which see). 

Boiling, or Bowling Along. Going through 
the water rapidly with a free wind. 

Bolme. An old term for a waterman s pole 
or boom. 

Boloto. A small boat of the Philippines and 
Moluccas. 

Bolsters. Small cushions or bags of tarred 
canvas, used to preserve the stays from being 
chafed by the motion of the masts when the ship 
pitches at sea. Pieces of soft wood covered with 
canvas, placed on the tressle-trees for the eyes of 
the rigging to rest upon and prevent a sharp nip. 
Also pieces of oak timber fayed to the curvature 
of the bow, under the hawse-holes, and down 
upon the upper cheek, to prevent the cable from 
rubbing against the cheeks. 



BOLT 



86 



BOOMS 



Bolt. To start off; to run away. To swallow 
food without chewing it. A cylindrical bar of 
metal. Bolts take their names from the uses to 
which they are applied ; as, bringing-to bolt, drive- 
bolt, etc. ; from a peculiarity of construction ; as, 
eye-bolt, ring-bolt, etc. ; from the mode of secur 
ing them; as, screw-bolt, bay-bolt, etc. For a 
description of bolts see under the following 
heads : BARB-, BAY-, BRINGING-TO-, CLINCH-, 
COUNTERSUNK - HEADED-, DOUBLE - ENDED-, 
DRIVE-, DRIFT-, EYE-, TENDER-, FLUSH-, 
FORELOCK-, Fox-, JAGGED-, KEY-, LEWIS-, 
POINTED-, KAG-, KING-, KIVETED-, KOSE- 
HEADED-, HOUND-HEADED-, SCARF-, SCREW-, 
and SET-BOLT. 

BOLT OF CANYAS. A roll of canvas contain 
ing 39 yards. 

BOLT-AUGER. An auger for boring holes for 
bolts. 

, BOLT-CHISEL. A cold chisel for cutting off the 
projecting ends of bolts. 

BOLT-CUTTER. A tool for cutting off bolts. A 
tool for cutting the thread on bolts. 

Bolt-rope. A superior quality of hemp cord 
age used for roping sails. 

BOLT-ROPE NEEDLE. A strong needle for 
stitching a sail to the bolt-rope. 

Bolt-sprit. See BOWSPRIT. 

BOLT-STRAKE. Strakes of plank through 
which pass the beam fastenings. 

Bomb. A hollow ball or shell of cast iron 
charged with powder, and furnished with a fuse 
so adjusted that when the bomb reaches the end 
of its range the fuse ignites the powder in the 
shell and blows it to pieces. Bombs appear to 
have first come into use in the wars of the Neth 
erlands, in the 17th century. See SHELL. 

BOMB-BED. The platform which supports a 
mortar. 

BOMB-KETCH. See MORTAR VESSEL. 

BOMB-SHELL. See BOMB. 

BOMB VESSEL. See MORTAR VESSEL. 

Bombalo. A delicate kind of sand-eel taken 
in quantities at Bombay. 

Bombard. An ancient piece of ordnance for 
throwing heavy projectiles. Its bore sometimes 
exceeded twenty inches in diameter. There were 
also smaller varieties of the bombard. See ORD 
NANCE. 

A vessel in which beer was formerly carried to 
soldiers on duty; whence bum-boat (which see). 

Bombay. A city and seaport on the island of 
Bombay, now artificially converted into a penin 
sula, all of which is included in the municipal 
limits. Lat. 18 56 N. ; Ion. 72 53 E. Since 
the development of cotton culture in India, Bom 
bay has largely increased in wealth and impor 
tance. It is connected by railroads with most of 
the large cities of India, and by steamer lines, 
via Suez,, with Great Britain. On the S. W. the 
fort is connected by Colabba causeway with the 
island of Colabba, on which are the light-house, 
observatory, and a stone pier. The harbor of 
Bombay is unequaled for safety in all India. It 
affords good anchorage for ships of the largest 
burden, and it has excellent building- and other 
docks for ships of the first class. Pop. 700,000. 

Bombo. Weak, cold punch. 

Bonaventure. The old outer mizzen, long 
disused. 

Bone. To study. To bone up a subject, to 
study it thoroughly. 



Bon-grace. Junk-fenders, to hang over the 
bows and sides of a vessel. See BOW-GRACE. 

Bonito. The Thynnus pelamys, a fish of the 
scomber family, commonly about 2 feet long, 
with a sharp head, small mouth, full eyes, and a 
regular semilunar tail. 

Boni-vochil. The Hebridean name for the 
great northern diver (Colymbus glacialis}. 

Bonnet. An additional part laced to the foot 
of the jibs, or other fore-and-aft sails, in small 
vessels in moderate weather, to gather mor 
wind. 

Bonnet-flook. The well-known flat-fish, brill, 
pearl, or mouse-dab ; the Pleuronectes rhombus. 

Bony-fish. A name for the hard-head (which 
see). 

Bony Pike ! Lepidosteus}. A genus of ganoid 
fishes, conspicuous by being examples of a nearly 
extinct type. 

Booby. A well-known tropical sea-bird, Sula 
fusca, of the family Pelecanidce. It is fond of 
resting out of the water at night, even preferring 
an unstable perch on the yard of a ship. The 
name is derived from the way in which it allows 
itself to be caught immediately after settling. 
The direction in which it flies as evening comes 
on often shows where land may be found. 

Booby-hatch. A smaller kind of companion, 
but readily removable. A kind of wooden hood 
over a hatch, fitted with a sliding top and readily 
removable. 

Book. A commercial term for a peculiar pack 
ing of muslins, bastas, and other stuffs. Brought 
to book, made to account. 

Books. Oflicial documents. See SHIP S BOOKS. 

Boom. A long spar used to extend or boom 
out the foot of a particular sail. It takes its 
name from the sail it extends. (See JIB-, FLY 
ING-JIB-, STUDDING-SAIL-, SPANKER-, RING 
TAIL-, and MAIN-BOOM.) The name is also 
applied to a chain stretched across a river or 
mouth of a harbor to prevent the entrance of an 
enemy s vessel. See FIRE-SHIPS. 

Booms may be employed in the defense of har 
bors either by themselves, or in combination with 
submarine mines. The essential qualities of a 
boom are that it shall possess great strength 
and be easy to manipulate. The main cable 
should be of wire or chain, and is buoyed up 
by spars, logs, etc. A space is left between each 
float to give the whole structure flexibility. The 
boom should be moored with heavy anchors up 
stream, and with heavy chains without anchors 
down-stream ; the former to counteract the force 
of the current, and the latter to oppose a yielding 
obstacle to the shock of ramming. The boom 
should be moored obliquely to the current, which 
compels an enemy s vessel to place herself athwart 
the current in order to ram the boom at right 
angles. The boom should be protected from the 
enemy s boats by small mechanical mines, and 
should be covered by batteries on each side of 
the bay or river. To boom off, to shove off a ves 
sel or boat with spars. To top up a boom is to 
elevate one end of it by hauling on the topping 
lifts. A person is said to top up his boom when 
he fortifies himself with ardent spirits. 

Booms. The space between the fore- and main 
masts, in which the boom-boats and spare spars 
are stowed. 

BOOM-BOATS. Boats carried inboard and 
stowed in the booms. 



BOOPAH 



87 



BOSCAWEN 



BOOM-BRACE. A rope extending from the 
outer extremity of the topmast studding-sail- 
boom through a tail-block in the rnain-rig- 
ging. 

BOOM-COVER. The large tarpaulin, or painted 
canvas cover, extending over the booms and 
boom-boats. 

BOOM-IRONS. Metal hoops or rings on the 
lower and topsail yards through which the 
booms traverse. See PACIFIC-IRONS. 

BOOM-JIGGER. A tackle used for rigging in 
and out the topmast studding-sail-booms. 

BOOMKIN. See BUMKIN. 

BOOM-MAINSAIL. A fore-and-aft mainsail the 
foot of which is spread by a boom. 

BOOM-TRICING-LINE. The line which trices 
up the heel of a stun sail-boom. 

Boopah. A Tongatabou canoe with a single 
outrigger. 

Bootes (G-r. bootes, a plowman). The con 
stellation following the Great Bear, which, it is 
probable, originally figured as an ox or wagon. 
Bootes is also called Arctophylax, the Bear- 
watcher ; and the bright star a Bootis is named 
Arcturus, which means the Bear-keeper. 

Boothyr. An old word for a small river 
vessel. 

Boot-lick. One who cringes and flatters to 
obtain favors. 

Boot-topping. The old operation of scraping 
off the grass, slime, shells, etc., which adhere to 
the bottom, near the surface of the water, and 
daubing it over with a mixture of tallow, sul 
phur, and resin, as a temporary protection 
against worms. This is chiefly performed where 
there is no dock or convenient situation for bream 
ing or careening, or when the hurry of a voyage 
renders it inconvenient to have the whole bottom 
properly cleansed. The term is now applied to 
sheathing a vessel with planking over felt. 

Booty. That sort of prize which may be 
distributed at the capstan-head, or at once. 

Booze. A carouse ; hence, boozy, elevated by 
liquor. 

Bora. A very violent wind experienced in 
the upper part of the Adriatic Sea, but which 
fortunately is of no great duration. 

Borasca. A storm, with thunder and light 
ning. 

Bord. The sea-coast, an old term. Formerly 
meant the side, edge, or brim ; hence, as applied 
to a ship, to throw overboard is to cast anything 
over the side of the vessel. 

Borda,Jean Charles, a scientific French navi 
gator, born at Dax, May 4, 1733 ; died in Paris, 
February 20, 1799. He was a teacher of mathe 
matics ; became a captain in the French navy, 
and by his scientific knowledge was of great ser 
vice to the Count d Estaing during the American 
war, in which he commanded the " Solitaire" 
with distinction. Made a member of the Acad 
emy of Sciences in 1756. In 1771 he made a 
voyage to America for scientific purposes, and 
again in 1774, and at a later period, of which he 
published an account in 1778. He founded the 
School of Naval Architecture in France, in 
vented nautical instruments, was one of the sci 
entific men who framed the French metric sys 
tem, and published some treatises on hydraulics. 
Member of the French Institute. 

Bordeaux. A city in the S. W. of France, on 
the Garonne, 60 miles from its mouth, and chiefly 



on its left bank. Lat. 44 W 19" N. ; Ion. 
84 X 32 /7 W. Situated on a navigable river, in 
this part 2600 feet wide and from 60 to 90 feet 
deep, Bordeaux takes, rank next after Marseilles 
and Havre among the ports of France both in 
foreign and coastwise trade. Its harbor or basin, 
formed by the Garonne, is capable of containing 
1200 ships of the largest size, and is accessible for 
vessels of 600 tons at all times of the tide. It has 
docks and building-yards for every size of ves 
sels. Its principal exports are wines, brandy, 
and fruits. Pop. 225,000. 

Bordels. An old word for houses built along 
a strand. 

Bord You. A saying of a man waiting, to 
one who is drinking, meaning that he claims the 
next turn. 

Bore. The cavity, generally cylindrical in 
shape, of a piece of ordnance ; also, the diameter 
of this cavity. A sudden and rapid flow of tide 
in certain inlets of the sea ; as, the monstrous 
wave in the river Hoogly, called bahn by the 
natives, which rolls in with the noise of distant 
thunder at flood-tide. It occurs from February 
to November, at the new and full moon. Its 
cause has not been clearly defined, although it 
probably arises from the currents during spring 
tides, acting on a peculiar conformation of the 
banks and bed of the river ; it strikes invariably 
on the same part of the banks, majestically roll 
ing over to one side, and passing on diagonally 
to the other with impetuous violence. The bore 
also occurs in England, near Bristol ; and in 
America, in several rivers, but especially in the 
Bay of Fundy, where, at the river Petticodiac, 
the tide rises 76 feet. It also occurs in Borneo 
and several rivers in the East. 

Attention to the bore in different places is of 
great importance to the seaman. No boat ven 
tures to navigate the channels between the islands 
at the mouth of the Brahmapootra at spring 
tide ; in the Hoogly, the bore running along 
one bank only, on its approach the smaller ship 
ping is removed to the other side, or ride it out 
in mid-stream ; and in some of the rivers of 
Brazil the barges, at the spring-tides, are always 
moored in deep water, it being noticed that the 
bore is only dangerous on the shoals. 

Boreas. Son of ^Estrseus and Heribeia, gen 
erally put for the north wind. 

Bore Down. Sailed down from to wind 
ward. 

Boring. In Arctic seas, the operation of 
forcing a ship through the loose ice. 

Boring-bit. A tool for clearing the vent of a 
gun. 

Borrachio (Sp. borracho, drunk). A skin, 
usually a goat s, for holding wine or .water. 
Used "in the Levant. A skin-full ; literally, 
gorged with wine. 

Borrow. To approach closely either to land 
or wind ; to hug a shore or coast to avoid an ad 
verse tide. 

Bort. The name given to a fishing-line in the 
Shetland Isles. 

Boscawen, Edward, Admiral. Born August 
19, 1711. Measuring men by their success, 
this very distinguished sailor occupies a high 
place in British annals. For twenty years he 
was in continual active service. The West In 
dies, the South American coast, the Mediterra 
nean, India, and the coast of North America were 



BOSS 



88 



BOUNCE 



the scenes of his professional employment. Fre 
quently engaged in contests with the French, he, 
singularly enough, three times took prisoner the 
same admiral, and carried more prizes into Eng- 
lish ports than any other seaman before or since. 
Vice-admiral of the blue, 1756. Died January 
10, 1761. 

Boss. An elevated or thickened portion, 
usually around an aperture ; as, a socket for a 

Sivot-bolt. A master-workman or superinten- 
ent. 

Boston (Mass.) is on a bay called Boston 
Harbor, which forms the inner bight of Massa 
chusetts Bay, at the mouth of the Charles and 
Mystic Kivers. Lat. 42 2V 27.6" N. ; Ion. 71 
3 30" W. The harbor is excellent, and the 
wharves, warehouses, and other shipping facili 
ties are not surpassed. Steamers ply hence to 
Europe and to the principal ports of the United 
States. Boston has a large trade with the West 
Indies, and with Nova Scotia and New Bruns 
wick, and the coastwise traffic is extensive. Her 
commerce with India, China, and Liverpool is 
very large, although less than it was twenty years 
ago. Much capital has been expended in the 
extension of harbor facilities. The inner harbor 
is completely sheltered, not difficult of access, 
and is seldom encumbered by ice. Several large 
works have been constructed for its defense, 
Forts Warren, Independence, and Winthrop 
being the most important. The channel is well 
lighted, the structure on Minot s Ledge being 
the outermost and highest of its four light-houses. 
The harbor covers 75 square miles, and has a 
minimum depth of 23 feet above mean low tide. 
Charlestown, formerly a suburb of Boston, now 
incorporated with it, is the seat of a large United 
States navy-yard. Pop. about 352,000. 

Botany Bay. Discovered by Cook in 1770, 
and received its name from the great variety of 
herbs found on its shores. The settlement was 
selected as a site for a colony of English convicts, 
and the first governor arrived in January, 1788. 
The colony was eventually located at Port Jack 
son, 13 miles north of the bay. 

Botarga. The roe of the mullet pressed flat 
and dried ; that of commerce, however, is from 
the tunny, a large fish of passage which is com 
mon in the Mediterranean. 

Botch. To make bungling work. 

Bote s-carle. An old word for coxswain. 

Both Sheets Aft. A ship before the wind 
has both fore-sheets hauled aft. The expression 
is also applied to a half-drunken sailor rolling 
along with both hands in his pockets and elbows 
square. 

Botte. An old word for boat. 

Bottle-charts. Charts on which the set of 
surface currents is marked, when the set has been 
calculated from the data found in bottles thrown 
overboard and washed upon the beach, or picked 
up by ships. 

Bottle-nose, or Bottle-nosed Whale. A name 
applied to several of the smaller cetaceans of the 
northern seas, more especially to the Hyperoodon 
rostratus. 

Bottom. The lowest part of anything. The 
rich low land formed by alluvial deposits. The 
part of a ship under water ; hence, the ship itself; 
as "foreign bottoms." A. full bottom denotes 
that such a form has been given to a ship as to 
allow her to carry a large amount of merchan 



dise. The bed of a body of water ; it is charac 
terized as muddy, rocky, sandy, etc. 

BOTTOM-CLEAN. Thoroughly clean, free from 
weeds, etc. 

Bottomry. A contract in 1 the nature of a 
mortgage of a ship when the owner, or his agent, 
borrows money to enable him to carry on his 
voyage, and pledges the keel or bottom of the 
ship ( partem pro toto) as a security for the re 
payment. If the ship be lost the lender loses 
also his whole money ; but if it return in safety 
then he shall receive back his principal, and also 
the premium stipulated to be paid, however it 
may exceed the usual or legal rate of interest. 
And this is allowed to be a valid contract in all 
trading nations, for the benefit of commerce, and 
by reason of the extraordinary hazard run by 
the lender. And in this case the ship and tackle, 
if brought home, are answerable (as well as the 
borrower personally) for the money lent. But 
if the loan be not upon the vessel, but upon the 
goods and merchandise, which must necessarily 
be sold or exchanged in the course of the voyage, 
then only the borrower, personally, is bound to 
answer the contract, and in this case he is said 
to take the money at respondentia (which see). 

BOTTOMRY PREMIUM. The high rate of in 
terest charged on the safety of the ship, the 
lender losing his whole money if she be lost. 

Bottom-wind. A phenomenon that occurs on 
the lakes in the north of England, especially 
Derwent Water, which is often agitated by swell 
ing waves without any apparent cause. 

Bouche. See BUSH. 

Bougainville, Louis Antoine de. Born in 
Paris, November 11, 1729. The first voyage 
round the world by a Frenchman was made by 
this illustrious seaman. He crossed the Atlantic, 
braved the stormy seas around Cape Horn, and 
passed into the Pacific. He visited many places 
on the western shores of America and among 
the islands in the Pacific, but the charts which 
he prepared and bequeathed to his country and 
posterity are not reliable, owing to the great dif 
ficulty in Bougainville s day of making astro 
nomical observations, and the imperfect character 
of the plans laid down by men of science for as 
certaining the longitude. Died August 31, 1811. 

Bouge. See BOWGE. 

Bouge and Chine, or Bowge and Chime. A 
method of stowing casks with the bilge of one 
against the end of another. 

Bouguer, Pierre. Born at Le Croisic, in Bre- 
tagne, February 16, 1698. A profound French 
mathematician, who was one of a body of savants 
deputed in 1735 to proceed to South America to 
measure a degree of the meridian at the equator. 
Died August 15, 1758. 

Bouilli. Preserved beef in hermetically-sealed 
cans; termed by sailors "bully-beef," or "soup 
and bully." 

Boulder. See BOWLDER. 

Boulogne. A town of France, on the Eng 
lish Channel, at the mouth of the Lianne. Lat. 
50 W 32" N. ; Ion. 1 36 15" E. The port 
is formed by piers stretching out only to low- 
water mark, but the tide rises upwards of 16 
feet, and vessels find good anchorage about half 
a mile from the harbor. There is also a wet- 
dock with other harbor improvements. Pop. 
40,000. 

Bounce. The larger dog-fish. 



BOUNCER 



89 



BOWLINE-KNOT 



Bouncer. A gun which kicks violently when 
fired. 

Bound. The path of a projectile between two 
grazes. Destined ; going, or intending to go. 
Where are you bound ? to what place are you 
going. Ice-bound, entirely surrounded by ice. 
Tide-bound, beneaped, or prevented from sailing 
by an adverse tide. Wind-bound, prevented 
from sailing by an unfavorable wind. 

Boundary-line. The trace of the outer sur 
face of the skin of a ship on the stern-post, 
stem, and keel. 

Bounty for Destruction of Enemies Vessels. 
An amount awarded to a ship or vessel of the 
United States which sinks or destroys a vessel 
of war belonging to an enemy. If the vessel de 
stroyed was of equal or superior force to the 
United States vessel, the latter is awarded $200 
for each person on board the former at the begin 
ning of the engagement ; if of inferior force, 
$100 for each person. If the captors of an 
enemy s vessel are instructed to, or do immedi 
ately, destroy the vessel for the public interest, 
$50 is awarded for each person on board the ves 
sel at the time it was captured. The gross 
amount awarded as above is divided among the 
officers and crew in the same manner as prize- 
money. (See PRIZE-MONEY.) When the actual 
number of persons on board the destroyed vessel 
cannot be ascertained, it is estimated according 
to the complement of a vessel of its class in the 
United States navy. This bounty is authorized 
by the laws of the United States, but cannot be 
paid unless an appropriation is made by Con 
gress for that purpose. 

Bourdonnais, Bertrand F. de. A naval officer 
in the service of the French East India Com 
pany. He held the post of Director-General of 
Mauritius (then called the Isle of France) and 
Bourbon ; and in 1746, when France and Eng 
land were at war, he beat a squadron under Ad 
miral Bassett, and bombarded the city of Madras. 

Bourse (Fr.). An exchange; a place where 
merchants congregate to transact business. 

Bouse. See BOWSE. 

Bout. A turn, round, or trial. A convivial 
meeting. 

Bout-ship. A contraction of about-ship. An 
order to prepare for going about. 

Bow. The forward part of a vessel. A full 
or bluff bow is broad and round ; a sharp or lean 
bow is narrow and thin. The bow flares more 
or less as it falls out or increases in breadth at 
the upper part. Doubling of the bows, a thick 
planking secured on the bow to prevent the point 
of the anchor from injuring it. Bows on, stem 
first. On the bow, at an angle less than 45 from 
the ship s course. Broad off the bow, at an angle 
of 45 from the ship s course. 

Bow. An old instrument for taking angles, 
consisting of a graduated arc of 90, three vanes, 
and a staff. 

Bow-bye. An old expression for the situation 
of a ship when she is in irons. 

Bow-chaser. A gun placed in the bow to fire 
on a retreating vessel. 

Bowd-eaten. An old term for eaten by wee 
vils. 

Bowditch, Nathaniel, LL.D., F.R.S., mathe 
matician and astronomer, born in Salem, Mass., 
March 26, 1773 ; died at Boston, March 16, 1838. 
The poverty of his parents occasioned his with 



drawal from school at the age of 10, and after an 
apprenticeship in a ship-chandler s shop until he 
was 21 , he spent nine years in a seafaring life, at 
taining the rank of master. He published in 1800, 
while engaged as a supercargo, his well known 
a PracticarNavigator," still a standard work of 
great utility and value. His fame as a man of 
science will principally rest on his Commentary 
on the "Mecanique Celeste" of La Place, of which 
he made the first entire translation, and which 
he elucidated in a manner that commands the 
admiration of scientific men. The elucidations 
and commentaries of Bowditch form more than 
half the work. They record subsequent discov 
eries, and show the sources whence La Place 
derived assistance. He contributed many valu 
able papers to " The Memoirs of the American 
Academy," and an article on modern astronomy 
to vol. xx. " North American Review." At his 
death he was a member of the principal scientific 
societies of Europe. He twice had a seat in the 
.executive council of Massachusetts. 

Bowditch s Practical Navigator. The stand 
ard work on navigation, published by the gov 
ernment and supplied to all government vessels. 
It contains, with the "Nautical Almanac," all 
the data necessary for the solution of problems in 
navigation. 

Bowed. The state of a yard when it arches 
in the centre from hoisting it too taut. Also of 
a mast when it bellies or is crippled by inju 
diciously setting up the rigging too taut. 

Bower. See ANCHOR and CHAIN. 

Bow-fast. A rope or chain for securing a 
vessel by the bow. See FAST. 

Bowge, or Bouge. An old term for bilge. 

Bow-grace. A kind of frame or fender of old 
junk, placed round the bows and sides of a ship 
to prevent her receiving injury from floating ice 
or timbers. See BON-GRACE. 

Bowing the Sea. Meeting a turbulent swell 
in coming to the wind. 

Bowlder. A large stone worn and rounded by 
the attrition of the waves of the sea. 

Bowlder-head. A work against the encroach 
ment of the sea made of wooden stakes. 

Bowline. A rope leading forward connected 
by bridles to cringles on the leech of the square- 
sails ; it is used to keep the wealher-edge of the 
sail steady when the ship is close-hauled, and 
enables the ship to come nearer to the wind. 

On a bowline and on a taut bowline are expres 
sions to signify that a ship is sailing as close as 
possible to the wind. To check, slack, or come up 
a bowline is to let it go when the wind becomes 
free. To clear away a bowline is to let it go 
when preparing to swing the yard. To sharp, 
haul taut, or steady out a bowline is to pull it as 
taut as it can well bear. 

BOWLINE-BRIDLE. The span attached to the 
cringles on the leech of a square-sail to which 
the bowline is toggled or clinched. 

BOWLINE- CRINGLE. An eye worked into the 
leech-rope of a sail, to which a bowline or the 
bowline-bridle is attached. 

Bowline-bend. The mode of bending warps 
or hawsers together by making a bowline in the 
end of one rope, and passing the end of the other 
through the bight, and making a bowline upon it. 

Bowline-knot. A knot much in use on board 
ship. The loop can be made of any size, and 
does not jamb nor render. 



BOSS 



BOUNCE 



the scenes of his professional employment. Fre 
quently engaged in contests with the French, he, 
singularly enough, three times took prisoner the 
same admiral, and carried more prizes into Eng 
lish ports than any other seaman before or since. 
Vice-admiral of the blue, 1756. Died January 
10, 1761. 

Boss. An elevated or thickened portion, 
usually around an aperture ; as, a socket for a 
pivot-bolt. A master-workman or superinten 
dent. 

Boston (Mass.) is on a bay called Boston 
Harbor, which forms the inner bight of Massa 
chusetts Bay, at the mouth of the Charles and 
Mystic Kivers. Lat. 42 21 27.6" N. ; Ion. 71 
3 30" W. The harbor is excellent, and the 
wharves, warehouses, and other shipping facili 
ties are not surpassed. Steamers ply hence to 
Europe and to the principal ports of the United 
States. Boston has a large trade with the West 
Indies, and with Nova Scotia and New Bruns 
wick, and the coastwise traffic is extensive. Her 
commerce with India, China, and Liverpool is 
very large, although less than it was twenty years 
ago. Much capital has been expended in the 
extension of harbor facilities. The inner harbor 
is completely sheltered, not difficult of access, 
and is seldom encumbered by ice. Several large 
works have been constructed for its defense, 
Forts Warren, Independence, and Winthrop 
being the most important. The channel is well 
lighted, the structure on Minot s Ledge being 
the outermost and highest of its four light-houses. 
The harbor covers 75 square miles, and has a 
minimum depth of 23 feet above mean low tide. 
Charlestown, formerly a suburb of Boston, now 
incorporated with it, is the seat of a large United 
States navy-yard. Pop. about 352,00(X 

Botany Bay. Discovered by Cook in 1770, 
and received its name from the great variety of 
herbs found on its shores. The settlement was 
selected as a site for a colony of English convicts, 
and the first governor arrived in January, 1788. 
The colony was eventually located at Port Jack 
son, 13 miles north of the bay. 

Botarga. The roe of the mullet pressed flat 
and dried ; that of commerce, however, is from 
the tunny, a large fish of passage which is com 
mon in the Mediterranean. 

Botch. To make bungling work. 

Bote s-carle. An old word for coxswain. 

Both Sheets Aft. A ship before the wind 
has both fore-sheets hauled aft. The expression 
is also applied to a half-drunken sailor rolling 
along with both hands in his pockets and elbows 
square. 

Botte. An old word for boat. 

Bottle-charts. Charts on which the set of 
surface currents is marked, when the set has been 
calculated from the data found in bottles thrown 
overboard and washed up on the beach, or picked 
up by ships. 

Bottle-nose, or Bottle-nosed Whale. A name 
applied to several of the smaller cetaceans of the 
northern seas, more especially to the Hyperoodon 
rostratus. 

Bottom. The lowest part of anything. The 
rich low land formed by alluvial deposits. The 
part of a ship under water ; hence, the ship itself; 
as "foreign bottoms." A. full bottom denotes 
that such a form has been given to a ship as to 
allow her to carry a large amount of merchan 



dise. The bed of a body of water ; it is charac 
terized as muddy, rocky, sandy, etc. 

BOTTOM-CLEAN. Thoroughly clean, free from 
weeds, etc. 

Bottomry. A contract in 1 the nature of a 
mortgage of a ship when the owner, or his agent, 
borrows money to enable him to carry on his 
voyage, and pledges the keel or bottom of the 
ship (partem pro toto] as a security for the re 
payment. If the ship be lost the lender loses 
also his whole money ; but if it return in safety 
then he shall receive back his principal, and also 
the premium stipulated to be paid, however it 
may exceed the usual or legal rate of interest. 
And this is allowed to be a valid contract in all 
trading nations, for the benefit of commerce, and 
by reason of the extraordinary hazard run by 
the lender. And in this case the ship and tackle, 
if brought home, are answerable (as well as the 
borrower personally) for the money lent. But 
if the loan be not upon the vessel, but upon the 
goods and merchandise, which must necessarily 
be sold or exchanged in the course of the voyage, 
then only the borrower, personally, is bound to 
answer the contract, and in this case he is said 
to take the money at respondentia (which see). 

BOTTOMRY PREMIUM. The high rate of in 
terest charged on the safety of the ship, the 
lender losing his whole money if she be lost. 

Bottom-wind. A phenomenon that occurs on 
the lakes in the north of England, especially 
Derwent Water, which is often agitated by swell 
ing waves without any apparent cause. 

Bouche. See BUSH. 

Bougainville, Louis Antoine de. Born in 
Paris, November 11, 1729. The first voyage 
round the world by a Frenchman was made by 
this illustrious seaman. He crossed the Atlantic, 
braved the stormy seas around Cape Horn, and 
passed into the Pacific. He visited many places 
on the western shores of America and among 
the islands in the Pacific, but the charts which 
he prepared and bequeathed to his country and 
posterity are not reliable, owing to the great dif 
ficulty in Bougainville s day of making astro 
nomical observations, and the imperfect character 
of the plans laid down by men of science for as 
certaining the longitude. Died August 31, 1811. 

Bouge. See BOWGE. 

Bouge and Chine, or Bowge and Chime. A 
method of stowing casks with the bilge of one 
against the end of another. 

Bouguer, Pierre. Born at Le Croisic, in Bre- 
tagne, February 16, 1698. A profound French 
mathematician, who was one of a body of savants 
deputed in 1735 to proceed to South America to 
measure a degree of the meridian at the equator. 
Died August 15, 1758. 

Bouilli. Preserved beef in hermetically-sealed 
cans; termed by sailors "bully-beef," or "soup 
and bully." 

Boulder. See BOWLDER. 

Boulogne. A town of France, on the Eng 
lish Channel, at the mouth of the Lianne. Lat. 
50 44 32" N. ; Ion. 1 36 15" E. The port 
is formed by piers stretching out only to low- 
water mark, but the tide rises upwards of 16 
feet, and vessels find good anchorage about half 
a mile from the harbor. There is also a wet- 
dock with other harbor improvements. Pop. 
40,000. 

Bounce. The larger dog-fish. 



BOUNCEK 



89 



BOWLINE-KNOT 



Bouncer. A gun which kicks violently when 
fired. 

Bound. The path of a projectile between two 
grazes. Destined ; going, or intending to go. 
Where are you bound 1 ? to what place are you 
going. Ice-bound, entirely surrounded by ice. 
Tide-bound, beneaped, or prevented from sailing 
by an adverse tide. Wind-bound, prevented 
from sailing by an unfavorable wind. 

Boundary-line. The trace of the outer sur 
face of the skin of a ship on the stern-post, 
stem, and keel. 

Bounty for Destruction of Enemies Vessels. 
An amount awarded to a ship or vessel of the 
United States which sinks or destroys a vessel 
of war belonging to an enemy. If the vessel de 
stroyed was of equal or superior force to the 
United States vessel, the latter is awarded $200 
for each person on board the former at the begin 
ning of the engagement; if of inferior force, 
$100 for each person. If the captors of an 
enemy s vessel are instructed to, or do immedi 
ately, destroy the vessel for the public interest, 
$50 is awarded for each person on board the ves 
sel at the time it was captured. The gross 
amount awarded as above is divided among the 
officers and crew in the same manner as prize- 
money. (See PRIZE-MONEY.) When the actual 
number of persons on board the destroyed vessel 
cannot be ascertained, it is estimated according 
to the complement of a vessel of its class in the 
United States navy. This bounty is authorized 
\>y the laws of the United States, but cannot be 
paid unless an appropriation is made by Con 
gress for that purpose. 

Bourdonnais, Bertrand F. de. A naval officer 
in the service of the French East India Com 
pany. He held the post of Director-General of 
Mauritius (then called the Isle of France) and 
Bourbon ; and in 1746, when France and Eng 
land were at war, he beat a squadron under Ad 
miral Bassett, and bombarded the city of Madras. 

Bourse (Fr.). An exchange; a place where 
merchants congregate to transact business. 

Bouse. See BOWSE. 

Bout. A turn, round, or trial. A convivial 
meeting. 

Bout-ship. A contraction of about-ship. An 
order to prepare for going about. 

Bow. The forward part of a vessel. A full 
or bli<ff"bow is broad and round ; a sharp or lean 
bow is narrow and thin. The bow fares more 
or less as it falls out or increases in breadth at 
the upper part. Doubling of the bows, a thick 
planking secured on the bow to prevent the point 
of the anchor from injuring it. Bows on, stem 
first. On the bow, at an angle less than 45 from 
the ship s course. Broad off the bow, at an angle 
of 45 from the ship s course. 

Bow. An old instrument for taking angles, 
consisting of a graduated arc of 90, three vanes, 
and a staff. 

Bow-bye. An old expression for the situation 
of a ship when she is in irons. 

Bow-chaser. A gun placed in the bow to fire 
on a retreating vessel. 

Bowd-eaten. An old term for eaten by wee 
vils. 

Bowditch, Nathaniel, LL.D., F.R.S., mathe 
matician and astronomer, born in Salem, Mass., 
March 26, 1773 ; died at Boston, March 16, 1838. 
The poverty of his parents occasioned his with 



drawal from school at the age of 10, and after an 
apprenticeship in a ship-chandler s shop until he 
was 21 , he spent nine years in a seafaring life, at 
taining the rank of master. He published in 1800, 
while engaged as a supercargo, his well known 
11 PracticarNavigator," still a standard work of 
great utility and value. His fame as a man of 
science will principally rest on his Commentary 
on the "Mecanique Celeste" of La Place, of which 
he made the first entire translation, and which 
he elucidated in a manner that commands the 
admiration of scientific men. The elucidations 
and commentaries of Bowditch form more than 
half the work. They record subsequent discov 
eries, and show the sources whence La Place 
derived assistance. He contributed many valu 
able papers to " The Memoirs of the American 
Academy," and an article on modern astronomy 
to vol. xx. " North American Review." At his 
death he was a member of the principal scientific 
societies of Europe. He twice had a seat in the 
.executive council of Massachusetts. 

Bowditch s Practical Navigator. The stand 
ard work on navigation, published by the gov 
ernment and supplied to all government vessels. 
It contains, with the "Nautical Almanac," all 
the data necessary for the solution of problems in 
navigation. 

Bowed. The state of a yard when it arches 
in the centre from hoisting it too taut. Also of 
a mast when it bellies or is crippled by inju 
diciously setting up the rigging too taut. 

Bower. See ANCHOR and CHAIN. 

Bow-fast. A rope or chain for securing a 
vessel by the bow. See FAST. 

Bowge, or Bouge. An old term for bilge. 

Bow-grace. A kind of frame or fender of old 
junk, placed round the bows and sides of a ship 
to prevent her receiving injury from flouting ice 
or timbers. See BON-GRACE. 

Bowing the Sea. Meeting a turbulent swell 
in coming to the wind. 

Bowlder. A large stone worn and rounded by 
the attrition of the waves of the sea. 

Bowlder-head. A work against the encroach 
ment of the sea made of wooden stakes. 

Bowline. A rope leading forward connected 
by bridles to cringles on the leech of the square- 
sails ; it is used to keep the weather-edge of the 
sail steady when the ship is close-hauled, and 
enables the ship to come nearer to the wind. 

On a bowline and on a taut bowline are expres 
sions to signify that a ship is sailing as close as 
possible to the wind. To check, slack, or come up 
a bowline is to let it go when the wind becomes 
free. To clear away a bowline is to let it go 
when preparing to swing the yard. To sharp, 
haul taut, or steady out a bowline is to pull it as 
taut as it can well bear. 

BOWLINE-BRIDLE. The span attached to the 
cringles on the leech of a square-sail to which 
the bowline is toggled or clinched. 

BOWLINE- CRINGLE. An eye worked into the 
leech-rope of a sail, to which a bowline or the 
bowline-bridle is attached. 

Bowline-bend. The mode of bending warps 
or hawsers together by making a bowline in the 
end of one rope, and passing the end of the other 
through the bight, and making a bowline upon it. 

Bowline-knot. A knot much in use on board 
ship. The loop can be made of any size, and 
does not jamb nor render. 



BOW-LINES 



90 



BKAIL 



Bow-lines. Longitudinal curves representing 
the ship s fore-body. 

Bowling Along. Sailing rapidly with a free 
wind. 

Bowman, or Bow-oarsman. The man who 
pulls the forward oar in a single-hanked loat. 
In a double-banked boat there are two bowmen. 

Bow-oar. The foremost oar or oars in a pull 
ing bqat. 

Bow-rail. The rail around the bows. 

Bowse. To haul heavily upon a rope or tackle. 
Bowse up the jib, a colloquialism to denote the act 
of tippling. It is an old term, probably derived 
from the Dutch buyzen, to booze. 

Bowsprit. A large spar projecting over the 
bows to support the foremast and extend the 
head-sails. It is supported laterally by shrouds, 
and from below by the gammoning and bobstays. 
The outer end is the head, the inner end the heel, 
and that portion which is inboard is called the 
housing. A running-in bowsprit is used in boats, 
and when the jib is hauled down, the bowsprit is 
run in. 

BOWSPRIT-BITTS. Strong upright timbers se 
cured to the beams below the deck ; they have a 
cross-piece bolted to them, the inner end of the 
bowsprit steps between them, and is thus pre 
vented from slipping in. The cross-piece pre 
vents it from canting up. 

BOWSPRIT-CAP. The cap on the outer end of 
the bowsprit, through which the jib-boom tra 
verses. 

BOWSPRIT-CHOCK. A piece placed between the 
knight-heads, fitting close upon the upper part 
of the bowsprit. 

BOWSPRIT-GEAR. A term denoting the ropes, 
blocks, etc., belonging to the bowsprit. 

BOWSPRIT-HEART. The heart or block of wood 
used to secure the lower end of the fore-stay, 
through which the inner end of the jib-boom is 
inserted. It is seldom, if ever, used now. 

BOWSPRIT-HORSES. The ridge-ropes which ex 
tend from the bowsprit-cap to the knight-heads. 

BOWSPRIT-NETTING. The netting placed just 
above a vessel s bowsprit, for stowing the fore- 
topmast staysail ; it is usually lashed between 
the ridge-ropes. 

BOWSPRIT-SHROUDS. Strong ropes or chains 
leading from nearly the outer end of the bow 
sprit to the bow, giving lateral support to that 
spar. 

Bow-timbers. The timbers which form the 
bow of a ship. 

Box. See CARTRIDGE-, COXSWAIN-, PASS 
ING-, PRIMER-, TRANSPORTING-, and SHELL- 
BOX. 

Boxhauling. An evolution by which a ship 
is veered short round on her heel, when the ob 
ject is to avoid making a great sweep. Luff; 
when headway has ceased, haul up mainsail, 
brail up spanker, square after-yards, brace abox 
head-yards. Keep the after-sails lifting till 
braced up sharp on the other tack, and lay the 
head-yards square. Shift the helm when the 
ship gathers headway, and set the mainsail and 
spanker when they will take on the other tack. 
With much wind and sea this evolution would 
be dangerous, and it is seldom performed except 
in a case of emergency, as a seaman never likes 
to see his ship have sternway. 

Boxing. Any projecting wood forming a 
rabbet ; as, the boxing of the knight-heads. 



Box-metal. A composition of 32 parts of 
copper to 5 of tin. 

Box-off. To force the ship s head off from the 
wind by hauling aft the head-sheets and bracing 
aback the head-yards. 

Box the Compass. To repeat the names of 
the points of the compass in regular order. 

Boy. A rating in the navy. See NAVAL 
APPRENTICE SYSTEM. 

Boyart. An old term for a hoy. 

Boyer. A sloop of Flemish construction, 
with a raised work at each end. 

Brab. The sheaf of the young leaves of the 
Palmyra palm, from which sennit for hats is 
made. 

Brab-tree. The Palmyra palm. 

Brace. A composition strap to receive a pin 
tle of the rudder ; a gudgeon. A prop or sup 
port. In carpentry and engineering the term 
strictly applies to something that supports parts 
in compression, being the opposite of a stay or 
tie; but in boiler-making it is sometimes ap 
plied to parts in tension. 

One of the ropes attached to the extremities of 
the yards by which they are moved about hori 
zontally. They also assist in counteracting the 
lateral strain brought on the yard by the wind 
acting on the sail. To brace a yard, to move it 
horizontally by the braces. To brace up, to haul 
in the lee braces. To brace up sharp, to brace a 
3 ard as far forward as the stay and rigging will 
permit it logo. To brace in, to haul in the weather 
braces. To brace to, to check the lee head-braces 
and haul in the weather ones to allow the ship s 
head to come up to the wind rapidly. To brace 
aback, to so brace a yard that its sail will be 
aback. To brace abox, to lay the head-yards 
abox. To counter-brace the yards is to brace 
them all sharp up, the head-yards by opposite 
braces to the after-yards. 

Brace of Shakes. An expression signifying 
"in a moment"; as, I will be with you in a 
brace of shakes. The expression is taken from 
the napping of a sail. 

Brace Pendant. A length of rope or chain 
into which the yard-arm brace-blocks are spliced. 
They are in use in the merchant service, and 
have the following advantages, viz., rope is 
saved, the blocks have more play, and when the 
lee brace is let go the weight of the chain over 
hauls the brace. 

Brace Up ! Gather Aft ! An order to brace 
up the head-yards and haul aft the head-sheets 
which had been flowing. 

Bracket. A short crooked timber resembling 
a knee, used as a support. One of the vertical 
side pieces of a gun-carriage; when made of 
wood they are generally formed of two pieces 
jogged and doweled together. 

Brackish. Moderately salty ; applied to river 
water mingled with sea water. 

Brad. A small nail without a head, having a 
projection at the top on one side. 

BRAD-AWL. A tool to pierce holes for the in 
sertion of brads. 

Brail. Brails are ropes, the bights of which 
are seized to the leech of a trysail, leading 
through blocks on the gaff or luff. All trysails 
are fitted with them. They serve to gather up 
the sail ready for the furling-line. When a jib 
is fitted with brails it is for the purpose of lifting 
the clew clear of the stays when the sheet is 



BKAKE 



91 



BKEAST 



shifted over. Foot-brails, the lowest brails. Peak- 
brails, the outermost brails on the gaff. Throat- 
brails, the brails which make fast to the clew of 
the sail and reeve through a block at the jaws of 
the gaff. Brail-up ! the order to pull on the 
brails and thereby spill the sail and haul it up 
for furling. 

Brake. The lever which works a pump. A 
piece of mechanism for retarding or stopping 
machinery by friction. 

Bran. To go on. To lie under a floe edge, in 
foggy weather, in a boat in Arctic seas, to watch 
the approach of whales. 

Branch (Eng.}. The diploma of those pilots 
who have passed at the Trinity House, as compe 
tent to navigate vessels in particular places. 

Branch-pilot (Eng.}. One approved by the 
Trinity House, and holding a branch, for a par 
ticular navigation. 

Brand. The Anglo-Saxon for a burnished 
sword. A burned device or character. 

Branded Ticket (Eng.}. A discharge given 
to an infamous man, on which his character is 
written, and the reason he is turned out of the 
service. In the army, deserters are branded with 
D ; also B for bad character. In the navy, a 
corner of the ticket is cut off. 

Brandling. A supposed fry of the salmon 
species, found on the north of England coasts. 
Also, the angler s dew-worm. 

Bran-new. Brand-new ; quite new. 

Brash. Small fragments of crushed ice, col 
lected by the wind or sea near the shore, which a 
ship can force her way through. 

Brass. Impudent assurance. An alloy of 
copper and zinc. The proportions vary accord 
ing to the required color and proposed use. The 
term is often employed as synonymous with 
bronze (which see), as when it is applied to ord 
nance, the bearings of machinery, etc. See 
BRIGHT-WORK, SHEATHING. 

Brave. This word is used to express strength 
as well as courage; as, a brave wind. 

Brawet. A kind of eel. 

Brazil, Navy of. Fifty-seven steamers, of 
which 18 are ironclads, carrying 68 guns, and 
possessing 5080 horse-power, represent the navy 
of the Brazilian empire. The gunboats are 23 in 
number. The rest of the vessels are corvettes and 
transports, and 1 small frigate. The crews consist 
altogether of 4200 sailors, and for their command 
and the general management of naval affairs 
there is a minister of marine, 1 admiral, 2 vice- 
admirals, 4 rear-admirals, 8 chiefs of division, 16 
post-captains, 30 captains of frigates, 60 com 
manders, 146 lieutenants, and 88 sub-lieutenants. 
There are 5 naval arsenals and^ good naval 
school. ft! 

Breach. An old term for a * j ivy surf. An 
old word to denote the gap ir ^J levee or bank 
made by the breaking in of ( sea, now also 
applied to the opening or gay j iav /ortified works, 
made by an enemy s guns. r a ^yolling of waves 
over a vessel ; a clear bres Inplies that the 
waves roll over without y o feJng, and a sea 
makes a clean breach when e( j Blasts and every 
object on deck are swept a ment | 

Breaching. A word m a ga }|,- the act of leap 
ing out of the water ; apr_ a 5 whales. 

Breach/. Brackish, a^ an fed to water, prob 
ably derived from the fa^ r f or Jt water was made 
brackish by the sea break, an Jji. 



Bread. The usual name given to biscuit for 
ship s use. 

Bread-fruit. The fruit of a tree (Artocarpus 
incisa] found in the islands of the Pacific. When 
baked it somewhat resembles bread. The name 
is also applied to the tree. 

Bread-room. A water-tight compartment in 
which the bread is stowed. 

Bread-room Jack. See JACK o THE DUST. 

Bread-tree. See BREAD-FRUIT. 

Break. An opening in the clouds. An inter 
ruption ; as, a break in an electric circuit. A 
sudden ending ; as, the break of the poop. To 
deprive of commission, warrant, or rating. To 
shatter into pieces ; as, a wave breaks. To break 
one s liberty or leave is to remain away beyond 
the time specified for returning. To break off, 
to be forced off to leeward of the course by a 
change in the direction of the wind. Break off! 
An order to stop working at one job to begin 
at another. To break up, to separate into parts ; 
as, the ice breaks up. To break up a ship is to 
take her to pieces when she becomes old and un 
serviceable. Breaking up of the monsoon, the 
ending or shifting of a monsoon. This period 
is generally prolific of violent storms. Breaking 
of a gale, indications of a return of fair weather. 
To break bulk, to destroy the entirety of a cargo 
by removing a portion of it. To break ground, 
to heave the anchor clear of the ground. To 
break joints, to so arrange the planking that the 
joints in adjoining courses do not coincide with 
each other. When a ship at anchor is forced by 
the wind or current out of her proper position 
she is said to break her sheer. 

Breakage. Damage to goods in being broken. 
The leaving of empty spaces in stowing the hold. 

Break-beam. A beam at the break of a deck. 

Breaker. A small water-cask. A wave which 
breaks violently over reefs or rocks lying at, or 
under, the surface of the water. They are dis 
tinguished both by their appearance and by their 
sound, as they cover the sea with foam and pro 
duce a loud roaring. Breakers ahead I A warn 
ing from the lookout that there is broken water 
in the direction the ship is standing. 

Breakwater. Any structure or contrivance, 
as a mole, mound, wall, or sunken hulk, to break 
the force of waves and protect a harbor or any 
thing which is exposed to the force of the waves. 

Bream. A common fresh- as well as salt 
water fish (Abramis brama], little esteemed as 
food. 

Breaming. Cleaning a ship s bottom by burn 
ing off the grass, ooze, shells, or sea- weed, which 
it has contracted by lying long in harbor ; it is 
performed by holding kindled furze, fagots, or 
reeds to the bottom, which, by melting the pitch 
that formerly covered it, loosens whatever filth 
may have adhered to the planks ; the bottom is 



then covered anew with a composition of sulphur, 
tallow, etc., which not only makes it smooth 



and 



slippery, so as to divide the fluid more readily, 
but also poisons and destroys those worms which 
eat through the planks in the course of a voyage. 
This operation may be performed either by lay 
ing the ship aground after the tide has ebbed 
from her, or by docking or careening. 

Breast. To run abeam of a cape or object. 
To cut through a sea, the surface of which is 
poetically termed breast. To breast the sea, to 
meet it by the bow on a wind. To breast the 



BKEAST-BACKSTAY 



92 



BRIDGE 



surf, to brave it, and overcome it by swimming. 
To breast a bar, to heave at the capstan. To 
breast to, the act of giving a sheer to a boat. 

Breast-backstay. Breast-backstays extend 
from the head of an upper mast, through an out 
rigger, down to the channels forward of the 
standing backstays, for supporting the upper 
spars from to windward. When to leeward, 
they are borne abaft the top-rim. 

Breast-fast. A rope or chain used to confine 
the midship part of a ship to a wharf or another 
ship, as the bow-fast confines her forward, and 
the .stern-fast abaft. See FAST. 

Breast-gaskets. An old term for bunt-gas 
kets. 

Breast-hooks. ( Large pieces of compass-tim 
bers or knees fitted in the bows of ships against 
the apron and stemson, with the arms running 
back across the timbers of the bow. Those in the 
line of the de^-ks are called deck-hooks. 

Breast-rail. The upper rail of the balcony ; 
formerly it was applied to a railing in front of 
the quarter-deck, and at the after-part of the 
forecastle-deck. 

Breast-rope, or Breast-band. A rope or 
band fitted between the shrouds in the chains for 
the safety of the leadsman. 

Breather. A tropical squall. 

Breath of Wind. The lightest perceptible 
air. 

Breech. The outer angle of a knee-timber. 
The end of a block farthest from the hook. The 
portion of a gun abaft the chamber. 

B RE KCH-BLOCK. A mass of metal which closes 
the breech of a gun, and receives the rear thrust 
of the charge when it is fired. 

BREECHING. A large rope rove through the 
cascabel of a gun and secured to the ship s side, 
to limit the recoil. Breechings are made of 
hemp, and they are not to be covered, blackened, 
nor rendered less pliable in any way. 

BREECHING-BOLT. A bolt in the ship s side to 
which the breeching is shackled. 

BREECH-LOADER. A gun, large or small, which 
is charged at the breech. The objects sought to 
be attained by this change from the old system 
are rapidity in loading, facility of cleaning, ac 
curate adjustment of the size of the shot to the 
calibre of the gun, and facility in making the 
shot accommodate itself to the rifling. Addi 
tional mechanism is required, as the breech 
must be so far opened as to admit the shot and 
cartridge, and then so firmly closed as to resist the 
immense pressure occasioned by the discharge 
of the piece. See ORDNANCE and SMALL-ARMS. 

BREECH-PIN. A plug screwed into the rear- 
end of a gun-barrel, forming the bottom of the 
bore. Called also a breech-screw or breech-plug. 

BRKECH-PLUQ. See BREECH-PIN. 

BRE;-:CH-SCREW. See BREECH-PIN. 

BREECII-SH;HT. See SIGHT. 

Breese, Samuel L., Rear-Admiral U.S.N. 
Born in New York. Appointed at large, Sep 
tember 10, 1810. Midshipman Breese was pre 
sent at the battle of Lake Champlain. Commis 
sioned as lieutenant, April 27, 1816, and as com 
mander, December 22, 1835. Commissioned as 
captain, September 8, 1841. 

Captain Breese was in the Pacific during the 
Mexican war, and was present at the attack on, 
and capture of, the towns Tuspan and Tobasco, 
Mexico, and at the capture of Vera Cruz, 1847 ; 



special duty on the lakes, 1848; commandant 
Norfolk navy-yard, 1853-55 ; commanding Medi 
terranean Squadron, 1856-58 ; commandant navy- 
yard, New York, 1859-61. 

Commissioned as rear-admiral, July 16, 1862 ; 
light-house inspector, 1862; special duty, New 
York, 1865 ; port admiral at Philadelphia, 1867- 
68. Died in Philadelphia, 1870. 

Breeze. A wind which may be characterized 
as light, gentle, moderate, fresh, stiff, or strong. 
The^land and sea breezes are occasioned by the 
unequal heating of the land and water. On the 
coast within the tropics, a light breeze sets in 
from the sea in the morning, and gradually in 
creases in strength until the hottest portion of 
the day, when it begins to decrease, and sinks to 
a cairn toward sunset. Soon after the land- 
breeze commences to blow, and continues until 
the morning, when it gives place, in turn, to the 
sea-breeze. 

During the day the land becomes more heated 
than the sea, and the air over the land ascends, 
and the cold air from the sea rushes in to supply 
its place. After sunset the land parts with its 
heat more readily than the water, and the tem 
perature falls below that of the sea, and the air 
becoming heavier and denser, flows out to sea as 
a land-breeze. 

To KICK UP A BREEZE. To create a disturb 
ance. When the wind increases it is said to 
breeze up. 

Brest. A city of France, on the N. shore of 
a small gulf, called the Road of Brest. Lat. (of 
observatory) 48 23 32" N. ; Ion. 4 29 25" W. 
It is a fortified city of the first class. From its 
natural advantages, the extent of its various es 
tablishments, and its means of defense, Brest is 
one of the first naval ports in Europe. The outer 
road is one of the finest in the world, and has 
no superior in the safety and excellence of its an 
chorage. It communicates with the sea by a single 
passage, called the Goulet, 1750 yards broad. In 
the middle of the passage rise the Mingan Rocks, 
which contract the entrance, and oblige vessels 
to pass directly under the batteries. It has ex 
tensive quays, large basins, vast magazines, ship 
yards, etc. Brest has important educational 
establishments, and the naval school is here lo 
cated. The port has little trade, and its manu 
facturing establishments outside the arsenals are 
not la^e. A telegraph cable extends to Dux- 
bury, Mass. Pop."70,000. 

Brewing. Gathering or forming ; as, a storm 
which is foretold by the gathering of clouds, or 
other indications. 

Bricklayer s Clerk. A contemptuous expres 
sion for on 9 cho pretends to have seen " better 
days," bu imo is forced to betake himself to 
seafaring. ^eidoN 

Bridge. v & ^Wangement of electrical circuits 
used for r v \ye ^d w<r the resistance of a substance 
in the cir^ - Atv i^mal 

A platij^ef the ^or other substance, in a cir 
cuit, whi c ^ \t, A eat resistance to the passage 
of the cui v eSt V$s. lason of this resistance heat 
is evolve^e tiUs art the current be suflicient, 
ignites th ^r. the 1 

Bridge. ^^w? on th/ ridge of rock, sand, or 
shingle, ai e ,^ V. them, torn of a channel, so as to 
occasion a ^\\ r the .yhich the tide ripples. 

Bridge. ^\\wviils it ; partition in a furnace. 
It may be ?. . Uof thc-brick or of iron. Some- 



I 



BKIDGE 



93 



BROAD OF WATER 



times it is hollow, and forms a portion of the 
water-space of a boiler. 

Bridge. A platform extending across the 
deck above the rail for the convenience of the 
officer in charge of the ship. Some vessels have 
two bridges, one forward of the main- and the 
other forward of the mizzen-mast. In paddle- 
wheel vessels it connects the paddle-boxes. 

Bridgeport, a city and port of entry of Con 
necticut, is on a small inlet of Long Island 
Sound, at the mouth of the Pequonnock River. 
Steamers ply daily between this port and New 
York. Pop. 20,000. 

Bridle. A chain or rope span, both ends of 
which are made fast, the power being applied to 
the bight or middle portion. 

BOWLINE-BRIDLE. A span the legs of which 
are attached to the leech of a sail, and the bow 
line is bent to the bight. 

BRIDLE-CABLE. The cable which is bent to a 
bridle. 

MOORING-BRIDLE. The chains of permanent 
moorings. 

Bridle-port. The forward port on the gun- 
deck. 

Brig. The name given to the place where 
prisoners are confined on board men-of-war. A 
two-masted square-rigged vessel. See BRIG- 
SCHOONER and HERMAPHRODITE BRIG. 

Brigantine. A two-masted square-rigged ves 
sel, differing from a brig in that she does not 
carry a square mainsail. 

Bright Look-out. A vigilant look-out. 

Bright-work. A term applied to metal objects 
which are kept bright by polishing ; as, the rail 
ing about the hatches, capstan-head, cap-squares, 
lock- and sight-covers, metal blocks, rear face of 
the cascabel, face of the muzzle, ring-bolts in 
the decks, etc. Bright wood-work is a term ap 
plied to the wood-work which is scraped and 
scrubbed; as, the pin-rails, cavils, cleats, halliard- 
racks, etc. 

Brig-schooner. A two-masted vessel with 
square-sails on the foremast and fore-and-aft sails 
on the main ; an hermaphrodite brig. 

Brill. The Pleuronectes rhombus, a common 
fish, allied to, but smaller than, the turbot. 

Brine. A saturated solution of salt. 

Brine-gauge. See SALTNOMETER. 

Brine-pump. A pump to draw off the super- 
salted water from a boiler. 

Brine-valve. A blow-off valve. 

Bring by the Lee. See BROUGHT BY THE LEE. 

Bring em Near. A spy-glass. 

Bringers Up. The men who are last in a 
boarding party. The rear-most men. 

Bring Home. When the toggle becomes dis 
engaged and the chip slips through the water the 
ship brings home the log. When in heaving up 
the anchor, the anchor comes home, the ship 
brings home the anchor. 

Bringing-to Bolt. A bolt having an eye in 
one end and a nut and screw at the other ; used 
in keying up a structure. 

Bring the Sun Down. To bring in contact 
the horizon and the reflected image of the sun 
in a sextant or other instrument. 

Bring-to. To bring-to a sail is to bend it to 
its yard or gaff. To bring to a messenger or cable 
is to put it around the capstan. To bring a ship 
to is to lie-to or heave-to or force another ship so 
to do. To bring a ship to an anchor is to let go 



the anchor. To bring an enemy to action is to 
force him to give battle. 

Bring-up. To stop. A ship is brought up 
when her way is stopped either by letting go 
the anchor, or by running on a rock or shoal. 
To bring-up with a round turn is to stop the run 
ning of a rope by taking a round turn around a 
cavil or pin; figuratively used in speaking of 
doing anything effectually though abruptly. To 
bring-up all standing is to be stopped suddenly 
and without warning. 

Briny. An adjective which, used as a noun, 
signifies the sea ; as, plowing the briny. 

Brisas. A northeast wind which blows on 
the coast of South America during the trades. 

Brismak. A name among the Shetlanders for 
the excellent fish CM lied tusk or torsk, the best of 
the cod kind (Brosmus vulgaris}. 

Bristol (England) is on the Avon, at its con 
fluence with the Frome, 8 miles from Bristol 
Channel. It is one of the leading British ports 
in foreign trade. Large ships can ascend the 
river to the city, where spacious docks, quays, 
and ship-yards have been constructed. It is the 
fourth town in Great Britain in customs rev 
enue. Pop. 190,000. 

Brit. A fish of the herring kind (Clupea 
minima] from 1 to 4 inches long, found, at some 
seasons, in immense numbers, on the eastern coast 
of New England. 

British-built Ship. A ship built in Great 
Britain or Ireland, Guernsey, Jersey, the Isle of 
Man, or some of the colonies* plantations, islands, 
or territories in Asia, Africa, or America, which, 
at the time of building, belonged to or were in 
possession of Great Britain ; or any ship whatso 
ever which has been taken and condemned as 
lawful prize. See INTERNATIONAL LAW. 

British Seas. The four seas which surround 
Great Britain. 

Brittle-star. The common name of a long- 
rayed starfish (Ophiocoma rosula). 

Broach. To pierce ; to tap ; as a cask, to draw 
off the fluid. To broach a business, to begin it. 

Broach-to. To fly up into the wind. It gen 
erally happens when there is considerable sea on, 
and the ship is carrying a press of canvas with a 
good deal of after-sail set. When a ship sails 
with the wind aft, or on the quarter, the wind 
acts in the direction of the ship s course and the 
pressure on the sails is very much diminished. 
If from this position the ship suddenly presents 
her broadside to the wind, the sails, masts, and 
rudder will be endangered, and in extreme cases 
the ship may capsize or be forced down stern 
foremost. Broaching-to is generally occasioned 
by the difficulty of steering the ship ; by the neg 
ligence or incapacity of the helmsman ; or by an 
accident happening to the helm which renders it 
incapable of governing the ship. See BROUGHT 
BY THE LEE. 

Broad Arrow (Eng.}. The royal mark for 
government stores. 

Broad-ax. See Ax. 

Broadcloth. Square-sails. A wide and su 
perior article of woolen cloth, plain or twilled. 

Broad-horn. An old name for a flat-boat on 
the Western rivers. 

Broad of Water. An extensive lake with a 
channel communicating with the sea, or a wide 
opening of a river after passing a narrow en 
trance. 



BUG 



96 



BUMP 



commerce of Buffalo is large and constantly in 
creasing, a fact due to its location at the foot of 
the great chain of lakes, and to its being the 
terminus of the Erie Canal and of several rail 
road lines. Grain is the most important article 
of commerce, and the facilities for handling and 
storing it are unexcelled by those of any other 
city on the continent. Pop. 150,000. 

Bug. An old term for a vessel more remark 
able for size than efficiency. 

Bugalilo. A large trading-boat of the Gulf 
of Persia ; called buglo by sailors. 

Bugazeen. An old term for calico. 

Buggy-boat. A boat fitted with wheels for 
use as a vehicle on land. 

Bugling. At the Naval Academy the bugle 
sounds a call to terminate each recitation, and 
when a midshipman has a problem which he is 
unable to solve, he sometimes remains at the black 
board until this call is sounded, trusting thus to 
evade the consequences of a poor recitation. 
This manoeuvre is termed bugling. 

Bugologist. Jack s term for an amateur 
entomologist. 

Build. A vessel s form or construction. 

Build a Chapel. To turn a vessel suddenly 
by negligent steering. See CHAPEL. 

Builder s Certificate. A document contain 
ing an account of a ship s denomination, tonnage, 
where and by whom built, etc. 

Built. A suffix to denote the construction of 
a boat or vessel ; as. carvel-built, frigate-built, 
sharp-built, etc. 

Built-block. A made block. 

Built-up. An expression applied to masts or 
guns made of several pieces. 

Bulch. To bilge. 

Bulge. See BILGE. 

Bulk. The greater part. Substances stowed 
without cases or packages are stowed in bulk. To 
break hulk, to commence discharging cargo. 

BULKER. A person employed to measure 
goods> and ascertain the amount of freight with 
which they are charge able. 

Bulk-head. Anv partition separating apart 
ments on the same deck. Some are very strong, 
and others are light and can be removed at pleas 
ure. To hulk-head is to carry on a conversation 
which is intended for the ears of a third party. 

Bull. A male whale. Weak grog made by 
pouring water into a spirit-cask nearly empty. 
When the tide and wind cause the ship to bump 
up against her buoy she is said to bull the buoy. 

Bull-dance. A stag-dance. 

Bull-dogs. A general term for the main-deck 
guns. 

Bullet. A small projectile, usually of lead, 
and either spherical or elongated, for use in the 
smaller kinds of fire-arms, such as muskets, rifles, 
carbines, and pistols. Formerly spherical bullets 
were made by melting lead and pouring it into 
molds. They are now made more expeditiously 
and more truly spherical by compression. The 
load is first formed into a rod about a yard long 
by five- or six-eighths of an inch thick , which is 
passed between rollers for the purpose of con 
densing it; other rollers then press it into a row 
of nearly globular pieces, to each of which the 
proper form is given by means of a spherical die, 
after which a treadle- worked punch separates 
them into bullets. The spherical bullet is, how 
ever, rapidly becoming obsolete, having been 



almost entirely superseded by the elongated bullet, 
which encounters less resistance from the air, and 
has a longer range and greater penetrating power 
than the spherical. Several forms of the elon 
gated bullet are used. In most of them the base 
of the bullet is made expansive either by being 
hollowed, or by being fitted with a wooden plug, 
so that the force of the powder shall dilate the 
lead and cause it to fill the grooves of the rifle. 
By this means the bullet acquires a rotatory mo 
tion around its long axis which tends to increase 
its range and precision. See EXPLOSIVE BULLET. 

BULLET-COMPASSES. A pair of compasses 
with a ball on one leg to fit in a hole. 

BULLET-LADLE. A ladle for melting lead for 
casting bullets. 

BULLET-MOLD. An implement for shaping 
bullets. 

BULLET-PROBE. An instrument for exploring 
tissue to find the situation of a bullet. 

BULLET-SCREW. A screw on the end of a 
rammer for drawing a bullet from a fire-arm. 

BULLET-SHELL. An explosive bullet. 

Bull-head, or Bull-jub. A name of the fish 
called miller s thumb (Coitus gobio). 

Bullion. Heavy twisted fringe for ornaments. 

Bullock-block. A block formerly used under 
the topmast cross-trees for the topsail-ties. 

Bullock-slings. Slings for hoisting in live 
cattle. 

Bull s-eye. A small annular block of hard 
wood without a sheave ; it has a groove to take 
a strap, and is measured by its diameter. A 
small circular cloud ruddy in the centre, a fore 
runner of a storm. The centre of a target. The 
lens of a dark lantern ; hence the lantern itself. 
A small, thick, circular piece of glass inserted 
in the decks, port-lids, etc., for the admission of 
light. A popular name for the star Aldebaran 
(a Tauri). 

BULL S-EYE CRINGLE. A cringle worked 
around a bull s-eye. 

Bull-trout. The salmon-trout of the Tweed. 
A large species of trout taken in the waters of 
Northumberland. The sea-trout. 

Bullyrag. To reproach contemptuously, and 
in a hectoring manner ; to bluster, to abuse, and 
to insult noisily. 

Bulwark. The planking or wood-work round 
a vessel above the deck. 

BULWARK-NETTING. An ornamental frame 
of netting answering the purpose of a bulwark. 

Bumbard. A cask or large vessel for liquids. 
See BOMBARD. 

Bum-boat. A boat employed to carry pro 
visions, vegetables, and small merchandise for 
sale to ships. The name is corrupted from bom 
bard, the vessel in which beer was formerly car 
ried to soldiers on duty. 

Bumkin, Bumpkin, or Boomkin. A short 
boom or beam of timber projecting from each 
bow of a ship. Its use is to extend the weather 
clew of the foresail. The name is also applied 
to the timber projecting from each quarter for 
the main-brace blocks. 

Bummaree. A word synonymous with bot- 
tomri/ in maritime law. It is also a name given 
to a class of speculating salesmen of fish, not rec 
ognized as regular tradesmen. 

Bump. To bump a boat is to pull astern of 
her in another, and insultingly or inimically give 
her the stem. 



BUMP-ASHORE 




BUOYS 



Bump-ashore. To run stem-on to a beach or 
bank. A ship bumps by the action of the waves 
lifting and dropping her on the bottom when she 
is aground. 

Bumper. A log of wood over the side, used 
as a fender. 

Bumpkin. See BUMKIN. 

Bund. In the East, an embankment or sea 
wall. 

Bundle. To load things into a boat in a slovenly 
manner. Bundle up I Hurry up from below. 

Bungle. To perform duty in a slovenly man 
ner. 

Bungo, or Bonga. A dug-out made from the 
bonga-tree. 

Bung-starter. A stave or bat used for starting 
bungs by beating on the cask on either side of 
the bung. A sobriquet for the captain of the 
hold. 

Bung-up and Bilge-free. A cask placed with 
the bung-stave uppermost, and the bilge clear of 
everything. 

Bunk. A standing bed-place. 

Bunker. A bin for stowing coal on board a 
steamer. 

Bunt. The middle part of a sail. The sail 
which is tossed up on the centre of the yard in 
furling. A high bunt is formed when the bunt- 
whip is hauled taut-up and a great amount of 
sail is stowed in the exact centre of the yard ; in 
a lorv or roiling bunt the sail tapers gradually 
from the centre. 

BUNTERS. The men who stow the bunt. 

BUNT-FAIR. Before the wind. 

BUNT-GASKET. See GASKET. 

BUNT-JIGGER. A small purchase for rousing 
up the bunt of heavy sails. 

BUNT-WHIP. A whip for rousing up the bunts 
of the light sails in furling. 

Bunting. A thin woolen stuff of which flags 
are made. 

Buntline. One of sev" il ropes toggled to the 
foot of a sail and leadin _, thence, before all, to 
blocks above the yard and thence to the deck. 
They are used for hauling the foot of the sail up 
to the centre of the yard. 

BUNTLINE-CLOTH, A narrow lining on the 
forward surface of a sail in the wake of the bunt- 
line to protect the . iil from chafe. 

^E. A cringle worked into 
,il to which the buntline was 
have been superseded by 



BUNTLINE-CRIJ 

the foot-rope of r 
clinched. Crin 
toggles. 

BUNTLINE-S 

a thimble in o- 
is rove ; the 
block to keep 
ally called a 

BUNTLINI 

foot-rope of 
tached by a 
bowline, th< 
and are attf 
Buoy. . 
tight cask, 
attached t 
serve to m; 
tion of obj 
rocks, she 
for other 
permanen 
of a sein 



A short piece of rope with 
through which the buntline 
nd is made fast to the tie- 

into the yard. It is gener- 

A toggle seized to the 

;j which the buntline is at- 

\; hen the sail is loosed to a 

are unbent from the bridles 

ese toggles. 

body, commonly a water- 
ilock of wood. They are 
n by a rope or chain, and 
annel, or indicate the posi- 
le surface of the water ; as, 
,etc. They are also used 
>, life-preservers, floats for 
floats for the upper edge 
r are generally made of 



wood, or sheet-iron, but gutta-percha has some 
times been used. They are variously shaped 
and colored, and sometimes named and num 
bered, in order that they may be easily distin 
guished from each other. A cone- or can-buoy is 
conical in shape, a cask-buoy cylindrical or nearly 
so, and a nut- or nun-buoy is shaped like the frus- 
trum of two cones with the bases joined together. 
A spar-buoy is a spar, one end of which is an 
chored. Anchor-buoys are attached to the an 
chors, and serve to mark out the position of the 
anchors, so that they may be avoided in tending 
ship, or picked up in case of being obliged to 
slip. A bell-buoy is a large buoy on which is 
placed a bell, which is sounded by the heaving 
and setting of the sea. A whistling-buoy is fitted 
with an apparatus which makes a peculiar 
whistling noise at certain stag*es of the tide or 
sea. To buoy an object is to indicate its posi 
tion by means of a buoy and a rope or chain. 
To buoy the cable is to attach a buoy to the 
bight to keep it from sinking and chafing 
against the rocks. To bleed a buoy\s to let the 
water out of it. A buoy watches when it floats 
on the water. To stream the buoy is to let an 
anchor-buoy fall from the bows previous to 
letting go the anchor. 

Buoyancy. The quality of floating in a liquid. 
The weight of a floating body as measured by the 
volume of fluid displaced. 

CENTRE OF BUOYANCY. See CENTRE. 

Buoys, Directions for Coloring, Numbering, 
and Placing. UNITED STATES. In conformity 
to the terms of the act of Congress, approved 
September 28, 1850, prescribing the manner of 
coloring and numbering the buoys along the 
coasts and in the bays, sounds, rivers, and har 
bors of the United States, the following order 
must be observed, viz. : 

1. In approaching the channel, etc., from sea 
ward, red buoys, with even numbers, will be found 
on the starboard side of the channel, and must 
be left on the starboard hand in passing in. 

2. In approaching the channel, etc., from sea 
ward, black buoys, with odd numbers, will be 
found on the port side of the channel, and must 
be left on the port hand in passing in. 

3. Buoys painted with red and black horizontal 
stripes will be found on obstructions, with chan 
nel-ways on either side of them, and may be left 
on either hand in passing in. 

4. Buoys painted with white and black per 
pendicular stripes will be found in mid-channel, 
and must be passed close-to to avoid danger. 

5. All other distinguishing marks to buoys 
will be in addition to the foregoing, and may be 
employed to mark particular spots, a descrip 
tion of which will be given in the printed list of 
buoys. 

6. Perches, with balls, cages, etc., will, when 
placed on buoys, be at turning-points, the color 
and number indicating on what side they shall 
be passed. 

The following abbrevations are used on charts 
and buoy lists : 

R., red buoys, Nos. 2, 4, 6, etc., starboard. B., 
black buoys, Nos, 1, 3, 5, etc., port. P. S., white 
and black perpendicular stripes, without num 
bers, in mid-channel. H. S., red and ^ black 
horizontal stripes (on obstructions), without 
numbers. 

BELGIUM. On entering the channel from sea- 



BURBOT 



98 



BURT S NIPPERS 



ward, white buoys must be left on the starboard 
hand, black buoys on the port. 

CANADA. The same as the United States. 

ENGLAND. The starboard side of a channel is 
the right-hand side proceeding from seaward. 
The entrance to a channel or a turning-point is 
marked by a spiral buoy, with or without staff 
and globe, triangle, cage, etc. Single-colored 
can-buoys, black or red, mark the starboard side, 
and buoys of the same shape and color, either 
checkered or vertically striped with white, mark 
the port side. Globes are used on buoys on the 
starboard hand, and cages on the port. When a 
middle ground exists in a channel, each end of 
it is marked by a buoy with horizontal white 
stripes. Wrecks are marked by green buoys. 
All buoys have their names painted on them in 
conspicuous letters. 

FRANCE. On entering a channel from sea 
ward, all buoys and beacons painted red with a 
white band near the summit, must be left to star 
board ; those painted black must be left to port. 
Buoys that can be passed on either side are painted 
red with black horizontal bands. That part of a 
beacon below the level of high water, and all 
warping buoys, are painted white. The small 
rocky heads in frequented channels are colored 
the same as beacons when they have a surface 
sufficiently conspicuous. Each buoy or beacon 
has upon it the name of the danger it is intended 
to point out, and also its number, commencing 
from seaward. The even numbers are on the red 
buoys, and the odd numbers on the black. The 
buoys that can be passed on either side are named 
but not numbered. 

HOLLAND. The same as Belgium. 

SCOTLAND. Coming from seaward, leave the 
red buoys on the starboard hand, and the black 
buoys on the port. Red and black buoys are 
placed on detached dangers, and may be passed on 
either side. Wrecks are marked by green buoys. 
Fairway buoys are plainly marked, and all buoys 
have their names painted on them. Liverpool is 
buoyed on the same system. 

BUOY-ROPE. The rope which attaches the 
buoy to the anchor ; it should always be of suffi 
cient strength to lift the anchor should the cable 
part. 

BUOY-ROPE KNOT. A knot made by unlaying 
the strands of a cable-laid rope, and also the 
small strand of each large strand ; and after single 
and double walling them, as for a stopper-knot, 
worm the divisions, and round the rope. 

Burbot. A fish of the genus Lota, shaped 
like an eel, but shorter and thicker, with a flat 
head, having on the nose two small beards and 
another on the chin. Sometimes called an eel- 
pout. 

Burden. The quantity of merchandise that 
a ship carries when properly trimmed. See TON 
NAGE. 

Bureau. A department of government. In 
most European countries the highest depart 
ments of government receive the name of bureaus. 
In England and the United States the term is 
confined to subordinate departments, as Bureau 
of Ordnance. See ORGANIZATION. 

Burgall. A fish of our eastern coasts, from 6 
to 12 inches long ; also called the blue-perch, the 
chogset, and the nibbler, the last from its habit 
of nibbling off the bait thrown for other fishes. 

Burgee. A swallow-tailed flag ; in the mer 



chant service it generally has the ship s name on 
it. 

Burgomaster. In the Arctic Sea, a large 
species of gull (Larus glaucus). 

Burgoo. A dish made of boiled oatmeal sea 
soned with salt, butter, and sugar. 

Burgoyne, Hugh Talbot. Born in 1838. Only 
son of Sir John Burgoyne, Royal Engineers. 
He was a captain in the English navy. During 
the Crimean war, while still a junior officer, he 
commanded a small but active vessel. For his 
action at Kinburn he was made one of the first 
recipients of the Victoria cross. At the close 
of the war he was made Knight of the Legion 
of Honor, and received the order of Medjidie. 
After this he was rapidly promoted. He was lost 
while in command of the Coles turret-ship 
" Captain," which foundered off Cape Finisterre, 
September 7, 1870. The "Captain" had an ex 
tremely low free-board, and was built by Laird, 
of Birkenhead, under the supervision of her de 
signer, Captain Coles, and Captain Burgoyne. 

During her first cruise, in May, 1870, Admiral 
Sir Thomas Symonds reported her as behaving 
extremely well in all weather, using her heavy 
guns readily in a seaway, very stable, and es 
pecially handy under sail. She capsized, how 
ever. Her constructor, Captain Cowper Coles, 
R.N., perished in her, with 542 out of 560 souls, 
who composed her complement. 

The former chief constructor of the Royal 
navy, Mr. E. J. Reed, had always declared that 
the " Captain" was uhseaworthy. E. Shippen. 

Burley-twine. A strong coarse twine. 

Burnettizing. A process for the preservation 
of timber. The timber is immersed in a solution 
of chloride of zinc for a certain period, which 
depends upon the size of the timber. 

Burn the Water. A phrase denoting the act 
of killing fish at night with a gig. The fisher 
men have a torch in the boat ; hence the phrase. 

Burr. The hazy c ile which appears around 
the moon before rain. 

Burrel. Langrage shot, consisting of bits of 
iron, bullets, nails, etc., got together in haste for 
a sudden emergency. 

Burrock. A small weir over a river, where 
weels are laid for taking fist. 

Burr-pump. A name foi the bilge-pump. 

Burser. See PURSER. 

Burster-bag. A bag for bursting charge 
of a shell. 

Bursting Charge. The ? ce charge of a 
shell as distinguished from lowing charge. 

In some shells the bursting ^ is inclosed in 

a bag as a guard against pr e explosions. 

Burt. A flat fish of the ttnd. 

Burthen. See BURDEN 

Burton. A tackle used 
as, swaying aloft a topsa: 
etc. A top-burton is kept J 
at the topmast-head. It i 
long enough to permit the 
ing part to come down to 
the main top-burton is th 
ging in a ship. See SPAN 

Burt s Nippers. An ; 



tached to a deep-sea le 
line to run readily throi 
descending ; but as soon 
bottom, releasing the te 
the surface of the water. 



us purposes ; 
ting a yard, 
the pendants 
ckle, and is 
k and haul- 
The fall of 
>iece of rig- 
tf. 

-netimes at- 
allows the 
,he lead is 
trikes the 
& " n e at 



BUSH 



99 



BY-WASH 



Bush. A perforated piece of metal let into 
certain parts of machinery to receive the wear 
of pivots, journals, etc. Any similar lining of 
a hole with metal ; as^ the vent of a gun. The 
bush or bushing of the vent of a gun is made of 
pure copper ; the outer orifice is faced with steel, 
and the inner orifice, in heavy guns, is lined 
with platinum. 

Bushing. See BUSH. 

Bush-metal. An alloy of copper and tin. 

Bushnell, David, of Connecticut, was the first 
to show practically that a charge of gunpowder 
could be fired under water, and is therefore en 
titled to the credit of inventing torpedoes or sub 
marine mines (1775). 

Busking. Piratical cruising. Beating to 
windward along a coast, or cruising oiF and on. 

Buss. A small strong-built Dutch vessel 
with two masts, used in the herring and mack 
erel fisheries, generally of 50 to 70 tons burden. 

Bust-head. See FIGURE-HEAD. 

Busy as the Devil in a Gale of Wind. Fid 
gety restlessness, or double diligence in a bad 
cause ; the imp being supposed to be mischievous 
in hard gales. 

But. A conical basket for catching fish. 

Butcher s Bill. A nickname for the official 
return of killed and wounded which follows an 
action. 

Butescarli. The early name for the sea-officers 
in the British navy. 

Butt. A wine measure of 126 gallons. The 
large end of the stock of a fire-arm. A target ; 
hence a person at whom are leveled the shafts of 
sarcasm or ridicule. The joining of two timbers 
or planks endways ; also the ends of the timbers 
or planks so joined. The largest end of any tim 
ber or plank. To start or spring a butt is to 
loosen the end of a plank by the laboring of the 
ship. 

Butt-and-butt. A term denoting that the butt 
ends of two timbers meet but do not overlap. 

Butter-box. A name given to the brig-traders 
of lumpy form, from London, Bristol, and other 
English ports. A cant term for a Dutchman. 



Butter-bump. A name of the bittern. 

Butter-fingered. Having a careless habit of 
allowing things to slip through the fingers. 

Buttock. The after-part of the ship on each 
side below the knuckle. A ship is said to have 
a broad or narrow buttock according to her tran 
som convexity under the stern. 

BUTTOCK-LINES. Represented on the sheer 
draught as curve lines cutting the ship into ver 
tical longitudinal sections parallel to the centre 
line. 

Button. The knob of metal which terminated, 
the breech-end of old guns, and which afforded a 
convenient bearing for the application of hand 
spikes, breechings, etc. 

Buttons, To Make. A common time-honored, 
but strange expression for sudden apprehension 
or misgiving. 

Butt- shaft, or Butt-bolt. An arrow without 
a barb, used for shooting at a butt. 

By. Being, or passing, near. By the wind, as 
near the wind as possible. Full and by, rap- 
full, but close to the wind. By and large, to the 
wind and off it. Stand by ! Be prepared. By 
the board, over the ship s side ; a mast carried 
away near the deck is said to go by the board. 
A ship is doiun by the head (or stern) when she 
draws more water forward (or aft) than she does 
when she is in her proper trim. 

Bykat. A term for a male salmon of a certain 
age, because of the beak which then grows on its 
under-jaw. 

Byllis. An old spelling for bill. 

Byrth. The old expression for tonnage. 

Byssa. An ancient gun for discharging stones 
at the enemy. 

Byssus. The silken filaments of any of the 
bivalved mollusks which adhere to rocks, as the 
Pinna, Mytilus, etc. The silken byssus of the 
great pinna, or wing-shell, is woven into dresses. 
In the Chama gigas it will sustain 1000 pounds. 
Also, the woolly substance found in damp parts 
of a ship. 

By-wash. The outlet of water from a dam 
or discharge channel. 



100 



CABLE 



C. 



C. Abbreviation for can in the TJ. S. General 
Service Signal Code. Among the letters used in 
the log-book to register the state of the weather 
c denotes cloudy. 

Caaing Whale (Globicephalus deductor). A 
cetacean belonging to the genus Delphinus, but 
differing from the other Delphinidce in having 
the phalanges more numerous and the limbs 
lower and more approximated in position. It 
resembles the common porpoise in general form, 
but is much larger, measuring from 16 to 24 feet 
in length, and rather more than 10 feet in cir 
cumference at its thickest part, which is at the 
root of the dorsal fin, whence the body tapers 
towards the tail, which is deeply forked. In 
color it is black, with a white streak on the 
under side. Its pectoral fins are long and nar 
row. Its vertebrae number 55. It is very 
gregarious, and is found on the coasts of Great 
Britain, North America, and Iceland, while 
other species of the same genus exist in the 
South Seas and the North Pacific. It is most 
frequently taken on the Scottish coast, whence 
also it derives its name, the word "caaing" 
being Scotch for "driving." The animal is so 
called from the fact that owing to its sheep-like 
propensity to follow its leader, the fishermen, 
having hemmed in a herd between their boats 
and the shore, are enabled to drive the whole 
herd into shallow water, where, becoming 
stranded, they fall an easy prey, and form a 
rich booty to their pursuers. 

Cabane. A flat-bottomed passage-boat of the 
Loire. 

Cabin. In passenger steamers the cabin is a 
large apartment which is occupied by the better 
class of passengers. In it are the state-rooms or 
private rooms of the passengers, and the space 
between the rows of state-rooms is the saloon, 
which is for the accommodation of the passengers 
in general, and is frequently used as a dining- 
room. In large vessels there are two or three 
cabins, in which case they are occupied, respec 
tively, by the first-, second-, and third-class pas 
sengers. In an ordinary merchant vessel the 
cabin is the apartment occupied by the master 
of the vessel. 

In a man-of-war the cabin is the apartment 
occupied by the cabin-officers. Cabin-officers 
are the commanding officer and other line-officers 
of and above the grade of commander, whether 
they are on duty or attached to the ship as pas 
sengers. In large vessels there are two cabins, 
one on the main deck and one on the upper deck. 
The cabin is frequently divided into compart 
ments by light bulkheads, and two or more 
state-rooms are formed in the same manner. 
"When there is a flag-officer on duty on board a 
vessel having two cabins, he selects one for his 
own use and the commanding officer occupies 
the other; when there is but one cabin, the 



commanding officer is entitled to one-third of 
the space, divided off by a fore-and-aft bulk 
head. 

CABIN-BOY. A boy whose duty it is to wait 
on the officers and passengers in the cabin. 

CABIN-LECTURE. A severe but private repri 
mand. See JOBATION. 

Cable. A large strong chain, or rope made 
of hemp, manilla, or coir, used to retain a ship 
in place when at anchor. Rope for cables is 
cable-laid, to render it impervious to water, but 
the additional twist given in laying it up de 
tracts from the strength, the cable-laid being 
30 per cent, weaker than plain-laid rope of 
equal size. Cables vary in size from 10 to 26 
inches. Eope-cable has been superseded by 
chain. 

Chain for cables for the navy is manufactured 
at the Washington navy-yard The utmost care 
is taken to procure good iron ; each bar is tested, 
and the links are carefully welded. A cast-iron 
stud is inserted in each link, except those at the 
ends of the sections ; the object of the stud is to 
strengthen the chain and keep it from kinking. 

Chain-cables are 120 fathoms long, a shackle 
being introduced at each section of 15 fathoms, 
and a swivel at ?, STj, and 82 J fathoms. The 
object of the swivel is to keep the chain from 
getting full of turns. 

Chain-cables are marked at the shop in the fol 
lowing manner : each shackle is marked across 
the eye with its number ; the swivels and club- 
link are marked with the number of the chain, 
the date, place of manufacture, and the initials 
of the inspector. 

On the stud are cast the initials U. S. and 
"W. N. Y., and also the size of the chain in 
figures. 



Table for Proof of Cables. 



Size 
Cab! 
2i4in 

$ 

1% 
1% 

>1 

7 

P 


of Pounds Strain 
e. Single Proof, 
ch 147 800 


134 400 


117,600 
1(X) 800 


87 800 


78000 


66 600 


56,000 


44800 


34,600 


26800 



Double Proof 

for Triplets. 

295,600 

268,800 

235,200 

201,600 

175,600 

156,000 

133,200 

112,000 

89,600 

69,200 

53,600 



Chain-cables differing 1-16 inch in size are not manufactured 
now. 

The triplets are cut from the chain to be issued, and are 
tested to destruction, but must stand the double proof before 
breaking. 

Cables issued to the service are pulled to single proof only. 

After the cable has stood the required test 
given in the proof-table, it is examined by an 
expert, to see if there are any defects in the 
welding. 

A shot of cable, two cables spliced together. 



GABON 



101 



CABRAL 



To pay out or veer cable, to let more cable run 
out of the hawse-hole. To bitt the cable, to take a 
turn with the cable around the bitts. To stopper 
the cable, to secure it by means of pieces of ropes, 
called stoppers, attached to the deck or bitt (See 
STOPPER.) To buoy the cable, to attach buoys to 
the bight of the cable to keep it clear of the 
ground. To coil a cable, to lay it in fakes and 
tiers. To bend ti cable, to clinch or shackle it to 
the ring of the anchor. To range a cable, to lay 
it along the deck in parallel lines. To slip the 
cable, to let go the inboard end and allow it all 
to run out. Cable enough ! the cry from the fore 
castle when sufficient cable has been veered to 
allow the anchor to be catted. 

CABLE-BENDS. Two small ropes for lashing 
the end of a cable to its own part, in order to 
secure the clinch, by which it is made fast to the 
anchor. 

CABLE, BOWER-. The cable belonging to a 
bower-anchor. 

CABLE-BUOY. A cask used to buoy up the 
bight of a cable. 

CABLE, ELECTRICAL. An insulated wire or 
combination of wires used in telegraphy or in 
firing mines. The essential qualities are strength, 
pliability, and high insulation. The substances 
generally used for insulating a cable are gutta- 
percha, india-rubber, and Hooper s material ; 
the latter is considered to be the best. To pro 
tect the insulating material from chafe over 
rocks, cables are generally provided with an 
external metallic covering. 

CABLE-LAID ROPE. Three plain-laid ropes 
laid up into one rope, thus forming a nine- 
stranded left-handed rope. 

CABLE, SHEET-. The cable belonging to the 
sheet-anchor. 

CABLE S LENGTH. One-tenth of a sea-mile, 
about 100 fathoms. 

CABLE-STAGE. A platform in the hold on. 
which are coiled the cables and hawsers. 

CABLE, STREAM-. A hawser or large rope 
used with a stream-anchor. 

CABLET. A cable-laid rope of less than 10 
inches in circumference ; a hawser. 

CABLE-TIER. The place where cables and 
hawsers are stowed. 

Gabon. An old word for a nipper. 

Caboose, or Camboose. The cook-room or 
kitchen of merchantmen, on deck ; a diminutive 
substitute for the galley of a man-of-war ; the 
term is sometimes applied to a portable cast-iron 
stove used in coasting-vessels for cooking on 
deck. 

Cabot, John. See CABOTO, GIOVANNI. 

Cabot, Sebastian. One of the sons of Gio 
vanni. He survived his father and brothers, and 
earned a high reputation as an explorer. Born 
at Bristol, England claims him as one of her 
sons. After the death of Henry VII. he entered 
the service of Spain, and became a member of the 
Council of the Indies. In the reign of Henry 
VIII. he commanded an expedition in search of 
the Northwest passage, " the dream of all the 
greatest navigators since the close of the fifteenth 
century." The object of the expedition was de 
feated by the pusillanimity of Admiral Pert. 
Cabot, however, turned the frustrated mission 
to account by observing the dip of the needle and 
the variation of the compass in those regions, 
and by forming plans for the accurate deter 



mination of the longitude. In 1520, Cabot left 
the service of the king of England, and accepted 
the grade of pilot-major under the government 
of Charles V. of Spain. By that monarch he 
was appointed captain-general of an expedition 
to Cape Horn and the Pacific shores of South 
America ; but through the jealousy of his sub 
ordinates his operations were confined to the Rio 
de la Plata and its tributary streams. With 
drawing from the Spanish service in 1548, he 
once more settled in Bristol, and Edward VI. of 
England employed him in a capacity correspond 
ing with that of a first lord of the Admiralty. 
As superintendent of the shipping and foreign 
commerce of England, Cabot destroyed the 
monopoly of a grasping company, and improved 
the public revenues by encouraging the princi 
ples of free trade. He then founded a Society of 
Merchant Adventurers, and in that capacity sent 
out ships with keels of lead as a precaution 
against the worm. Some years later he closed a 
useful life, and was posthumously panegyrized 
as the most scientific seaman of the age, and one 
of the gentlest, bravest, and best of men, who 
gave to Britain not only a large continent but 
the untold riches of the deep in the fisheries of 
Newfoundland and the Arctic Sea. He was, in 
fact, the father of free trade. 

Cabotage (ItaL). Sailing from cape to cape 
along a coast, or the details of coast pilotage. 

Caboto, or Kaboto, Giovanni (JoiiN CABOT), 
obtained a patent from Henry VII., King of 
England, empowering him and his three sons to 
sail into the eastern, western, or northern seas, 
with a fleet of five ships, at their own expense, 
to search for islands, countries, provinces, or 
regions not before seen by Christian people ; to 
float the English flag on any city, island, or 
continent that they might find, and, as vassals 
of the English crown, to possess and occupy the 
territories so discovered. The expedition sailed 
from Bristol, May, 1497, and the Cabots sighted 
Labrador. In the following year they made a 
second voyage, and got as far as Maryland, 
having previously discovered Newfoundland. 
In 1499 they made a third voyage, extending to 
the Gulf of Mexico. See SEBASTIAN CABOT. 

Cabral, or Cabrera, Pedro Alvarez, the dis 
coverer of Brazil, was descended from an old 
and patrician Portuguese family. Nothing is 
known of his early life save the fact that he 
must have recommended himself by talent and 
enterprise to King Emanuel, of Portugal, who, 
after the. first voyage of Vasco de Gama, ap 
pointed Cabral to the command of a fleet of 13 
vessels, carrying 1200 men, and bound for the 
East Indies. On the 9th of March, 1500, he 
sailed from Lisbon. To avoid the inconvenience 
of being becalmed on the coast of Africa, he took 
a course too far westerly, fell into the South 
American current of the Atlantic, and was car 
ried to the unknown coast of Brazil, of which 
he claimed possession for the king of Portugal, 
April 24, 1500, naming the new country " Terra 
da Santa Cruz." After sending home one ves 
sel to bear news of this great accidental dis 
covery, Cabral sailed for India ; but on the 29th 
of May four of his vessels foundered, and all on 
board perished, including Diaz, the great navi 
gator ; and soon afterwards three more vessels 
were lost. Cabral therefore landed at Mozam 
bique, on the east coast of Africa, of which he 



CABURN 



102 



CACHOLOT 



first gave clear information, and also discovered 
(August 23) the Antschedives Islands, of which 
he described correctly the position. Hence he 
sailed to Calicut, where, having made the terror 
of his arms felt, he was permitted to found a fac 
tory ; entered into successful negotiations with 
native rulers, and thus established the first com 
mercial treaty between Portugal and India. He 
returned from India, bringing with him a con 
siderable booty, and arrived in the port of Lis 
bon July 31, 1501. It appears probable that the 
king was dissatisfied with the results of the ex 
pedition (although it had annexed Brazil to the 
crown of Portugal), for subsequently we find no 
mention made of Cabral among other discoverers. 
At the request of Cabral, Sancho de Toar wrote 
a description of the coast of Sofola. Cabral s 
voyages are described in Ramusio s " Naviga- 
tione e Viaggi," 3vols. (Venice, 1563; newed., 
Venice, 1835.) 

Caburn. A small line made of spun-yarn, for 
worming cables, seizings, and the like. 

Cacao (Sp.). The plant Theobroma, from 
which cocoa is derived. 

Cache (Fr., a place of concealment). Ex 
plorers and other travelers in waste regions wish 
ing either to disencumber themselves of a portion 
of their impedimenta, or to establish magazines 
for use on their return journey, frequently bury 
in the ground provisions and articles of equip 
ment. The place of such a deposit is termed a 
cache, and the process of making it, cacheing. 

Cacholot, Spermaceti, or Sperm Whale (Phy- 
seter macrocephalus, or Cntodon macrocephalus}. 
One of the largest of the Cetacea (which see), and 
of very peculiar form. Unlike the right whale, 
it affords no whalebone, but is much sought 
after, not only on account of the oil, but still 
more for the spermaceti and ambergris which it 
yields. It is widely distributed geographically and 
inhabits nearly all seas, but is most abundant in 
those of the southern hemisphere. It sometimes 
attains the length of 70 or 80 feet. The general 
color is very dark gray, nearly black on the up 
per parts but lighter beneath. Old males, or, as 
the South-Sea whalers call them, old bull-whales, 
usually have a large gray spot on the front of 
the head. The head is enormously large, form 
ing about one-half of the entire bulk of the 
animal, and taking up more than one-third of 
the whole length. From the head the body 
tapers to the tail, and at last rather rapidly. 
The muzzle is very obtuse, almost as if suddenly 
cut off in front, the breadth of it almost equaling 
the thickness of the body. In a protuberance 
on the upper part of it is the blow-hole, which 
is single, situated a little on the left side, and in 
form not unlike the letter S elongated. The 
mouth is very wide, and the throat, unlike that 
of the Greenland whale, is sufficiently capacious 
to admit the whole body of a man. *The upper 
jaw projects some feet beyond the lower, and has 
neither teeth nor whalebone ; but the lower jaw 
contains twenty or twenty-five teeth on each s ide, 
according to the age of the animal. The teeth, 
which are conical and slightly recurved, project 
about two inches from the gum. The lower jaw 
is very narrow, its two branches being for most 
of their length in contact ; it fits into a groove 
in the upper jaw, in which are cavities for the 
teeth. The eyes are small and placed far back 
in the head above the angles of the mouth ; the 



left eye is said to be smaller than the right. 
Just above the eyes the dorsal line rises con 
siderably ; the dorsal fin is also represented by a 
protuberance about half-way between the neck 
and tail, and these parts are seen above water in 
the ordinary swimming of the animal, which is 
at the rate of from 3 to 7 miles an hour and just 
beneath the surface of the water, although when 
alarmed it swims more swiftly and strikes the 
water with its tail upward and downward with 
great force. The pectoral fins are small, and 
seem scarcely, if at all, to aid in progression, 
which is accomplished by the large and powerful 
tail-fin. The tail-fin is very broad and is divided 
into two lobes, called by the South-Sea whalers 
the flukes. The head of the cacholot is in great 
part occupied by a cavity in front of and above 
the skull, called by whalers the case, which is a 
receptacle for spermaceti (which see). This sub 
stance being light, the animal in swimming 
raises its head above the surface of the water, 
which it also does when at rest. The case fre 
quently holds not less than ten large barrels of 
spermaceti. It is not formed of bone, but of a 
strong tendinous integument, and is divided into 
compartments which communicate with each 
other. The substance which it contains is in a 
semi-fluid state, but hardens on cooling ; it con 
sists of spermaceti and oil. The oil is separated 
by drawing and squeezing, and the spermaceti 
further purified till, instead of being a yellow, 
unctuous mass, the state in which it is brought 
home by the whalers, it assumes a beautiful 
pearly white, flaky, nearly crystalline appearance. 
When the spermaceti whale is killed and towed 
alongside the whaling-ship, the case is emptied 
of its valuable contents through a hole made 
in front of the muzzle, and by means of a basket 
attached to a pole. The spermaceti used to be 
considered the brain of the whale ; what purpose 
it serves is not known, except that already alluded 
to of giving buoyancy to the fore part of the ani 
mal, and perhaps this is its chief use, respiration 
even more than progression depending on it. It 
is distinct enough from the brain, which, as well 
as the skull that contains it, is very small com 
pared with the bulk of the creature. Cavities 
filled with spermaceti are distributed over the 
body, and even ramify through the external fat 
or blubber, although the principal mass is in the 
head. The blubber of the cacholot is not nearly 
as thick as that of the Greenland whale, being 
only about 14 inches in thickness on the breast 
of a large whale, and from 8 to 11 inches on 
other parts of the body. It is called by whalers 
the blanket, is removed from the captured whale 
in great strips, and is heated in large pots, the 
skin of the whale serving for fuel, when the oil 
known as sperm oil (which see) flows from it. 
The junk, a thick elastic mass, which occupies the 
forepart of the head immediately under the case, 
yields also a considerable quantity of sperm oil. 
The cacholot feeds principally upon squids and 
cuttle-fish. It goes in herds, which are called 
schools by the sailors. Large herds consist gen 
erally of females with only a few males ; herds 
of young males also occur. When solitary in 
dividuals are met with, they are almost always 
old males. Terrible conflicts often take place 
among the males, and it is not unusual to find 
the lower jaw dislocated or broken as a result of 
these encounters. 



CADE 



103 



CALCUTTA 



Cade. A small barrel of about 500 herrings 
or 1000 sprats. 

Cadence. The regularity requisite in pull 
ing. A uniform time and pace in marching in 
dispensable to the correct movements of troops. 

Cadet. A French word signifying younger, 
junior. This term is also applied in France and 
other countries to a student in the art of war and 
military science. 

CADET ENGINEER. The lowest grade of the 
engineer corps in the U. S. navy ; so called 
during their state of pupilage at the Naval 
Academy and up to the time of their promotion 
to assistant engineer. 

CADET MIDSHIPMAN. The lowest grade of 
line-officers in the U. S. navy ; so called while 
pupils at the Naval Academy and during a pro 
bationary period of sea service, at the expiration 
of which they are promoted to midshipman. See 
ACADEMIES, NAVAL. 

Cadge. To carry. Kedge may be a corrup 
tion. 

Cadiz. A city and seaport of Spain, capital 
of the province of Cadiz, on the island of Leon, 
off the S.W. coast of Andalusia, 60 miles N.W. 
of Gibraltar, and 64 miles S. of Seville. Lat. 
36 32 N. ; Ion. 6 17 15" W. It stands on a 
narrow tongue of land, which projects about 5 
miles N.N.W. into the sea ; it is surrounded on 
three sides by water, and is strongly defended 
both by nature and by art. The entrance to its 
capacious bay is commanded by forts, while on 
the other sides large vessels cannot approach 
within three-fourths of a mile of the city. One 
of the most conspicuous objects in Cadiz is 
the light-house of San Sebastian, 172 feet in 
height. The bay, which is formed by the penin 
sula and the mainland, is spacious, and affords 
good anchorage. La Caraca, the royal dock 
yard, is situated at the bottom of the inner bay, 
about 6 miles from the city, and is defended by 
the cross-fire of two forts. It contains 3 spacious 
basins, and 12 docks or slips. The trade of Cadiz 
is less extensive than formerly. The chief arti 
cle of export is sherry wine. Salt is another 
article of export. The chief imports are staves, 
tobacco, hides, cacao, indigo, cochineal, dye- 
woods, sugar, codfish, and coals. Pop. 58,000. 

Caelum. See CONSTELLATION. 

Caffila. See KAFILA. 

Cag. See CARRY. 

Cage. An iron cage, formed of hoops, on the 
top of a pole, and filled with combustibles. It is 
lighted before high water, and marks a channel, 
navigable for the period during which it burns. 

Cage-work. An old term for a ship s upper 
works. 

Caique, or Kaique. A small Levantine ves 
sel. Also, a graceful skiff, seen in perfection at 
Constantinople, where it almost monopolizes the 
boat traffic. It is fast but crank, being so nar 
row that the oars or sculls have their looms en 
larged into ball-shaped masses to counterbalance 
their outboard length. It has borne for ages the 
wave-line, which, upon its introduction into our 
marine architecture a few years ago, was esteemed 
a novelty. It may have from one to ten or twelve 
rowers. 

Cairban. A name in the Hebrides for the 
basking-shark. 

Cairn. A pile of stones used as a mark in 
surveying. 



Caisson. A boat-gate, having generally both 
ends similar in form to the bows of a vessel, used 
to close the entrance to a dock or basin. An ap 
paratus for lifting a vessel out of the water for 
repairs or inspection. It is usually a hollow 
structure sunk by letting water into it. There 
is an air-chamber inside, which allows it to sink 
only a certain depth. In that state it is hauled 
under the ship s bottom, the traps or openings 
are closed, the water is pumped out, and the 
caisson rises with the ship upon it. In another 
arrangement, a platform is sunk to a certain 
depth in the water, and is suspended by iron 
screws from a strong wooden framework; the 
ship is floated upon the platform, steadied by 
shores, and lifted high and dry by means of 
levers, wheels, pinions, and screws. In military 
matters, an ammunition-chest and the wagon on 
which it is carried. The term is also applied to 
a chest loaded with explosives and buried deep 
in the ground under a fortification for the pur 
pose of being blown up if the enemy approach 
and take possession of that particular part of the 
work. 

Calais. A town of France, department of 
Pas-de-Calais, on the Strait of Dover, 26 miles 
E.S.E. of Dover, and 20 miles N.E. of Boulogne. 
Lat. of the new light-house, 50 57 45" N. ; 
Ion. 1 51 18" E. ; height, 192 feet. The tower 
and harbor are defended by a castle and several 
forts, and by means of sluices the whole adjacent 
country may be laid under water. The harbor 
is formed by two moles, which are continued 
seaward by wooden piers, the whole being about 
three-fourths of a mile in length. At ebb-tide it 
is nearly dry ; has not a greater depth than 15 
or 18 feet at high water. A tower in the centre 
of the town serves as a light*house. There is 
good anchorage ground 2 to 3 miles N.W. of the 
harbor. Pop. 20,000. 

Calais, a city of Washington Co., Me., is 
on the St. Croix River. It is at the head of 
navigation, about 12 miles from Passamaquoddy 
Bay, 82 miles E.N.E. of Bangor, and 27 miles 
N.N.W. of Eastport. Pop. 6000. 

Calamary (calamus, a pen). A Cephalopod, 
which derives its name from the fact of its body 
containing a gladius, or internal shell, shaped 
like a quill, and a bag in its visceral sac from 
which it diffuses an ink-like fluid. Its mouth is 
furnished with eight arms. The different species 
are distributed oVer all parts of the world, but 
are much more abundant in some seas than in 
others ; they form a principal part of the food of 
some of the larger fishes and of whales. It is the 
Loligo vulgaris of Cuvier. 

Calamine. An ore, consisting essentially of 
silicate of zinc. Its primary form is a rhomboid, 
and it occurs in small obtuse-edged crystals, also 
compact and massive. It is white, yellowish 
white, brown, green, or gray; is sometimes 
opaque, sometimes translucent, is brittle, and 
has an uneven conchoidal fracture. It occurs 
in beds and veins in rocks of various kinds, but 
most commonly in limestone. 

Calanca. A creek or cove on the Italian and 
Spanish coasts. 

Calcutta, capital of British India and of Ben 
gal, is situated on the E. bank of the Hoogly 
River, 80 miles from the sea, in lat. 22 33 47" 
N., Ion. 88 23 34" E., opposite the town of 
Howrah, to which a floating-bridge extends. 



CALENDAK 



104 



CALK 



Calcutta is the largest emporium of trade in 
Asia, being the natural outlet of the valleys of 
the Ganges and Brahmapootra. The chief ex 
ports are jute, opium, indigo, rice, hides, raw 
silk, saltpetre, etc., and the chief imports are 
cotton, linen, and silk goods, hardware, wines, 
spirits, and salt. Pop. city proper," 448,000; 
including suburbs, about 900,000. 

Calendar (Lat. calendce, the first day of each 
month, from caldre ; Gr. kalein, to call, to 
summon). The regulation, arrangement, and 
register of civil time. The natural unit adapted 
to the immediate wants and ordinary occupations 
of man is the sola? day, or the period elapsed be 
tween two successive arrivals of the sun at a 
given meridian. It varies in length at different 
seasons of the year ; but the variation is socially 
unimportant, and the tacit adoption of its mean 
value from the earliest ages arose probably from 
ignorance that such fluctuation existed. This 
mean solar or civil day is divided into 24 hours. 
The unit for longer duration again is naturally 
the period in which recur the seasons on which 
depend all the vital business of life. It is the in 
terval between two successive arrivals of the sun 
at the vernal equinox, and is called the tropical 
year. This period varies slightly, and is incom 
mensurate with the lesser unit, its length being 
about 365 days 5 hours 58 minutes 59.7 seconds. 
Now, if the odd hours, minutes, etc., were to be 
neglected, and the civil year made to consist of 
365 days, the seasons would soon cease to cor 
respond to the same months, and would run the 
round of the whole year; this odd time must 
therefore be taken account of. But then, again, 
it would be very inconvenient to have the same 
day belonging to two different years. To obviate 
this difficulty, a very neat contrivance was in 
augurated by Julius Caesar. He introduced a 
system of two artificial years, one of 365 and the 
other of 366 integer days ; three consecutive years 
of 365, and then a fourth year of 366 days. The 
longer years were called "bissextile" or "leap- 
years," and the surplus days formed of the ac 
cumulated fractions and thrown into the reckon 
ing were called "intercalary" or "leap-days." 
This calendar made the average length of civil 
years 365 days 6 hours, which was only a rough 
approximation to the truth, and the error soon 
accumulated to a whole day. A reformation 
was effected by Pope Gregory XIII. ; and his 
law for regulating the succession of the two arti 
ficial years (of 365 days and 366 days) is such, 
that during the lapse of at least some thousands of 
years the sum of these integer-day years shall not 
differ from the same number of real tropical years 
by a whole day. For the period of 10,000 years the 
average length of the Gregorian year is 365.2425 
days, which is a very close approximation to the 
mean tropical year, 365.242264 days (according 
to Delambre s tables). The Gregorian rule is as 
follows: The years are denominated as years 
current (not as years elapsed) from the midnight 
between the 31st of December and the 1st of 
January immediately subsequent to the birth of 
Christ, according to the chronological determina 
tion of that event by Dionysius Exiguus. Every 
year whose number is not divisible by 4 without 
remainder consists of 365 days ; every year which 
is so divisible, but is not divisible by 100, of 366 
days ; every year divisible by 100, but not by 
400, again of 365 ; and every year divisible by 



400 again of 366 days. The principle might be 
applied further, and any degree of approxima 
tion attained. In our calendar the year is arbi 
trarily divided into 12 unequal months, the in 
tercalary day being placed at the end of the 
shortest. 

Calf. A word generally applied to the young 
of marine mammalia, as the whale. Calf, in the 
Arctic regions, a mass of floe-ice breaking from 
under a floe, which when disengaged rises with 
violence to the surface of the water; it differs 
from a tongue, which is the same body kept fixed 
beneath the main floe. The iceberg is formed by 
the repeated freezing of thawed snow running 
down over the slopes, until at length the wave 
from beneath and weight above causes it to 
break off and fall into the sea, or, as termed in 
Greenland, to calve. Thus, berg, is fresh-water 
ice, the work of years ; the floe, is salt water 
frozen suddenly each winter, and dissolving in 
the summer. 

Calf, or Calva. A Norwegian name, also used 
in the Hebrides, for islets lying off islands, and 
bearing a similar relation to them in size that a 
calf does to a cow ; as, the Calf at Mull and the 
Calf of Man. 

Calfat. The old word for calking. (Calfater, 
Fr. ; probably from cale, wedge, and faire, to 
make. ) To wedge up an opening with any soft 
material, as oakum. (Cala/atear, Sp.) 

Caliber, or Calibre. The diameter of the bore 
of a gun, cannon-shot, or bullet. A ship s cali 
bre means the known weight her armament rep 
resents. 

Calipash. The upper shell of a turtle. 
Calipee. The under shell of a turtle. 
Calipers, or Caliper Compasses. Bow-legged 
compasses used to measure the girth of timber, 
the external diameter of masts, shot, and other 
circular or cylindrical substances. Calipers of 
the best sort are made with a scale, having dif 
ferent sets of numbers engraved on it, like a 
sliding-rule, for- the purpose of exhibiting at 
once various relations depending on the magni 
tude of the diameter of the body measured. 
Thus, as the weights of balls of the same metal 
are in a constant ratio to the cubes of their di 
ameters, the scale maybe so graduated and num 
bered that the observer may read off either the 
diameter in inches or the weight in pounds. 
Other numbers having a less immediate applica 
tion are also frequently attached ; for example, 
the degrees of a circle, the proportions of troy 
and avoirdupois weight, tables of the specific 
gravities and weights of bodies, etc. It is ob 
vious that these may be varied infinitely ac 
cording to the purposes proposed to be accom 
plished. Also an instrument with a sliding leg 
used for measuring the packages constituting 
a ship s cargo, which is paid for by its cubical 
contents. 

Calk. To drive oakum into the seams between 
the planks in the sides and decks of a vessel, in 
order to prevent the entrance of water. The 
seam is first widened as much as possible, and 
the oakum is then forced in thread by thread. 
The oakum is driven until it forms a dense mass, 
when the seam is payed or coated over with hot 
pitch. The first people to make use of pitch in 
calking were the inhabitants of Phaeacia. Wax 
and resin had been previously used, and a kind 
of unctuous clay has been made use of for the 



CALL 



105 



CAMPEACHY 



same purpose. In the East a very hard cement, 
known as chttnam, is used for the seams of ves 
sels. To calk also means to sleep on deck with 
clothes on. 

CALKER. One who calks and pays seams. 

CALKER S SEAT. A box slung to the ship s 
side whereon a calker sits when calking. It 
contains the calker s tools and oakum. 

CALKING-BUTT. The opening between the 
ends of planks when worked for calking. 

CALKING-IRONS. Peculiar chisels used in 
calking ; there are several kinds, as the calking- 
iron, the making-iron, the rasing-iron, and the 
reeming-iron. 

CALKING-MALLET. The wooden mallet or 
beetle used in driving the calking-irons. 

Call. A signal made by a drum, bugle, trum 
pet, or boatswain s pipe. A peculiar silver 
whistle or pipe used by the boatswain and his 
mates to summon the men to their stations and 
to direct them in their various duties. This is done 
by sounding various strains, each of which is 
a signal to do a particular thing ; as, belay, veer, 
walk away, sweep down, etc. The act of wind 
ing this instrument is called piping. In early 
times a gold call and chain was the badge of an 
admiral. 

Calliope. An instrument which consists of a 
series of steam-whistles toned to produce musical 
notes ; the valves by which steam is admitted to 
the whistles are operated by keys arranged like 
those of an organ. It is sometimes placed on 
the hurricane-deck of steamboats on the western 
rivers. 

Call the Watch. The order to turn out the 
watch below to relieve the watch on deck. See 
WATCH. 

Calm. A word used to denote the state of the 
weather when there is no perceptible wind. It 
is characterized as being flat, dead, or stark. In 
a calm, under canvas, it is customary to haul up 
the courses, brail up the trysails, counter-brace, 
and wait for a breeze. When two vessels are 
very near each other in a calm their heads 
should be kept in different directions, otherwise 
they would collide, on account of the attraction 
between the two bodies and the undulating mo 
tion of the sea, which causes vessels to forge 
ahead even in a calm. For the same reasons a 
vessel becalmed near the land should keep her 
head to seaward. A heavy cannonading will 
sometimes occasion a calm, and a large fire will 
cause a breeze to spring up, the wind coming in 
from all directions towards the fire. 

CALM LATITUDES. The tract of ocean between 
the northeast and southeast trade-winds. Its 
situation varies several degrees, depending upon 
the season of the year. The term is also applied 
to the calm belt on the polar side of the trades. 
(See HORSE LATITUDES.) The calm latitudes 
were almost as much dreaded by the mariner as 
the region of storms. During a calm of many 
weeks food and water were likely to be exhausted 
at a point too far from land for a boat to reach 
it. Since the introduction of steam and the ap 
paratus for distilling water, the calm belts have 
lost the greater portion of their terrors. 

Calorimeter. An instrument for measuring 
quantities of heat. It consists essentially of a 
vessel containing a known weight of some con 
venient liquid, such as water or mercury ; a ther 
mometer for indicating the temperature of that 



liquid ; and, if necessary, an agitator for making 
the liquid circulate. Experiments are performed 
by immersing in the liquid or mixing with it 
a known weight of the substance to be experi 
mented on, at a known temperature different 
from the temperature of the liquid, and noting 
the common temperature of the liquid and the 
immersed substance when equilibrium of tem 
perature is restored, taking care that all losses 
of heat, and other sources of error, are ascer 
tained and accounted for. 

This term is sometimes, though improperly, 
applied to the cross sectional area of boiler 
tubes. 

Cam, or Wiper. In mechanism, a device 
by which any desired variety of relative motion 
may be obtained. It consists of either a contin 
uously rotating or an oscillating body which, by 
the shape of its face or edge, or by a groove in 
its side or face, drives a sliding or turning piece 
either with constantly varying, regular, or inter 
mittent motion. It is extensively used in fabri- 
cative machinery, such as the printing-press or 
sewing-machine. In steam-engines it is applied 
only to valve-gear. 

CAM-SHAFT. A shaft carrying a cam. 

CAM-ROLLER. A roller that acts on the face 
or in the groove of a cam. 

CAM-WHEEL. A whegl driving or carrying 
one or more cams, and which may, by itself, 
communicate a motion different from that of 
the cams. 

Cambala. Marco Polo s name for Pekin. 

Camber. In ship-building, a term for any 
thing which rounds, but chiefly to express the 
camber to the ways for the launching of a ship. 

CAMBER-KEELED. Having the keel arched 
upwards, but not actually hogged. 

Camboose. See CABOOSE. 

Camden. A city and port of entry, capital 
of Camden Co., N. J., on the Delaware River, 
opposite Philadelphia. Its river front extends 
from Cooper s Creek on the north to Newton 
Creek on the south. Cooper s Creek is navigable 
beyond the city limits. Pop. 37,000. 

Camel. A water-tight structure placed be 
neath a vessel in the water to raise it. Camels 
were invented by the Dutch, about 1688, for 
carrying vessels into harbors where the depth 
of water would not otherwise permit them to 
enter. They consisted of two large water-tight 
boxes or half ships, built in such a manner that 
they could be applied to each side of the hull 
of a vessel. When about to be used water was 
allowed to run into them, and when they sank 
to the required depth they were firmly secured 
to the ship s hull. The water was then pumped 
out, and the camel rose, bringing up the vessel 
with it. The camels in use in Holland are 
upwards of 100 feet in length and 20 feet in 
breadth. 

Camels are frequently used to raise sunken 
bodies. 

Cameleopardalis. See CONSTELLATION. 

Camfer. See CHAMFER. 

Camock. A very early term for crooked 
timber. 

Campeachy. A town of Mexico, capital of 
the state of Campeachy, on the bay of the same 
name, 90 miles S.S.W. of Merida. .Lat. 19 50 
N. ; Ion. 90 33 W. The harbor is capacious 
but shallow, and vessels drawing more than 6 



CANAICHE 



106 



CANALS 



feet of water are compelled to anchor 3 miles 
from the shore. Notwithstanding this disad 
vantage, vessels measuring 100 feet of keel are 
built here. Pop. 18,500. 

Canaiche, or Canash. An inner port, as at 
Granada in the West Indies. 

Canal. An artificial channel filled with water, 
formed for the purposes of inland navigation. 
The section of a canal is usually a trapezium, 
of which two sides are parallel and horizontal 
and the other two equally inclined to the hori 
zon. The inclination depends on the nature of 
the soil. It is least in tenacious earth and great 
est in loose soil ; but no soil will maintain itself 
unless the base of the slope exceeds its height at 
least in the ratio of four to three. In loose soil 
the base requires to be twice as great as the 
height. A canal is usually confined between a 
bank on one side and a towing-path on the 
other. The bed of a canal must be absolutely 
level, or have no more slope than is necessary to 
convey water to replace that which has been 
wasted. Hence, when a canal intersects a sloping 
country in a series of channels at different levels, 
means must be provided to enable vessels to pass 
from one level to another. This is commonly 
effected by means of a lock (which see). See 
CANALS, INTEROCEANIC. 

CANAL-BOAT. A large boat generally decked 
and towed by horses. 

Canals, Interoceanic. The Suez Canal is the 
only one completed or even under construction. 
Those proposed and based on surveys sufficient 
to establish their practicability are via Nicaragua 
and via Panama, to connect the waters of the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

The Suez Canal is a little over 99 miles in 
length, connecting Port Said on the Mediter 
ranean and Suez on the Red Sea. It follows 
certain lines of depression known as Lakes Men- 
zaleh, Ballah, Timsah, and the Bitter Lakes, 
which form a length of about 60 miles. These 
parts required only partial excavation, leaving 40 
miles of canalization through full excavation, 
and with a summit of only 60 feet above the 
mean ocean-level. 

The aggregate superfice of the lakes named is 
near 300 miles. Lake Menzaleh lies 6 miles 
from Port Said, and Ballah 29 miles. The Bitter 
Lakes are 12 miles from Suez : these natural 
reservoirs equalize tidal flow and confine any 
rapid current between the sea and the first natural 
reservoir. The charts give 6 to 18 inches tidal 
action at Port Said, and 5 feet at Suez. 

The excavation required to obtain a depth of 
26 feet was 75,000,000 cubic metres, almost 
wholly in loose sand and clay. The estimated 
cost was 162,000,000 francs, and to meet all sup 
posed possible contingencies 200,000,000 was 
named. The actual capital and indebtedness, 
January 1, 1879, was very nearly 524,000,000 
francs. The draft of vessel allowed is 25 feet ; 
the rates of toll established are 10 francs for each 
passenger, and 10 francs per ton on measure 
ments designed to represent the net tonnage, to 
which are added pilotage, towage, and "other 
charges, usually increasing the cost of transit 10 
per cent. 

In 1877, 1663 vessels, of an average of 2055 
tons, passed through ; in 1879, 1477 vessels, of 
an average tonnage of 2190; in 1878, 1593 ves 
sels passed, of which 25 were sailers. The de 



crease of tonnage between the years named will 
be observed. 

In the Red Sea and the upper Mediterranean 
heavy short blows are frequent during the winter, 
and calms prevail in the summer. As a result, 
in 1876 nearly 60 per cent, of the English vessels 
trading to India and to Malasia pursued the 
route by the Cape of Good Hope. The tolls and 
income of the canal for 1879 were 32,209,493 
francs. 

The absence of fresh water along the line of 
the canal was a great discouragement and caused 
considerable expense until the fresh-water canal 
from the Nile was completed, and the drifting 
sands of the desert were partially arrested by vege 
tation, which became possible through irrigation. 
The extensive works necessary for the formation 
of Port Said was the most formidable difficulty 
encountered, and it is possible of maintenance 
only by constant dredging, involving large ex 
penditures. The favorable conditions were the 
almost entire absence of rain-fall, being a mean 
of an inch and one-third } T early at Cairo, the 
existence of inconsiderable tides, and the small 
amount of hard material to excavate. The easy 
slopes and low grounds, as well as the absence 
of heavy rain-falls, made the deposition of the 
excavated material easy ; in general, by very 
powerful dredging-machines, elevating the earth 
sufficiently to" deposit it, through the aid of 
sluices, where it would be permanent. 

The Nicaragua Canal as projected by Com 
mander E. P. Lull, U.S.N. The proposed canal 
as located requires the construction of two har 
bors, one at Greytown, the other at Brito, on the 
Pacific. In the construction of these harbors a 
liberal estimate of cost is proposed, but that part 
is the only uncertain element of cost of the 
canal; the plans have received the careful ex 
amination and approval of able engineers on the 
estimate of cost as given. 

The distance apart of these harbors, following 
the line as located, is 181 miles; the summit- 
level is Fall Lake, 107.6 feet above mean ocean- 
level. From Greytown to slack-water naviga 
tion of the San Juan River is 42 miles, and esti 
mate of cost $13, 390,000. Recent instrumental 
examinations insure a decrease in distance of 
7 miles, with a proportionate decrease in the 
estimate of cost. 

The slackvwftter navigation begins above the 
mouth^Tthe San Carlos River, and continues a 
distance of 63 miles to Lake Nicaragua. As 
I6cated, four dams are required of a mean height 
of 29.} feet, and an aggregate length of 3960 feet ; 
the natural foundations are good. Three natural 
canals around the dams have an aggregate length 
of 3 miles. Between a point 6 miles from 
Greytown and Lake Nicaragua a lockage of 
107.6 feet has to be effected. A certain amount 
of blasting and dredging is proposed in flhe bed 
of the San Juan for slack-water navigation. 
Recent examinations have led to th considera 
tion of making only two dams, and/ thus reduce 
subaqueous work and lateral canalization. 

The lake navigation extends 56-j miles, and 
the estimated cost of its improvement is $715, (560. 

The distance from Virgin Bay to the Pacific is 
16| miles by the Rio del Medio route. Recent 
investigations assure the diversion of the head 
waters of the Rio Grande into the lake, thus 
securing a satisfactory surface-drainage and a 



CANALS 



107 



CANALS 



cutting of only 43 feet above the lake by the 
Lajas route. The descent involves 10 locks, as 
now proposed, of equal lift, and a tide-lock at 
Brito, where the spring-tides are 8 feet. 

Summarized, the actual canalization required 
is 52 miles ; slack-water navigation on the river 
San Juan, 63 miles ; lake navigation, unimpeded 
except as above stated, 56J miles ; cost as located, 
$52,577,718 ; with 25 per cent, contingent, $65,- 
722,147. The improved location reduces estimate 
for labor $7,000,000. 

The mean annual rain-fall, with not very ex 
tended observations, is 83 inches, with a dry 
season extending from December to April. The 
probable time required to construct the canal is 
five years. Excellent stone, lime, and cement, 
as well as timber, are in abundance and con 
venient. Lake Nicaragua has a superfice of 
2800 miles, and an outflow twenty times as great 
as could be required for lockage. The trade- 
winds extend to the ports almost without inter 
ruption, making the proposed canal easy for the 
passage of sailing-vessels. 

To such persons as have given little attention 
to an American interoceanic ship-canal, an in 
spection of a globe will at once show its im 
portance to the inhabitants of the northern hem 
isphere, and at the same time the advantage that 
will be derived through being able to pursue 
routes in belts of prevailing fair winds by making 
slight detours for the purpose. 

The Panama Route as developed by the surveys 
of Commander E. P. Lull, U.S.N.The pro 
posed route as located extends from Aspinwall 
to Panama, a distance of 41 f miles. The canal 
has a summit-level of 124 feet, and derives its 
water-supply from the upper Chagres, crossing 
that river at summit-level by means of an aque 
duct 1900 feet in length. The height at which 
the canal should cross the Chagres was deter 
mined as a necessity to avoid extraordinary floods, 
but this height appears to be four feet less than 
would be found necessary to secure the safety of 
the aqueduct from such floods as those of No 
vember, 1879.* 

The proposed feeder is 10} miles in length, and, 
with dam and appliances, the estimated cost is 
$10,366,899. At the time of locating the canal 
the water-supply was supposed to be unusually 
low, but still entirely sufficient for purposes of 
lockage. In March, 1878 and 1880, the water- 
supply was inadequate. 

As planned there are 24 lift-locks of 10J feet 
each, and a tide-lock at Panama, where the tides 
reach 22 feet. At Aspinwall the tide is nominal. 

The estimated cost for labor and material, 
made on a common basis for the Nicaragua Canal, 
is $75,609,108, and with 25 per cent, contingent, 
$94,511,360. Commander Lull remarks the ab 
sence of all material for construction except 
timber. 

The average yearly rain-fall is 124 inches. In 
1872 it was 170 inches. The dry season extends 
usually from January to about the middle of 
April. 

The Panama Canal d niveau of M. de Lesseps. 
Accompanying a "circular" addressed by M. 
de Lesseps to American bankers is a " Eeport 
of the International Technical Commission ap- 

* On page 7 of Commander Lull s report will he found his 
instructions, and the reasons for the proposed height of lock 
age and objections to a sea-level canal by that route. 



pointed to examine the definite work required 
for the construction of the Panama Canal." 
This title is, perhaps, given from the fact that 
the engineers employed by M. de Lesseps were 
of different nationalities. The report is dated 
Panama, February 14, 1880, and in substance is 
as follows : 

1. On the line of levels of the Panama rail 
road, as a base, 58 cross-sections have been taken. 
Several curves of 2000 metres radius have been 
adopted. 

2. Fifteen borings had been taken on the line 
of the canal and on the line of the proposed dam 
at Gamboa ; these borings were from a depth of 
from 12 to 22 metres. 

3. It has been determined to adopt a slope of 
1 to 1, except in the summit division in rock, 
where J to 1 is considered sufficient. 

4. It is proposed to overcome the difficulties 
presented by the river Chagres by the construc 
tion of a dam at Gamboa, situated between 
Matachin and Cruces. "The commission ex 
presses the opinion that a dam 40 metres in 
height would provide for the storage of a volume 
of water of one thousand millions of cubic metres, 
a quantity equal to the maximum estimate of 
the flood of November 25, 1879 (the greatest that 
has ever been recorded), as given by Colonel G. 
M. Totten. This work will be completed by the 
construction of a new channel for the regulated 
flow of the river from the Gamboa dam to the 
sea. Another similar but narrower channel will 
be provided on the opposite side of the canal, for 
the stream and drainage on that side." 

5. The commission deems it necessary to pro 
vide at Panama a tide-lock at the outlet, so as to 
preserve a constant level in the canal, and on the 
Atlantic side, at Limon Bay, a breakwater 2 
kilometres (6561 feet) in length. 

6. The estimate of amount of excavation is as 
follows : in earth, 12,005,000 ; hard soil, 300,000 ; 
hard rocks, 6,786,000; a total of 19,091 ,000 cubic 
metres. For above water: earth, 27,350,000; 
soft rock, 825,000; hard rock, 27,734,000; mak 
ing a grand total of 75,000,000 cubic metres. 

The estimate for excavation of rock above 
water is given at 2|- francs ; for rocks of mean 
hardness, 7 ; for hard rocks, 12 ; for excavation 
of rock where pumping is required, 18 francs. 

For dredging and excavation under water: 
mud, 2 francs; hard soil, 12; excavation of 
rocks, 35 francs per cubic metre. 

The proposed dam at Gamboa has a length of 
1600 metres (5249 feet), with a height of 40 
metres (131 feet), exclusive of foundation. The 
cost is set down in a round sum of 100,000,000 
francs. 

The lateral canals for the purpose of securing 
surface-drainage are also set down for a round 
sum of 75,000,000 francs, the tide-lock at Panama 
at 12,000,000, and the breakwater in Limon Bay 
at 10,000,000, which, with a contingent of 10 
per cent., makes a grand total of 843,000,000 
francs, which the commission states was u the 
cost of the work at the prices fixed by the Paris 
congress for the various items." 

M. de Lesseps gives further information to 
the Board of Trade of San Francisco. Length 
of canal, 45 miles, with a cutting through an 
elevation of 90 metres (295 feet) above ocean- 
level for a distance of three-fifths of a mile. He 
estimates the time necessary for construction at 



CANALS 



108 



CANALS 



six years, and proposes a depth of water below the 
sea-level of 27 feet. 

It is apparent that the capacity of the proposed 
reservoir, the strength of the dam, and the suffi 
ciency of the proposed lateral canals, as well as 
their strength of embankment, are of the utmost 
importance to the security of the work. 

The prevalence of calms in Panama Bay and 
its approaches appears on all weather-charts, and 
has been especially remarked by Capt. Bedford 
Pine, of the British navy, and also by Commander 
Maury, formerly of our navy, who regards this 
fact as making that locality totally unfit for the 
construction of a canal. 



length varies from 32 to 81 miles ; depth of 
cutting, 50 to 80 feet ; sea-level, with two 
tide-locks; estimated cost, from $8,000,000 to 
141,000,000, according to route. 

6th. From Cape Cod Bay to Buzzard s Bay. 
Length, about 18 miles; proposed by a company 
incorporated by the State of Massachusetts ; es 
timated cost, $4,000,000. 

7th. From the Atlantic Ocean to Appalachi- 
cola Bay, across Florida (with locks). Proposed 
and surveyed by the U. S. government ; length, 
168.5 miles; summit, 203 feet; estimated cost, 
$50,278,746. 

8th. Between Caspian and Black Seas via Sea 



Existing Ship-Canals.^ 



Name of Canal. 


Where 
Situated. 


Connecting what 
Waters or Lo 
calities. 


By whom 
Designed. 


1 


1 
5 3 

st 


I 


fe 


Vessels of 
ift Feet. 


Cost- 
Dollars. 


o 
g| 

If 

O 

m 


Remarks. 










1 


I 


il c 




a% 
3 












1 


3 

H 


9 

X 











Caledonian. 


Scotland. 


Loch Lihnne and 


Telford. 


60^ 


100 


23 


17 


5,000,000 


1823 


Hardly pays expenses. 






Inverness Frith. 


















Great North 
Holland. 


Holland. 


Amsterdam and 
the Helder. 


Blanken. 


51^ 


IK to 
5 feet 


3 


17 
to 


7,500,000 


1825 














below 




18 


















the 






















sea. 












North Sea. 


Holland. 


Amsterdam and 


A Dutch 


141-5 


17-12 


2 


24 


16,000,000 


1876 








North Sea. 


Commission. 




below 






j 




St. Mary s Falls. 


Michigan. 


Lake Superior 


Canfield. 


1 


sea. 
18 


2 


10 


1,000,000! 1855 








and Lake Hu 






















ron. 


















St. Mary s Falls. 


Michigan. 


Lake Superior 


Poe. 


1 


18 


1 


17 


Estimated Prob- 


The largest ship-canal 






and Lake Hu 












2,200,000: ably 


lock in existence. Ex 






ron. 














1880 


penditures to July 1, 


Welland and St. 
Lawrence. 


Canada. 


Lake Erie and 
Tide-Water. 


Canadian 
Commission. 


70%T 


536^ 


54 


10 


14,847,2271 


1844 
to 


1880, $1,569,173. 
This canal system con 
sists of seven different 




















1856 


sections, varying in 






















length from % to 27Vg 






















miles. 


Welland and St. 
Lawrence. 


Canada. 


Lake Erie and 
Tide-Water. 


Canadian 
Commission. 


69% 


536^ 


5)5 


13 


38,623,9481 


Prob 
ably 






















1882 




Suez. 


Egypt. 


Mediterranean 


De Lesseps. 


100 


Sea- 





26 


About 


1869 








and Red Sea. 






level. 






100,000,000 







* Includes the new St. Mary s Falls, Welland and St. Lawrence enlargement, none of which are quite completed. 

t Does not include river and lake navigation. 

j The cost of canals up to date of confederation, in 1867. 

|| Includes upwards of $8,000,000 expended in improvements and enlargement from 1867 to 1877. 



Proposed Ship-Canals. 1st. From Bay of 
Campeachy to Gulf of Tehuantepec, in Mexico 
(with locks). Proposed by private capitalists; 
surveyed by IT. S. government; length, 144 
miles; summit, 650 feet; estimate of cost not 
given. 

2d. From Caribbean Sea to Pacific Ocean, in 
Nicaragua (see above description). 

3d. From Bay of San Bias to Bay of Panama, 
in U. S. of Colombia (at sea-level). Proposed 
by private individuals ; surveyed by order of 
U. S. government ; length, 30 to 33 miles ; height 
of summit, unknown ; estimated cost by Paris 
Canal Congress, $280,000,000; tunnel, 7 to 10 
miles long. 

4th. From Bay of Limon to Bay of Panama, 
in U. S. of Colombia (see text). 

5th. From Chesapeake to Delaware Bays, in 
Maryland and Delaware. Several routes pro 
posed ; surveyed by the U. S. government; 



of Azof, in Russia. Proposed by the Russian 
government. The summit, or divide, is stated 
to be but 23 feet above sea-level. The Caspian 
is 84 feet below the level of the sea. 

9th. Between the Baltic and North Seas, in 
Germany (with locks). Proposed by the im 
perial government of Germany. Connects the 
mouth of the Elbe and the port of Kiel. Dis 
tance, about 45 miles ; estimated cost, f#8, 750,000. 

10th. From the Mediterranean to the North 
Sea, in France. Proposed by Can t. Salicis, of 
the French navy; length, 1071 miles ; summit, 
935 feet ; no locks, except at the gea. 

llth. From the Gulf of Finland, near Cron- 
stadt, to St. Petersburg, in Rusjsia (at the sea- 
level). Now under construction by the govern 
ment. Length, 16.4 miles ; /designed to be 
extended in a reduced size to thfe White Sea. 

12th. From the Gulf of Mrfnaar to the Palk 
Strait, in India (at the sea-jlevel). Proposed 



CAN-BODY 



109 



CANT 



by the government ; length, about 3 miles ; es 
timated cost, $2,200,000. 

13th. From East River, New York Harbor, to 
the Hudson, via Hudson River (sea-level). To be 
constructed by the government. Length, about 
6 miles ; estimated cost by Gen. Newton, $2,100,- 
000. Daniel Ammen, Rear-Admiral U.S.N. 

Can-body. An old term for a can-buoy. 

Can-buoy. A buoy in the form of a cone ; 
they are floated over sands and other obstruc 
tions in navigation as marks to be avoided. See 
BUOYS. 

Cancer, Constellation of (Lat. Cancer, "The 
Crab"). The fourth constellation of the ancient 
zodiac, lying between Gemini and Leo. There 
is no star in it above the fourth magnitude. 

CANCER, SIGN OF. The fourth division of the 
ecliptic, including from 90 to 120 of longitude. 
Owing to the precession of the equinoxes, the 
constellation Cancer is no longer in the sign of 
the name, the constellation Gemini having taken 
its place. The sun is in Cancer from about June 
21 to about July 22. Symbol 05. 

CANCER, TROPIC OF. That parallel in the 
northern hemisphere whose latitude is equal to 
the sun s greatest declination, about 23 28 . 

Candle. Candles which are used for the battle- 
lanterns are kept primed. The magazine lantern 
is fitted to. burn candles made of hard spermaceti 
or wax ; those of parafline, or such as have tal 
low in them, are prohibited, and all candles are 
thoroughly examined and tested. When candles 
are used for side lights they should be of suf 
ficient size to burn from sunset to sunrise, and 
to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmos 
phere, at a distance of at least two miles. 

CANDLE-BARK. A cylindrical tin for candles. 

Cane. The rattan (Calamus rudentum] is 
sometimes used for standing rigging and cables. 
The cables remain in the water along time with 
out decaying or becoming injured by the teredo. 
They are very hard and difficult to cut, and are 
therefore used to connect logs as booms to stop 
the navigation of rivers. See CANEVAS. 

Canes" Venatici (Lat. "The Hunting Dogs"). 
A constellation between Ursa Major and Bootes. 
The principal star is marked 12 Canum Venati- 
corum, named also Cor Cdroli, and may be found 
by drawing a line from Dubhe, the star of the 
Great Bear nearest the pole, to the opposite star 
of the square of that constellation, and producing 
it to nearly twice the distance. 

Canevas. An old word for hemp canvas, but 
many races in the East make sails entirely of 
cane. 

Can-hooks. Hooks used to sling a cask by 
the chimes. 

Canis Major (Lat. " The Greater Dog"). A 
constellation to the S.E. of Orion, containing the 
brightest star in the heavens, a Canis Majoris, 
the Dog Star ; it can be found by continuing 
the line of the belt of Orion to about three times 
its length. 

Canis Minor (Lat. " The Lesser Dog"). A 
constellation to the E. of Orion, containing a 
bright star, a Canis Minoris, called also Procyon. 
It can be found by continuing a line through 
the two upper stars of Orion to about twice its 
length. 

Canister. A tin or sheet-iron cylinder filled 
with cast-iron shot, and closed at the ends by 
blocks of wood ; the larger sizes are strengthened 



by a spindle running through and connecting 
the ends, having a nut and handle fixed to the 
upper part. ^ The interstices are filled with dry 
sawdust to give greater solidity to the mass, and 
to prevent the balls from crowding when the 
piece is fired. 

Cannon. A military engine for projecting 
shot, shell, etc., by the force of gunpowder. 
Cannons are classified as guns, howitzers, and 
mortars (which see). See ORDNANCE. 

CANNONADE. The opening and continuance 
of the fire of artillery upon any object. 

CANNON-PERER. An ancient piece of ord 
nance in ships of war for throwing stone shot. 

CANNON-PETRONEL. A piece of ordnance with 
a 6-inch bore which carried a 24-pound shot. 

CANNON-ROYAL. A 60-pounder of SJ-inch 
bore. 

CANNON-SERPENTINE. An old name for a 
gun of 7 inches bore. 

Canoe. A light narrow boat which is im 
pelled by paddles used vertically, and some 
times fitted with a sail. It is formed of a tree 
hollowed out by hewing or burning, or of a light 
frame- work covered with bark or hides. Canoes 
are also made of iron, paper, and caoutchouc. 
See ROB ROY. 

The Fejee Islanders use a double canoe, which 
is fitted with an enormous sail. The two canoes 
are several yards apart, but a deck extends over 
and is firmly secured to both. See FLYING 
PROA. 

Canopus. The name of the star a Argfi,s. 

Canopy. A light awning over the stern-sheets 
of a boat. The brass frame-work over a hatch. 

Cant. The term used to express the position 
of a piece of timber which does not stand square ; 
it is said to be on a cant or diagonal line. A 
cut made in a whale, to which is made fast the 
lower block of a purchase for turning the whale 
over during the operation of flensing. To turn 
anything so that it does not stand square. To 
diverge from a central line. 

CANT BALLAST. When a ship by a violent 
lurch throws her ballast over to leeward, where 
it remains, keeping her from righting, she is 
said to cant or shift her ballast. 

CANT-BLOCKS. The blocks of the cant-pur 
chase. 

CANT-BODY. That part of the plans of the 
body of a ship, either in the drawings or in the 
mold-loft, which represents the outlines of the 
cant-timbers, and also the lines of the bevelings 
of the timbers. 

CANT-FALLS. See SPIKE-TACKLE. 

CANT-FRAME. The name of one of those 
frames of the ship which do not stand square 
across the keel, but which have their heads in 
clined in a diagonal direction, either forward or 
aft, as may be needed to fill the space between 
the square frames and the stem forward, or the 
square frame and the counter-timbers at the 
after end of the ship. 

CANT-HOOK. A lever with a hook, for slueing 
heavy articles. 

CANT-MOLDING. The molding of any one 
of the frames or the timbers by the use of the 
cant-molds and the cant-bevels, prepared in the 
mold-loft, preparatory to the timbers being cut 
into the required shape by the workmen. ^ 

CANT-PURCHASE. A purchase of which the 
upper block is secured to the mast-head, and the 



CANTAKA 



110 



CAPE 



lower block to the whale, to turn it over during 
the operation of flensing. 

CANT-TIMBER. The name of any one of the 
timbers, of which there are several in each cant- 
frame. 

Cantata. A watering-place. 

Canteen (Fr. cantine). A military term 
which in the United States is applied only to a 
tin vessel covered with cloth and furnished with 
a strap by which it is slung, which is issued to 
soldiers for carrying water for their personal use 
on the march or in campaign. In other countries 
the term, or its equivalent, is used to indicate a 
small wooden or leathern chest or coffer contain 
ing the table equipage and utensils of an officer 
in campaign ; it is also applied to the store of 
the licensed sutler of a regiment or garrison. 

Cantick-quoin. A quoin used in chocking up 
casks to keep them from working. 

Canting-livre. A light piece of ornament at 
the forward part of a quarter-gallery, also called 
console-bracket. 

Cant-line. Gant-line or girt-line (which see). 

Canton. A city of China, and the great com 
mercial emporium of the province of Quang- 
Tong, on the left bank of the Canton or Pearl 
River, about 80 miles from its mouth in the 
China Sea. Lat. 23 6 / 9" N. ; Ion. 113 15 
E. Canton, with its suburbs, occupies the north 
bank of the river, extending inland nearly to a 
row of heights commanding it on the north and 
northeast, but between which and the city is a 
broken ravine ; to the south lies an alluvial 
plain, formed by the delta of the river. A large 
part of the population reside on the water, and 
for four or five miles opposite the city and both 
above and below the river is crowded with vessels 
and rafts of all kinds. Pop. 1,500,000. 

Cant-rope. See FOUR-CANT. 

Cant-spar. A small spar fit for making a 
small mast, yard, boom, etc. 

Canvas. Coarse cloth made of hemp, flax, or 
cotton. In the navy cotton canvas is used for 
mess-cloths, tarpaulins, boom-covers, windsails, 
bags, hammocks, etc. Flax canvas is used for 
sails, and is woven in cloths 24 inches in width, 
and put up in bolts of 40 yards each. Canvas is 
numbered from 1 to 9, No. 1 being the heaviest. 
In large vessels numbers 1, 2, 3 are used for 
storm-staysails, courses, and topsails ; 4 and 5 for 
jib and main topgallant-sails, and the lighter 
canvas for royals, stun sails, flying-jib, etc. 

It is of the first importance to obtain the best 
canvas, as the safety of the ship frequently de- 

nds on its quality. The warp or chain of Nos. 
, and 3 should be wholly wrought and made 
of double yarns, and both the warp and shoot or 
weft yarn ought to be made of long flax, which 
should be well dressed, properly cleansed, even 
spun, and well twisted ; and all the weft yarns 
should be fully as strong as the warp yarns. 

It has been found that sails made with the 
seams and selvages running down parallel with 
their edges are very apt to bag and become worn 
in the middle from the strain to which they are 
subjected by the force of the wind. To obviate 
this, a mode of making sails with the seams and 
selvages running diagonally was proposed by 
Admiral Brooking, and a patent was granted to 
him in 1828. It has also been proposed to weave 
the canvas with diagonal threads ; that is, to 
place tne weft yarns at an oblique angle to the 



warp yarns. To accomplish this object the loom 
must be peculiarly constructed, its warp and 
work-beams must stand at an oblique angle with 
the sides of the loom, and the batten and slay 
must hang in a peculiar manner, in order to beat 
up the weft in lines ranging diagonally with 
the warp. 

Canvas is also a technical term for the sails of 
a ship. Under canvas, under sail ; storm-can 
vas, the storm-staysails, trysails, storm-mizzen, 
double-reefed foresail, close-reefed fore and main 
topsails, and fore-topmast staysail. 

Canvas-back. A species of duck, Fuligula, 
valisneriana, deriving its name from the color of 
the plumage on its back. 

Cap. A bit of leather or tarred canvas put 
over the ends of standing rigging to protect 
them from the weather. A large thick block of 
wood having a round and square hole in it, used 
to confine two masts together when one is erected 
at the head of the other. The square hole of the 
lower cap fits over the tenon of the lower mast, 
and the topmast traverses through the round 
hole. The topmast is fitted with a cap for the 
topgallant-mast, and the bowsprit for the jib- 
boom. 

In mechanism, a block or plate of wood or 
metal, used to confine the adjustable bearings of 
a journal. It is usually secured by bolts and 
nuts, or by keys. See JOURNAL. 

Generally, a cap is a top-piece used to confine, 
cover, or protect any portion of a machine or 
structure. 

CAP-BLOCK. The upper piece of each pile of 
building blocks on which the keel is laid. , 

CAP-SCUTTLE. A scuttle having a ledge or 
coaming, over which is a top setting closely into 
a rabbet. 

CAP-SHORE. A supporting spar between the 
cap and trestle-trees. 

CAP-SQUARE. A curved plate of metal, so 
arranged as to be easily removed, used to con 
fine the trunnions of a gun to the carriage. 

Capabarre. An old term for misappropriating 
government stores. 

Capacise. A corrupt form of capsize. 

Capacity. Burden ; tonnage ; extent of room 
or space. 

Cape. To keep a course. How does she cape ? 
How does she lie her course ? 

Cape. A cape is a neck of land extending 
some distance into the sea, or into other bodies 
of water. A high, mountainous cape is called a 
promontory ; a low, sandy cape is called a spit ; 
a very small, sharp cape is called a point. The 
term ^headland, or head, may include all these, 
or indicates a broad cape. 

The local names used to designate these head 
lands have, in many instances, remained on the 
charts. Point is the term generally used to in 
dicate a cape on the shores of the Baltic and 
Gulf of Finland. In Prussia, Ort ; in Norway 
and Sweden, Naes, Horn, and Kyn ; in Den 
mark, Naes ; in Holland, Hoek ; in Scotland, 
the Shetland and Orkney Islands, Ness and 
Head ; Ru in the Isle of Skye ; Butt and Aird 
in the Hebrides ; Point, Nab, Ness, and Head 
in England and Wales ; Head and Foreland in 
Ireland ; Spit in the Caspian and Aral Seas ; 
Ras in North Africa, the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, 
and coast of Arabia ; and Saki in Japan, are 
common examples of these designations. 



CAPELLA 



111 



CAPSTAN 



In the names of the thousands of capes that 
fringe the continents and islands of the world, 
navigators have perpetuated their own names, 
the names of their vessels, their countries, their 
cities, their great men, their rulers, and their 
heroes, while the saints of the calendar are not 
to be forgotten as long as the many Cape St. 
Elizabeths, St. Sebastians, St. Anthonys, and 
many other sanctified names remain. Some head 
lands are named from the circumstances attend 
ing their discovery, as Cape Disappointment, 
Cape Flattery, and others ; some from the day 
on which they were first seen, as Friday Cape, 
etc. ; others from physical characteristics, as 
Kojo (Ked Cape), Blanco (White Cape), Verd 
(Green Cape), Sandy Cape, Rocky Point, etc. f 
others again from the products of sea or shore 
found near them, as Cape Cod, Lobos (Seal) 
Point, etc. Many capes are remarkable from 
the important position they occupy, being promi 
nent landmarks to the mariner, and some even 
receive their names from this characteristic, 
as Start Point ; and Land s End and Finis- 
terre describe their position by their names. 
Some headlands attain a prominence from being 
at the entrance of important bays, rivers, or 
harbors, where large cities and greater commerce 
enhance their usefulness. On the more promi 
nent headlands of the world light-houses are 
placed, and those that are at the entrance of im 
portant places have electric, or other lights of 
a high illuminating power. 

The following capes on the coast of the United 
States have first-order lights : 



Capitana. The principal galley in an ancient 
fleet. 

Caplin, or Capelin. A fish of the family 
Clupeidce, very similar to a smelt, and used for 
bait for cod-fish 011 the banks of Newfound 
land. 

Cap n. A colloquial abbreviation for cap 
tain. 

Capon. A jeering term for red herring. 

Capote. A storm-coat fitted with a hood, 
much worn in the Mediterranean. 

Cappanus. The worm which adheres to and 
gnaws the bottom of a ship. 

Capped. A ship endeavoring to make her 
way against head currents is said to be capped. 

Capricorn, Tropic of. That parallel in the 
southern hemisphere whose latitude is equal to 
the sun s greatest declination, about 23 28 . 
See TROPICS. 

Capricornus, Constellation of (Lat. Capri- 
cormis, " The Goat"). The tenth constellation of 
the ancient zodiac, lying between Sagittarius and 
Aquarius. There is no star in it above the third 
magnitude ; a and (3 may be found by the line 
joining Lyra and Altair being produced to not 
quite its own length. 

CAPRICORNUS, SIGN OF. The tenth division 
of the ecliptic, including from 270 to 300 of 
longitude. In consequence of the precession of 
the equinoxes, the constellation of Capricorn is 
no longer in the sign of this name, the constella 
tion Sagittarius having taken its place. The 
sun is in Capricorn from about December 21 to 
about January 20. Symbol >J. 



Name. 


No. of 
Lights. 


Lat. 


Lon. 


Height, 
in Feet. 


Distance 
Visible, 
in Miles. 


Character and Color. 


Elizabeth 


2 


43 34 


70 12 


143 


18 


Fix. and Fl. W. 




2 


42 38 


70 34 


165 \4 


20 


Fix White. 


Cod 


1 


42 02 


70 04 


195 


20 


Fix W 


Gay Head 


1 


41 21 


70 50 


170 


20 


Fl W. and R. 




1 


40 04 


71 51 


169V< 


20 


Fix var. by W. FL 


Pondqnoque Point 


I 


40 31 


72 30 


160 


19 


Fix. W. 


May 


1 


38 56 


74 58 


167 


19 


Fl W 




1 


38 47 


75 65 


128 


17 


Fix W 


Charles 


1 


37 07 


75 54 


150 


19 


Fl. W. 


Hatteras . . 


1 


35 1 5 


75 31 


191 


20 


Fl W 


Lookout 


1 


34 37 


76 31 


156 


19 


Fix. W. 




1 


32 01 


79 22 


154 


18 


Fl W 




1 


28 28 


80 32 


139 - 


18 


Fl W 


Point Conception 


1 


34 27 


120 28 


208 


23 


Fl. W. 


Pigeon Point . 


1 


37 11 


122 24 


150 


181^ 


Fl W 


Point Reyes 


1 


38 10 


123 01 


296 


24 2 


Fl. W. 


Point Arena 


1 


38 57 


123 45 


156 


19 


Fix W. 




1 


40 26 


123 24 


423 


28 


Fl W 


Blanco 


1 


42 46 


124 33 


256 


23 


Fix. W. 


Foulweather..... ... . 


1 


44 39 


124 04 


161 


19 


Fix W 




1 


46 1 ? 


124 02 


232 


21 


Fix W 


Flattery 


1 


48 19 


124 44 


162 


19 


Fix. W. 

















F. S. Bassett, Lieutenant U.S.A. 

CAPE FLY-AWAY. A cloud-bank having the 
appearance of distant land. 

CAPE-HEN. A bird which follows in the wake 
of a ship rounding the Cape. It is a small kind 
of albatross. See MOLLY-MAWK. 

CAPE-PIGEON, or CAPE-PETREL. A sea-bird 
which follows a ship round the Cape. 

Capella(Lat. " The Kid"). The star a Aurigce. 

Caper. A vessel used for privateering by the 
Dutch in the 17th century. 

Caper-cornerways. Diagonally. 

Capful of Wind. A light puff of wind which 
speedily dies away. 



Capsize. To upset or overturn ; as, to capsize 
a ship. 

Capstan. A machine used on shipboard when 
mechanical power is required for the moving or 
raising of heavy weights. It involves the prin 
ciple of the wheel and axle, and is an improve 
ment of the windlass, by which greater compact 
ness and convenience in use are obtained. It also 
admits of the application of greater power upon 
the levers or bars. 

The capstan has been used from the earliest 
times as a mechanical power. It was in use by the 
English, French, and Spanish as early as the 15th 



CAPSTAN 



112 



CAPTAIN 



century, and the drum-capstan in nearly its 
present form was invented by Sir Thomas More- 
land in 1661. It consists of an upright cylin 
der, called the barrel, surmounted by a circular 
disk called the drum-head, the circumference of 
which contains sockets for the admission of the 
capstan-bars or levers by which the capstan is 
turned. 

To the surface of the barrel, and forming a 
part of it, are attached several upright pieces of 
wood called whelps, which serve to increase the 
circumference of the barrel with but slight in 
crease in the weight of the capstan. The outer 
edges of the whelps being concave, the turns of 
the rope or messenger surge or slip towards the 
centre of the barrel as it is wound about it by 
the revolutions of the capstan. The base of the 
capstan is called the pawl-head, and is similar 
in size and shape to the drum-head. The pawls 
are short stout pieces of iron attached at one end 
to the periphery of the pawl-head. The pawl- 
rim is a narrow circular part bolted through the 
deck to the partners, and is of sufficient width to 
admit the lower end of the pawls as the capstan 
is turned. By means of the pawls and the cross- 
pieces or notches in the pawl-rim, the capstan is 
prevented from turning back when the power is 
removed from the bars. 

The axis of the capstan consists of a vertical 
iron spindle, attached to one or more decks, and 
by which the capstan is held firmly in place. 
The same spindle may serve as the axis of a 
double capstan, or two capstans on different 
decks, by which the power of both may be ap 
plied to the same object, or they can be detached 
and used separately. 

Previous to the improvements that have been 
made in capstans, the cable was connected with 
the capstan by means of a rope called the mes 
senger. Three or four turns of the messenger 
were placed upon the capstan, one end passed 
forward on one side of the deck, and returned on 
the opposite side, arid the two ends lashed to 
gether, forming an endless rope, the bight of 
which extended from the capstan to the hawse- 
hole. The messenger was fastened to the cable 
by means of nippers, those nearest the capstan 
being changed to the cable near the hawse-hole 
as they approached the capstan. 

Capstans composed entirely of iron are now 
in general use, and improvements have been 
made by which the chain-cable is brought di 
rectly to the capstan and the use of the messenger 
thereby avoided. They are so constructed that 
the cable passes around the rear of the capstan, 
and fits into a space between the barrel and pawl- 
head, in which are placed chain-whelps, which 
prevent the cable from slipping. After leaving 
the capstan the cable passes around a vertical 
friction-roller, which is placed in a socket in the 
deck, and thence to the chain-locker on the side 
of the deck to which the cable belongs. 

Steam-power has also been applied to this de 
scription of capstan on board of steamers, by 
which means the number of the crew may be 
reduced. 

An increase of power has also been obtained 
by means of a system of gearing placed inside of 
the capstan, which connects the barrel with the 
spindle. By the use of a lock-bolt the capstan 
can be used as a simple purchase, but by re 
moving the bolt the gearing is brought into 



action, and the power is increased threefold. 
The barrel of the capstan then turns in a con 
trary direction to the drum-head. E. T. Strong, 
Lieutenant U.S.N. 

To pawl the capstan, to drop the pawls into 
their sockets to prevent the capstan from turning 
back. To rig the capstan, to ship and swift in 
the bars. To surge the capstan, to slack the rope 
wound around the barrel of the capstan to pre 
vent it from riding or fouling. To walk back the 
capstan, to lift the pawls and turn the capstan 
in the opposite direction, 

CAPSTAN-BAR. A long lever to give an in 
crease of power in heaving at the capstan. 

CAPSTAN-BARRING. A sea-punishment, in 
which the offender was sentenced to carry a 
capstan-bar during the watch. 

CAPSTAN-BAR P*IN. A pin sometimes inserted 
on the end of a capstan-bar to prevent it from un 
shipping. 

CAPSTAN-STEP. The steady, measured tread 
of the men while heaving at the capstan. 

Captain. A name given to the crooner, 
crowner, or gray gurnard (Trigla gurnardus}. 

Captain. This almost universal term of com 
mand is supposed to have originated in the naval 
service from " caput," the head or chief, and 
"thane," a Saxon title of honor, which by 
statute of King Athelstan was conferred on any 
merchant who had been thrice across the high 
seas upon his own account. 

Post-captain was a term frequently used in the 
Royal navy and the IT. S. navy to distinguish 
captains commanding frigates, from master-com 
mandants or commanders the next in rank, com 
manding vessels of a smaller size, who in com 
mon conversation were and are called " captain." 
There never was such a commission as "post- 
captain" in either service. 

In the British navy, in 1747, when the rank 
of captain was first clearly defined, those captains 
who commanded post-ships, or what are now 
called rated ships, in the Royal navy took rank, 
if of three years standing, with army colonels, 
and until the year 1824 the Royal Navy List 
described them as post-captains. The prefix 
"post" then disappeared without any order in 
council or warrant being issued. 

Until 1862 captain was the highest com 
missioned rank in the U. S. navy, and ranked 
with, according to seniority or duty, a lieuten 
ant-colonel, colonel, or brigadier-general. Under 
the present organization of the U. S. navy a 
captain has assimilated rank with a colonel in 
the army. G. H. Preble, Rear- Admiral U.S.N. 

A captain commands a vessel of the second 
class, or a vessel of the first class under an ad 
miral, vice- or rear-admiral, or a commodore ; 
may be employed- as aid to any grade of ad 
miral ; as chief of staff to a naval force or de 
tached division, commanded by a rear-admiral 
or commodore ; on duty under a bureau ; act as 
second in command of shore-stations, and may 
command small practice or flying squadrons. 
See COMMANDING OFFICER. 

The name is also given to certain leading men 
in the ship s company ; as, captain of a gun, 
captains of tops, forecastle, afterguard, hold, etc. 

Captain is also the popular title of the master 
of a merchant vessel. 

Captain of Navy-yard. The line-officer next 
in rank to the commandant of the yard ; he com- 



CAPTAIN S CLOAK 



113 



CAREEN 



mands during the temporary absence of the com 
mandant, but has no authority to change the 
established routine. He has special charge of 
the police and the enforcement of police regula 
tions ; of all the fires and lights in the work 
shops, and, after working hours, he will satisfy 
himself that there is no danger of fire through 
the night ; of keeping the walks and grounds 
clean and in good condition ; of the berthing, 
moving, and mooring vessels, and of the fire- 
and other tugs. The captain of the yard directs 
the fire department, and he frequently examines 
the engines and all apparatus for subduing fires, 
reports at once any deficiencies, and once a month 
at least, in writing, their actual condition. He 
causes to be scrutinized all articles and packages 
passing into or out of the yard ; all suspected ar 
ticles are stopped and examined, when, if found 
to be of an improper character, they are detained, 
and a report made to the commandant. Each 
morning all passes presented at the gate during 
the preceding day are delivered to the captain of 
the yard for inspection and report. He has no 
direct authority or control of the affairs of the 
yard by virtue of his own rank or position, but 
it is his duty to convey to the heads of the de 
partments of the yard such orders as the com 
mandant desires to transmit verbally ; and it is 
also his duty to visit and observe all parts of the 
navy-yard and its establishments, and to make 
such reports as will enable the commandant to 
be fully informed as to the harmonious working 
of the various parts of the station under his com 
mand. A regular journal is kept under his 
direction, which he is to sign daily and submit 
monthly to the commandant for his approval. 
In it must be entered the time when all officers 
report for duty at, or are detached from, the 
yard, when any vessel is received for repairs or 
put in commission, the number of mechanics 
and others employed, the arrival and departure 
of all vessels of war and of vessels with stores of 
any kind for the yard, the time when any vessel 
is taken into or removed from the dock, the state 
of the wind and weather, as well as the barometer 
and thermometer, and the other principal trans 
actions of the yard. 

Captain s Cloak (Ena.}. The jocose name 
given to the thirty-sixth article of war: "All 
other crimes not capital, and for which no pun 
ishment is hereby directed to be inflicted, shall 
be punished according to the laws and customs 
in such cases used at sea." 

Captive. A prisoner taken by force or strata 
gem in war by an enemy. Kept in bondage or 
confinement. 

Captor. One who takes a prisoner, prize, or 
place in war. See INTERNATIONAL LAW, PRIZE. 

Capture. The act of taking. To take a pris 
oner, prize, or place in war. The thing taken. 
See INTERNATIONAL LAW, PRIZE. 

Carack, Carrak, or Carrick. A large ship of 
burden, the same with those called galleons. 
Hippus, the Tyrian, is said to have first devised 
caracks, and onerary vessels of prodigious bulk 
for traffic or offense. See CARRAC. 

Caracora. A proa of Borneo, Ternate, and 
the Eastern Isles ; also called caracol by early 
voyagers. 

Caramoussal. A Turkish merchant ship with 
a pink-stern. 

Caravel, or Caravela. A Portuguese dispatch- 
8 



boat, lateen-rigged, formerly in use; it had 
square-sails only on the foremast, though dig 
nified as a caravela. 

Caravelao. A light pink-sterned vessel of 
the Azores. 

Carbasse. See KARBATZ. 

Carbin. A name for the basking shark (which 
see). 

Carcass. A shell for incendiary purposes, 
filled with a very fiercely flaming composition 
of saltpetre, sulphur, resin, turpentine, anti 
mony, and tallow. It has three vents for the 
flame, and sometimes is equipped with pistol- 
barrels, so fitted in its interior as to discharge 
their bullets at various times. The ribs, keel, 
stem, and stern-post of a ship after the planks 
are stripped off. 

Carcatus (from caricato, It.). A law-term 
for a freighted ship. 

Card. The dial or face of the magnetic com 
pass, probably derived from cardinal. 

Cardinal (Lat. cardinalis, literally pertaining 
to a hinge, cardo, hence that on which other 
things turn, principal). The points to which, 
as regards position and motions, others are re 
ferred. Thus we have "the Cardinal Points of 
the Compass," "the Cardinal Points of the 
Horizon," " the Cardinal Points of the Ecliptic." 

CARDINAL POINTS OF THE COMPASS. The 
same as the cardinal points of the horizon, but 
with reference to the direction of the magnetic 
needle. They are named North, South, East, and 
West ; the most important of which is the North. 

CARDINAL POINTS OF THE HORIZON. The 
four cardinal points of the horizon are the North 
(N.), South (S.), East (E.), and West (W.). The 
north and south points are where the meridian 
intersects the horizon, and they are the poles of 
the prime vertical ; the east and west points are 
where the prime vertical intersects the horizon, 
and are the poles of the meridian. The north 
and south points are those from which the hori 
zontal distance from the meridian of all bodies 
having an altitude is measured ; the east point is 
that to which their rising, and the west point 
that to which their setting, is referred. 

CARDINAL POINTS OF THE ECLIPTIC. The 
four cardinal points of the ecliptic are the two 
points of its intersection with the equinoctial, 
called the Equinoctial Points ; and the two points 
where it attains its greatest distance from tbe 
equinoctial, called the Solstitial Points. With 
reference to the seasons of the northern hemis 
phere, these are named the Vernal and Autumnal 
Equinoctial Points, and the Summer and Winter 
Solstitial Points. These are more commonly 
called after the signs of the ecliptic in which 
they are severally situated : the First Point of 
Aries (symbol ^f) and the First Point of Libra 
(:=), the First Point of Cancer (05) and the 
First Point of Capricorn (Itf). The Colures in 
tersect the ecliptic in these four points. The 
most important of them is the First Point of 
Aries, as from it right ascensions and longitudes 
are reckoned. The sun is in <y> about March 21, 
in 05 about June 21, in ^ about September 21, 
and in V? about December 21. 

CARDINAL WINDS. Winds from due north, 
south, east, or west. 

Careen. A ship is said to careen when she 
inclines to one side, or lies over when sailing on 
a wind ; off her keel or carina. 



CAREY 



114 



CARTEK 



To careen a vessel is to heave her down pre 
paratory to cleaning or repairing her bottom. 
See HEAVING DOWN. 

Carey. See MOTHER CAREY S CHICKENS. 

Cargo. The merchandise with which a ship 
is freighted. 

CARGO- JACK. A jack used on its side in 
stowing cargo, for forcing heavy articles into 
place. 

CARGO-PORT. The aperture through which 
the cargo of a vessel is loaded and discharged. 
A timber-port is in the bows of the vessel. 

Caricatore. Places where the traders of 
Sicily take in their goods, from caricare, to 
load. 

Carina. An old term, from the Latin, for 
the keel or a ship s bottom. 

Carl, or Male-hemp. See FIMBLE, or FIM- 

BLE-HEMP. 

Carle-crab. The male of the black-clawed 
crab, Cancer pagurus ; also of the partan, or 
common crab. 

Carline, or Carling. A short timber ranging 
fore-and-aft from one deck-beam to another. 

CARLINE-KNEE. A knee in the deck-framing, 
which is placed against a carline. 

Cam-tangle. A long and large fucus, thrown 
on beaches after a gale of wind in the offing. 

Carous. A sort of gallery in ancient ships, 
which turned on a pivot. It was hoisted to a 
given height by tackles, and thus brought to 
project over, or into, the vessel of an adversary, 
furnishing a bridge for boarding. 

Carp. A well-known fresh-water fish of the 
Cyprinidce family, a native of Persia, considered 
to have been introduced into England in the 
time of Henry VIII. ; but in Dame Berner s 
book on angling, published in 1486, it is de 
scribed as the " daynteous fysshe" in England. 

Carpenter. A warrant-officer whose duty is 
to see that the hull, masts, and spars of the ship 
are kept in good repair, and to point out any 
and all defects in either to his commanding 
officer. It is his duty also, with the men under 
him, to take charge of the pumps, and to stop 
shot-holes in time of action. Carpenter is also 
the rating of one of the mechanics belonging to 
the carpenter s gang. 

CARPENTER S CREW, or GANG. The mechan 
ics of the ship not belonging to the engineer s de 
partment; as, the carpenter s mate, cooper, etc. 

CARPENTER, SHIP-. A builder of ships. 

Carrac, Carraca, Carrack, or Carricke. A 
name given by the Spaniards and Portuguese to 
the vessels they sent to Brazil and the East 
Indies ; large, round built, and fitted for fight 
as well as burden. Their capacity lay in their 
depth, which was extraordinary. English ves 
sels of size and value were sometimes also so 
called. See CARACK. 

Carrara. The great northern diver, Colymbus 
fflacialis, 

Carriage. See GUN-CARRIAGE. 

Carrick-bend. A peculiar bend much used 
for bending two hawsers together. 

Carrick-bitts. The bitts which support the 
<ends of a windlass, called also windlass-bitts. 

Carronade. A gun, capable of carrying a 
large ball, and useful in close engagements at 
sea. It took its name from the large iron- 
foundry on the banks of the Carron, near Fal- 
kirk, in Scotland, where, this sort of ordnance 



was first made, or the principle applied to an 
improved construction. Shorter and lighter than 
the common cannon, and having a chamber for 
the powder like a mortar, they were generally 
of large calibre, and carried on the upper works, 
as the poop and forecastle. 

Carry. To subdue a ship by boarding ; to 
capture a fort by an assault. To convey or pro 
pel ; as, a gun carries well, that is, propels the 
shot to a great distance. To bear or support ; 
as, a ship carries canvas, guns, or cargo. To 
carry on, to conduct ; as, to carry on duty ; also 
to carry sail beyond the limits of prudence. To 
carry away, to break ; as, to carry away a rope 
or mast. To carry the keg, & smuggler s phrase, 
meaning to continue. See LASH AND CARRY. 

Cartagena. A city and seaport of the United 
States of Colombia, on a small sandy peninsula, 
connected with the continent by an artificial 
neck of land. Lat. 10 25 36" N. ; Ion. 75 84 
W. The bay, which is landlocked and has smooth 
water, extends from north to south 7 miles, and 
affords excellent anchorage. There were two 
entrances to the port, the Boca Grande, close 
to the town, and the Boca Chica, farther south. 
Two strong castles defend Boca Chica, which is 
the principal entrance. Pop. 9250. 

Cartagena. A city and the chief naval arsenal 
of Spain, on a noble bay of the Mediterranean, 
27 miles S.S.E. of Murcia. Lat. 37 36 5".N. ; 
Ion. 56 36" W. Pop. 55,000. Its harbor 
has been much improved by the construction of 
moles. An island on the south, as well as the 
city, is strongly fortified. In its western division 
are docks for building men-of-war, an arsenal, 
and a floating-dock, its port communicates with 
the Segura River by the Lorca Canal. 

Carte Blanche. Authority to act at discre 
tion. 

Cartel. In military parlance, an agreement 
for the exchange of prisoners. Also a challenge 
to fight a duel. A cartel-ship is one commis 
sioned in time of war to convey prisoners for 
exchange, or to carry proposals of any kind be 
tween belligerent powers. She has only one gun 
for the purpose of firing signals, as the officer 
who commands her is particularly ordered to 
carry no cargo, ammunition, or implements of 
war. Cartel-ships, by trading in any way, are 
liable to confiscation. 

Carter, John C., Commodore U.S.N. Born 
in Virginia. Appointed from Kentucky ; sloop 
"Lexington," 1827; frigate " Delaware^," Med 
iterranean Squadron, 1829-30; commissioned 
as lieutenant, 1837; frigate "Macedonian," 
West India Squadron, 1840; receiving-ship, 
New York, 1845; steamer "Mississippi," Home 
Squadron, 1846; navy-yard, Norfolk, 1847-48; 
frigate " Raritan," Pacific Squadron, 1852-53 ; 
rendezvous, New York, 1855 ; commissioned as 
commander, 1855 ; commanding steamer " Mich 
igan," on the Lakes, 1861-64; commissioned 
as commodore, July 16, 1862; commanding re 
ceiving-ship "Vermont," New York, 1865; 
light-house inspector, 1866-69 ; died in 1871. 

Carter, Samuel P., Commodore U.S.N. 
Born in Carter County, Tennessee. Appointed 
from Tennessee, February 14, 1840 ; promoted to 
passed midshipman, July 11, 1846; "Ohio," 74, 
Home Squadron, 1846-47 ; present at capture of 
Vera Cruz ; commissioned as lieutenant, April 
18, 1855; steam-frigate " San Jacinto," East In- 



CAETEE 



115 



CAEVEL 



dia Squadron, 1855-57 ; at attack on Barrier 
Forts, Canton Eiver, China, 1856 ; Naval Acad 
emy, 1857-60; steam-sloop " Seminole," Brazil 
Squadron, 1860-61 ; returned to the United 
States, July 6, 1861 ; July 11, 1861, Lieutenant 
Carter was ordered to report to the Secretary of 
War for special duty ; was instructed to proceed 
to East Tennessee and raise troops; organized 
the Tennessee Brigade, and was assigned to com 
mand in September, 1861, with acting appoint 
ment of brigadier-general; present at Wild Cat, 
Kentucky, at Zollicoffer s repulse, October, 1861 ; 
at battle of Mill Springs, January, 1862 ; com 
manded in Southeastern Kentucky from Febru 
ary, 1862, to April, 1862 ; and in operations 
against Cumberland Gap, March and May, 1862 ; 
commissioned brigadier-general May 1, 1862; at 
capture of Cumberland Gap, June 17, 1862; in 
Kanawha Valley in October and November, 1862, 
at which time the rebel troops were driven out 
and the valley re-occupied by Union forces. 
Commanded cavalry expedition into East Ten 
nessee, tore up track and destroyed bridges on 
East Tennessee and Virginia Eailroad, and in 
several engagements, atHolston, Carter s Station, 
and Jonesville, defeated rebel troops in Decem 
ber, 1862, and January, 1863. This cavalry raid, 
which was the first of any importance made by 
Union troops into rebel territory, was attended 
with valuable results, not only from amount of 
damage done the rebel cause from destruction 
of property, loss of troops, and the breaking of 
their principal line of railway, but from the re 
lief it afforded Gen. Eosecrans when pressed 
at Murfreesboro , and the new life it infused 
throughout all our cavalry commands. For this 
successful raid received thanks of the general- 
in-chief of the army in general orders ; also of 
the commander of the Department of the Ohio, 
in general orders, and the commander of the 
district of Kentucky ; was recommended by 
latter two for promotion to major-general ; wa8 
assigned to command of division of Central 
Kentucky in March, 1863 ; at battle of Dutton s 
Hill, March 31, 1863; commanded in Southeast 
ern Kentucky, headquarters at Somerset, from 
May to July, 1863 ; defeated Pegram s forces at 
Monticello and Beaver Dam in May and June, 
1863, and Morgan at West s ; was thanked, in 
general orders, by the commander of the Depart 
ment of the Ohio. In July, 1863, was assigned 
to command of cavalry division, 23d Army 
Corps, and had the advance when Burnside oc 
cupied East Tennessee, in August and Septem 
ber, 1863; defeated Morgan s forces, near Emory, 
August 28, 1863, and Smith s, at Loudon, August 
29 ; present at siege and battle of Knoxville, 
November and December, 1863 ; provost-mar 
shal-general of East Tennessee, September, 1863, 
to January, 1865, when he was relieved at his 
own request, ordered to North Carolina, and as 
signed to command of division of the district of 
Newbern ; commanded the left wing at battle 
of Kinston (Wise s Fork), N. C., on March 10, 
1865, where Bragg was defeated ; occupied Golds- 
boro , N. C., March 20, 1865, driving out the 
rebels with his command ; was in command of 
the place during its occupancy by the armies 
of Gen. Sherman ; assigned to command of 3d 
Division, 23d Army Corps, April 7, 1865; bre- 
vetted major-general, March 13, 1865 ; was in 
command of Western North Carolina from May, 



1865, and of 23d Army Corps from July until 
relieved from duty in that State in August, 1865 ; 
honorably mustered out of the army January, 
1866. 

Commissioned as lieutenant-commander, July 
16, 1862. 

Commissioned as commander, June 23, 1865 ; 
commanding steamer " Monocacy," Asiatic 
Squadron, 1866-69 ; Naval Academy, as com 
mandant of midshipmen, 1869-72. 

Commissioned as captain, October 28, 1870; 
commanding steam-sloop "Alaska," European 
Station, 1872-75: member light-house board, 
1876-80. 8 

Commissioned as commodore in 1878. 

Carthoun. The ancient cannon royal, carry 
ing a 66-pound ball, with a point-blank range of 
185 paces, and an extreme one of about 2000. 
It was 12 feet long and of 8 inches diameter of 
bore. 

Cartouch. A paper case containing a charge 
for a fire-arm. A case filled with shot to be 
fired from a cannon. 

Cartridge. A case of paper, flannel, or sheet- 
metal to contain a charge of powder for a fire 
arm. For muzzle-loading small-arms the powder 
and ball are inclosed in paper ; for breech-load 
ing small-arms the powder and ball are enveloped 
in a sheet-metal case, which also contains the 
fulminate for igniting the charge. 

The cartridges for great guns, howitzers, and 
mortars are put up in bags made of serge cloth, 
woven expressly for this purpose, being entirely 
of wool and of a close uniform texture. It is 
manufactured in pieces of 29 yards in length, 
and from 16 to 36 inches in width. Eattinet, 
merino, bombazette, or silk cloth can be used if 
impossible to obtain the serge cartridge-cloth. 
Cartridge-bags are made of two shapes, conical 
and cylindrical, and are sewed with worsted 
yarn. They are white, and when filled are tied 
with woolen thrums, and are stenciled in black, 
with the calibre of gun and weight of charge. 
The cartridge-bags of the smooth-bore howitzers 
are fitted with a brass wire ring for the purpose 
of attaching them to the sabot of the projectile ; 
when so attached the cartridge and projectile are 
called a round of fixed ammunition. 

CARTRIDGE, BALL-. A cartridge for small- 
arms which contains a projectile. 

CARTRIDGE-BOX. A small box made of har 
ness leather, worn on the waist-belt, to contain 
cartridges for a pistol or rifle. See PASSING- 
BOX. 

CARTRIDGE, BLANK. A cartridge which does 
not contain a projectile It is used only for firing 
salutes or making signals. 

CARTRIDGE, DUMMY. A block of wood of 
the size and shape of a ball-cartridge, for use in 
exercise to accustom the men to the handling of 
cartridges. 

CARTRIDGE, METALLIC. The metallic car 
tridges used in the navy are central primed, and 
are purchased as required from private manufac 
turers. The same calibre is used for pistols, 
rifles, and machine-guns. The bullet is cylindro- 
conical in shape, having three rings and a con 
cave base. 

Caruel. See CARVEL. 

Carved Work. The ornaments of a ship 
which are wrought by the carver. 

Carvel. A light lateen-rigged vessel of small 



CARVEL-BUILT 



116 



CASING 



burden, formerly used by the Spaniards and 
Portuguese. Also, a coarse sea- blubber, on 
which turtles are said to feed. 

Carvel-built. A term to signify that the 
planks of a boat meet, and do not overlap as in 
a clinker-built boat. 

CARVEL-JOINT. A flush joint. 

Cascabel. The part of a gun abaft the base 
of the breech. 

CASCABEL-BLOCK. The mass of iron which 
fits in between the jaws of the cascabel. It is 
removed to admit the bight of the breeching. 

CASCABEL, JAWS OF THE. That part of a 
cascabel abaft the breeching-hole. 

CASCAB EL-PIN. An iron pin to secure the 
cascabel-block in the jaws of the cascabel. 

Casco. A rubbish-lighter of the Philippine 
Islands. 

Case. The outside planking of the ship. 

Case, Augustus Ludlow, Rear-Admiral 
U.S.N. Born in Newburgh, N. Y., February 
3, 1813. Appointed midshipman April 1, 1828; 
first order, July, 1828, to receiving-ship " Robert 
Fulton," New York; first cruise in frigate 
" Hudson," Brazil Squadron, 1828-31 ; navy- 
yard, New York, 1832 ; cruise in sloop-of-war 
"St. Louis," West Indies, 1832-33; New York 
Navy- Yard and School, 1833-34. 

Promoted to passed midshipman, June 14, 
1834 ; navy-yard, New York, 1835 ; schooner 
"Experiment," coast survey, 1836; bark "Pi 
oneer," U. S. South Sea Surveying and Explor 
ing Expedition, 1837. 

Commissioned as " lieutenant while on duty 
in the exploring expedition," June, 1838; store- 
ship "Relief," exploring expedition, 1838; sloop- 
of-war " Vincennes," exploring expedition, 
1839-42. 

Commissioned as lieutenant, February 25, 
1841; cruise in frigate " Brandywine," East 
Indies, 1843-45. During Mexican war: In 
schooner " Mahonese," brig " Porpoise," frigate 
" Raritan," sloops-of-war "John Adams" and 
" Germantown," Gulf of Mexico, 1846-48. He 
was present at and participated in the capture of 
Vera Crux, Alvarado, and Tabasco. After the 
landing of the troops on the first day, was in 
charge of the beach and superintended "the land 
ing of men, ordnance, and stores for the invest 
ment of Vera Cruz. After possession of Laguna 
was taken by the " Porpoise," he was dispatched, 
in a "bungo" having one of the " Porpoise s" 
42-pounder carronades mounted on the bow, 
with Passed Midshipman F. K. Murray and 25 
men, up the Palisada River to the town of the 
same name, which was captured and hold for a 
fortnight against a large body of cavalry which 
almost daily threatened an attack. The object 
of holding the town was to intercept and capture 
Gen. Santa Anna, who, it was supposed, would 
endeavor to escape to Honduras, via the Palisada 
passes. Cruising in sloop-of-war " Vincennes," 
Pacific Ocean, 1849-51 ; commanding sloop-of- 
war "Warren," Pacific Squadron, 1852-53; 
light-house inspector, third district, New York, 
1853-57. 

Commissioned as commander, September 14, 
1855 ; waiting orders in 1858 ; commanding 
steamer " Caledonia," Brazil Squadron and 
Paraguay Expedition, in 1859; waiting orders 
in 1860. During the Rebellion: In March, 
1861, just at the commencement of the Rebel 



lion, Commander Case was ordered to Washing 
ton as assistant to (then) Commodore Stringham, 
in the Office of Detail ; but on the assignment of 
the latter to the command of the North Atlantic 
Blockading Squadron, he was appointed fleet- 
captain of it, and with him joined the steam- 
frigate " Minnesota," at Boston, April 18. Sub 
sequently, served in the same position with Flag- 
Officer L. M. Goldsborough and Acting Rear- Ad 
miral S. P. Lee, who were successively appointed 
to command the fleet, 1861-62. He took part in 
the capture of Forts Clarke and Hatteras, August 
28 and 29, 1861 ; Roanoke Island, February 7 
and 8, 1862; Sewell s Point (where, in passing 
the heavy fortifications on Craney Island, he 
landed from his "tug" and hauled down the 
large rebel flag there flying) and Norfolk, May 
10, 1862 ; and all of the general active operations 
of the North Atlantic Fleet, until January, 1863, 
when, it being understood that active operations 
were over, and that the duty of the fleet would 
be mostly confined to blockading, he was assigned 
to the command of the steam-sloop " Iroquois," 
which was fitted to look after the "Alabama," 
but was afterward attached to the North Atlan 
tic Squadron. In charge of the blockade of New 
Inlet, N. C., 1863 ; cut out the steamer " Kate" 
from under Fort Fisher and the other batteries 
at New Inlet, aided by the steamers "James 
Adger" and "Mount Vernon," in August, 
1863. 

Commissioned as captain, January 2, 1863; 
special duty, Washington, in 1864; navy-yard, 
New York, 1864-65] fleet-captain, European 
Squadron, 1865-66. 

Commissioned as commodore, December 8, 
1867 ; light-house inspector, third district, New 
York, 1867-69. 

Chief of Bureau of Ordnance, 1869-73. 

Commissioned as rear-admiral, May 24, 1872; 
commanding European Squadron, 1873-75, and 
combined European North and South Atlantic 
Fleets, assembled at Key West, Fla., 1874, for 
special service in connection with the steamer 
" Virginius" difficulties, and for ordnance, tor 
pedo, and fleet practice and tactics, etc. Total 
sea service, twenty-four years ten months ; shore 
or other duty, twelve years. 

Case-book. A register or journal in which 
the surgeon records the cases of all the sick and 
wounded who are placed under medical treat 
ment. 

Case-shot. See CANISTER. 

CASE-SHOT, SPHERICAL. See SHRAPNEL. 

Cash. A Chinese copper coin having a square 
hole in the centre. It bears on one side the name 
of the province in which it is cast and the Chi 
nese word money ; on the other side are the Chi 
nese words " current money" and the name of the 
reigning emperor. It is the only native coin, 
and is called tsien by the Chinese and sapeque by 
the French. 

Casing. The lining, veneering, or planking 
over a ship s timbers, especially for the cabin- 
beams ; the sheathing. A bulkhead round a 
mast to prevent the interference of cargo, or 
shifting materials. 

In steam enginery, a covering applied to 
boilers, steam pipes, cylinders, etc., to prevent 
radiation of heat. It is generally composed of 
hair felt, protected by wood or sheet metal 
sheathing. Asbestos cement, plaster of Paris, 



CASK 



117 



CAT-BOAT 



and empty air-tight spaces are frequently sub 
stituted for the felt. 

Cask. A strong barrel for containing fluids. 

Casket. See GASKET. 

Cassava, or Cassada. A species of the genus 
Jatropha janipha, well known to seamen as the 
cassava bread of the West Indies. Tapioca is 
produced from the Jatropha manihot. Caution 
is necessary in the use of these roots, as the juice 
is poisonous. 

Cassin, Stephen, Commodore U.S.N. Born 
in Philadelphia, February 16, 1783; died at 
Georgetown, D. C., August 29, 1857. Entered 
the navy as midshipman, February 21, 1800; 
became lieutenant, February 12, 1807 ; master, 
September 11, 1814; captain, March 3, 1825. 
Served with distinction in the war with Tripoli ; 
commanded the " Ticonderoga," in McDon- 
ough s victory on Lake Champlain ; was re 
warded by Congress with a gold medal for 
bravery in that action, and was a terror to the 
pirates who infested the West Indies, and cap 
tured four of their vessels, September 28, 29, 
1822. 

Cassiopeia (named after the mythical wife of 
Cepheus). A constellation on the opposite side 
of the pole to the Great Bear, and at about the 
same distance from it. It consists of a group of 
stars of the third and fourth magnitude, disposed 
in a form somewhat resembling a chair, a Cas 
siopeia is, of the six principal stars, the farthest 
from the pole. 

Cast. A term meaning four; applied to her 
rings, haddocks, etc. The heaving of the lead 
into the sea to ascertain the depth of water. The 
act of casting anything in a mold. To force a 
ship s head off from the wind on getting under 
way. Acast, abox, the position of the head- 
yards in casting. To cast off, to throw off; to 
let go. To cast anchor, to come to anchor, an 
expression, however, which is never used in the 
navy. To cast up accounts, to vomit, the effect 
of sea-sickness. To cast loose a gun is to get it 
ready for action. 

CAST-AWAY. Wrecked. 

CAST-AWAYS. The people belonging to a 
wreck ; men who are left behind when a vessel 
goes to sea. 

CAST-OFFS. The citizen s clothing abandoned 
by sailors on enlisting in the navy. 

Cast Knees. The hanging knees which crook 
or arch over the corners of the gun-ports, riders, 
etc. 

Castle-wright. An artificer employed in the 
erection of castles in early ships. 

Castor, a 2 Geminorum. 

Castor and Pollux. Fiery balls sometimes 
seen flickering about the ma st-heads and yard- 
arms during a gale. See ST. ELMO S FIRE. 

Casualty. That which comes without design ; 
an event inevitable and not to be guarded 
against. 

CASUALTIES. A word comprehending all 
men who die, desert, or are discharged. 

Cat. A ship formed on the Norwegian model, 
usually employed in the coal and timber trade, 
and generally built remarkably strong. A cat 
is distinguished by a narrow stern, projecting 
quarters, a deep waist, and no ornamental figure 
on the prow. An instrument of punishment 
formerly used in the navy. (See CAT o NINE 
TAILS.) The purchase used to hoist the anchor 



from the hawse-hole to the cat-head. To cat the 
anchor, to hoist it up to the cat-head arid pass 
the ring-stopper. 

CAT-BACK. A line from the cat-block to assist 
in hooking it to the ring of the anchor. 

CAT-BEAM, or BEAK-HEAD BEAM. In former 
times the forward ends of the ships of war were 
finished square across the ship at the upper part 
instead of rounding to the ends as nowadays, 
and the cat-heads were attached to each end of 
this beam. The beam was generally made in 
two breadths, being a very wide beam, and 
tabled and bolted together ; the forward side was 
placed far enough forward to receive the heads 
of the stanchions of the beak-head bulkhead. 

CAT-BLOCK. A heavy, double, or threefold 
iron-bound block having a hook fitted with a 
link ; used in catting the anchor. 

CAT-HEAD. The timber that projects over the 
bows, and to which the anchor is hoisted. 

CAT-FALL. The rope reeving through the 
cat-block and sheaves of the cat-head, forming 
the purchase called the cat. 

CAT-STOPPER, or CAT-HEAD STOPPER. The 
ring-stopper. 

CAT-TAIL. The inner end of the cat-head. 

Catalan. A small Spanish fishing-boat. 

Catamaran. A sort of raft used in the East 
Indies, Brazils, and elsewhere ; those of the 
island of Ceylon, like those of Madras and other 
parts of that coast, are formed of three logs 
secured together by means of three spreaders 
and cross lashings, through small holes ; the 
centre log is much the largest, with a curved 
surface at the fore-end, which tends and finishes 
upwards to a point. The side logs are similar 
in form, and fitted to the centre log. These 
floats are navigated with great skill by one or two 
men, in a kneeling position; they think nothing 
of passing through the surf which lashes the 
beach at Madras and at other parts of these 
coasts, when even the boats of the country could 
not live upon the waves; they are also propelled 
out to the shipping at anchor when boats of the 
best construction and form would be swamped. 
Their length is from 20 to 25 feet, breadth 2 to 
3 feet, and the timber preferred for their con 
struction is the Dup wood, or Cherne-Maram, 
the pine varnish-tree. 

Catanadromi. Migratory fishes, which have 
their stated times of going from fresh water to 
salt and returning, as the salmon, etc. 

Catania, a city of Sicily, on its east coast, 54 
miles by rail N.N.W. of Syracuse. Lat. 37 
28 20" N. ; Ion. 15 15" E. The harbor is 
not adequate to the importance of the city, but 
it is generally full of small craft. It is small, 
and during a strong sirocco no ship can enter. 
Pop. 85,000. 

Catascopia. Small vessels anciently used for 
reconnoitring and carrying dispatches. 

Cat-boat. A shallow, saucer-like boat draw 
ing little water and fitted with a centre-board. 
The forward part is decked over, and the mast 
is stepped close to the stem. It has but one 
sail, which is extended by a gaff and a long 
boom. It can be easily handled by one person, 
and its management is easily learned. Its length 
varies from 10 to 40 feet, but the greater number 
are over 15 and under 25 feet in length. It is 
the typical American sail-boat, the cat-rig being 
scarcely known in Europe. 



CATCH 



118 



CELESTIAL 



Catch. A fisherman s term for the number 
of fish taken at one time. 

Catch a Crab. In rowing, if the oar be im 
mersed too deep in the water the blade is carried 
aft and the loom thrown forward, thus jamming 
the oar in the rowlock ; the boat s headway must 
be checked before it can be recovered. This 
mishap is termed catching a crab. 

Catch a Turn. To belay, or take a turn 
quickly. 

Catch-fake. An unseemly doubling in a badly 
coiled rope. 

Catenary. The curve formed by a rope hang 
ing freely between two points of suspension. 

Caterer. A purveyor and provider of pro 
visions. Each mess of officers selects a caterer 
from their number, and his duties are to preside 
at the mess-table and to manage and direct all 
the affairs of the mess ; he keeps an account of 
the receipts and expenditures, and at the end of 
the month renders a statement of his accounts. 

Cat-fish. The sea-cat or sea- wolf (Anarrhicas 
lupus), often six feet in length. Also a fresh 
water fish of the genus Pitnelodus. The common 
cat-fish is also called bull-head and horned pout. 

Cat-gut. A term applied to the sea-laces, or 
Fucusjiium. 

Cat-harpings, or Cat-harpins. Short ropes 
used to bind in the rigging in the wake of the 
topsail-yards, that the yard may be braced sharp 
up. 

Cathay. Marco Polo s name for India. 

Cathode. Faraday s term for the negative 
pole of a battery. 

Cat-holes. Holes through the quarter through 
which are passed the hawsers for fasts and 
springs. 

Cat-lap. Tea, or weak drink. 

Cat o Nine Tails. An instrument formerly 
used for flogging in the navy. It consisted of 
nine pieces of cord, with three knots in each, 
fixed on a short piece of thick rope as a handle. 
"With this the offender was flogged on the bare 
back. See FLOGGING. 

Catraia. Portuguese surf- or pilot-boats. 
They are generally about 56 feet long by 15 feet 
beam, and are impelled by 16 oars. 

Cat-rig. See CAT-BOAT. 

Cat s-paw. A light air which slightly ruffles 
the surface of the sea. Cat s-paws occur during 
calms, and are transitory in their nature. Super 
stitious sailors scratch the booms, masts, or back 
stays to invoke even these cat s-paws, as they are 
the forerunners of a steady breeze. Cat s-paw 
is also a name given to a peculiar twisting hitch 
in the bight of a rope, making two smaller 
bights, into which a tackle is hooked. 

Cat s-skin. The impression made by a cat s- 
paw on the surface of the sea. 

Cattan. A Japanese sword. 

Catty. A Chinese commercial weight of 18 
ounces. Tea is packed in one or more catty- 
boxes ; hence most likely our word tea-caddy. 

Caudal Fin. The fin terminating the tail of 
a fish. 

Caudicarise. A kind of lighter used by the 
Romans on the Tiber. 

Caul. The membrane encompassing the heads 
of some infants when born, and from early an 
tiquity esteemed an omen of good fortune and a 
preservation against drowning. Also, a name 
for a dam-dike. 



Caulk. See CALK. 

Caury. "Worm-eaten. 

Cavallo, or Carvalhas. A salt-water fish, 
well known as the bonito, or horse-mackerel. 

Cavalot. A gun carrying a ball of one pound. 

Caver. A word used in the Hebrides for a 
gentle breeze. 

Caviare. A preparation of the roe of stur 
geons and other fish salted. It forms a lucrative 
branch of commerce in Italy and Russia. 

Cavil. A large, square wooden pin fixed in a 
pin-rail to which are belayed the larger ropes ; 
as, topsail-halliards, yard-ropes, etc. Sometimes 
the word is applied to a large cleat. 

Cavity. The hollow in the water formed by 
the immersed bottom and sides of a vessel. 

Cavo-fungo. A boat or mud-machine used by 
the Venetians to clean out canals. 
Cawe, or Cawfe. A floating cage, in which 
eels, lobsters, etc., are kept. 

Cawker. An old term to signify a glass of 
spirits taken early in the morning ; an eye- 
opener. 

Cay, or Cayos. Small insulated sandy spots 
or rocks. See KEY. 

Cayenne. A town of South America, capital 
of French Guiana, on the western point of an 
island of the same name, at the mouth of the 
Cayenne or Oyaque River, in the Atlantic. Lat. 
4 56 5" N. ; Ion. 52 20 W. The harbor is 
shallow, has two quays, and is protected by a 
fort and several batteries. Cayenne is a penal 
settlement for French political and criminal 
offenders. Pop. 10,500. 

C. B. (Eng.}. The uncials of Companion of 
the most honorable order of the Bath. This 
grade was at one time distributed so profusely 
that an undecorated veteran testily remarked that 
if the government went on thus there would soon 
be more C.B. s than A.B. s in the navy. 

Cease Firing. The order to stop firing. 

Ceiling. Strakes of plank worked between 
the clamps and water-ways on berth-decks, and 
between the thick strakes and clamps, and thick 
strakes and bilge- strakes in the hold. 

Celestial (Lat. ccelestis, from ccelum, the 
heavens). Pertaining to the heavens; opposed 
to terrestrial. Thus we have the " celestial me 
ridian," the "celestial horizon," the " celestial 
equator," etc. 

CELESTIAL CONCAVE (Lat. concavus, hollow). 
Of the two spherical surfaces with which we are 
concerned, the terrestrial sphere is convex, i.e., 
presents its external surface to us ; while the 
celestial sphere is concave, i.e., presents its in 
ternal surface to us. The different heavenly 
bodies are interspersed in space at various dis 
tances from the earth, but to an observer on its 
surface all of them appear to be placed or pro 
jected on the internal surface of a hollow sphere. 
This sphere is called the celestial concave, celestial 
sphere, sphere of the heavens, or sphere of the 
stars, its centre being the position of the observer. 
It must always be remembered that the celestial 
concave is an imaginary surface, arising in the 
mind of the observer either from association with 
the real concave surface of the retina of his eye, 
which is the true seat of all visible angular di 
mensions and angular motion, or from the in 
ability of the eye to perceive differences of dis 
tances in objects so remote as the heavenly 
bodies. 



CELL 



119 



CHAMBER 



CELESTIAL EMPIRE. A popular designation for 
China. It is said to be derived from the Chinese 
words Tien Chan, that is, Heavenly Dynasty, 
meaning the kingdom ruled over by the dynasty 
appointed by heaven. 

Cell. See GALVANIC BATTERY. 

Celoces, or Celetes. Light row-boats formerly 
used in piracy, and also for conveying dispatches. 

Centaurus (Lat. "The Centaur"). A con 
stellation which, together with Crux, constitutes 
a bright group in the southern hemisphere, 
pointed out by the line joining Arcturus and 
Spica. The two principal stars a 2 and (3 of the 
Centaur are close together, (3 being the nearer to 
the cross. 

Centigrade (Lat. centum, a hundred ; gradus, 
a step, graduation). See THERMOMETER. 

Centime (Fr.). The hundredth part of a 
franc. 

Central Eclipse. See ECLIPSE. 

Centre. The middle part of anything. 

CENTRE-FIRE CARTRIDGE. A metallic car 
tridge in which the fulminate occupies an axial 
position. 

CENTRE-LINE. The line which is the exact 
centre of the ship, either in the drawings or upon 
the ship s hull. 

CENTRE OF A FLEET. The division between 
the van and rear, or between the weather and lee 
divisions. 

CENTRE OF ATTRACTION, or GRAVITATION. 
The point to which bodies tend by gravity. 

CENTRE OF BUOYANCY, OF DISPLACEMENT, 
OF CAVITY, AND OF IMMERSION. Synonymous 
terms in naval architecture for the mean centre 
of that part of a vessel which is immersed in the 
water. 

CENTRE OF EFFORT. A point, to which the 
whole force of the wind on the sails being ap 
plied, the eifect produced is the same as that 
caused by the wind when uniformly distributed 
on the system of sails. 

CENTRE OF GRAVITY. That point of a body 
about which all the parts exactly balance each 
other, so that if it be supported the whole body 
will be at rest in any position whatever. 

CENTRE OF MOTION. The point about which 
any body, or system of bodies, moves. 

Ceola. A very old term for a large ship. 

Cephalopod. An animal of the sub-kingdom 
Mollusca,, characterized by a distinct head sur 
rounded by a circle of long arms or tentacles. 

Cepheus. a Cephei, Alderanim ; f3 Cephei, 
Alphirk. See CONSTELLATION. 

Ceradene. A large fresh-water mussel. 

Cercuri. Ancient ships of burden fitted with 
both sails and oars. 

Certificate of Registry. A document which 
specifies the names of the vessel, master, and 
owners, together with the tonnage, particulars as 
to origin, and the port to which the vessel be 
longs. 

Cetacea (Gr. katos, a whale). An order of 
mammals living in the sea or large rivers, and 
shaped like fishes for moving habitually in the 
watery element, having the posterior part of 
the spine disencumbered of a sacrum and hinder 
extremities to allow the tail to have a due free 
dom and extent of motion. They breathe 
air, have warm blood, and a double circulation, 
like the rest of the class to which they belong ; 
they are consequently compelled to resort to the 



surface for the purpose of respiration ; and the 
tail-tin is accordingly horizontal and not vertical, 
as in some fishes. 

Cetine. An ancient float, "in bulk like a 
whale;" derived from cetus, which applied both 
to whale and ship. 

Cetus. a Ceti, Menkar ; ft Ceti, Diphda. See 
CONSTELLATION. 

C. G. (Eng.}. Coast-guard of Great Britain 
(which see). 

Chad. A fish like a small bream, abundant 
on the southwest coasts of England. 

Chafe. To rub or fret the surface of cables, 
masts, yards, etc. 

CHAFING-CHEEKS. An old name for the 
sheaves in the yards. 

CHAFING-GEAR. Mats, strands, battens, etc., 
for protecting objects from injury by chafing. 

Chaffer. A name for a whale or grampus. 

Chain. A series of connected links. A chain- 
cable. A lineal measure of 4 rods, or 66 feet, 
divided into 100 links. When mountains, lakes, 
or islands are joined together so that their length 
greatly exceeds their breadth, they form what is 
termed a chain. 

CHAIN-CABLE. See CABLE. 

CHAIN-HOOK. An iron rod with a hook at 
one end and an eye for the hand in the other, 
used in working the chain-cables. 

CHAIN-LOCKER. A locker in the hold in which 
the chain-cables are stowed. 

CHAIN-PIPE. An aperture in the deck through 
which pass the chains from the locker to the 
deck above. 

CHAIN, TOP-. A chain to sling the lower yard 
in action. 

CHAIN- STOPPER. See STOPPER. 

CHAIN-WELL. See CHAIN-LOCKER. 

Chains. Iron links which secure the dead- 
eyes connected with the channels. See CHAN 
NELS. 

CHAIN-BOLT. The bolt which passes through 
the toe-links and secures the chains to the side. 

CHAIN-PLATES. Iron plates to which the 
dead-eyes are secured ; they are often substituted 
for chains, being considered preferable. 

Chain-shot. Two balls connected by a chain 
for cutting the spars and rigging of an enemy s 
ship. 

Chaland. A large flat-bottomed boat of the 
Loire. 

Chalder. A gudgeon. 

Chaldrick. A name for the sea-pie (Hceman- 
topus ostralegus}. 

Chaldron. A measure of coal equal to 36 
bushels. 

Chalink. A kind of Massoolah boat. 

Challenge. The hail of a sentry to a person 
approaching. See DUEL. 

Chamaeleon. See CONSTELLATION. 

Chamber. A contraction of the bore of a gun 
which receives the charge of powder. The 
chamber in general use is the conical or gomer 
chamber. The ballistic power of some of the 
European guns has been augmented by adding to 
the weight of the charge and igniting it in a 
space considerably larger than that occupied by 
the powder. This increased space is obtained 
by enlarging the chamber. If the charge had 
not been increased the air-space would have 
caused a diminution both in velocity and press 
ure, the latter decreasing in a greater ratio than 



CHAMFER 



120 



CHAKLES S WAIN 



the former; but, by judiciously increasing the 
weight of the charge, it has been possible to gen 
erate a greater volume of gas behind the projec 
tile without carrying the maximum pressure be- 
vond that which obtained when the old cartridge 
and full chamber were used. 

A clear space between the riders in those ves 
sels which have floor and futtock riders. 

CHAMBER-PIECE. A movable piece to fit into 
the breech of old guns. See GINGAL. 

Chamfer. To cut or take off a sharp edge or 
angle. 

Champlin, Stephen, Commodore U.S.N. 
Born at South Kingston, B. L, November 17, 
1789; died at Buffalo, February 20, 1870. His 
father, Stephen, was a volunteer in the American 
Revolution. His mother, Elizabeth Perry, was 
an aunt of Commodore Perry. At 16 he began a 
sea-faring life, and at 22 commanded a ship out of 
Norwich. May 22, 1812, he was appointed sail 
ing-master in the navy ; lieutenant, December 9, 
1814; commander, June 22, 1838; captain, Au 
gust 4, 1850 ; and commodore on retired list, 
July 16, 1882. He first commanded a gunboat 
under Perry at Newport ; was second in the 
command of the " Asp" in the affairs of Little 
York and Fort George, U. C. ; and, joining 
Perry at Lake Erie, took command of the 
" Scorpion," in which he did good service at the 
battle of September 10, 18l3, capturing the 
" Little Belt." Of this battle, in which he fired 
the first and last guns, he was the last surviving 
officer. In the following spring he commanded 
the "Tigris," and, while blockading Mackinac, 
was attacked at night by an overwhelming force, 
severely wounded, and made prisoner. In 1816 
he commanded the " Porcupine," but performed 
little subsequent service on account of his wound. 
He was a resident of Buffalo from 1834. 

Chancery, In. See IRONS, IN. 

Chancy. Doubtful. 

Chandler, Ship-. A dealer in naval stores. 

Change. The voluntary substitution of a 
different voyage for a merchant ship from the 
one originally specified or agreed upon, an act 
which discharges the insurers. 

Changey-for-Changey. An expression used 
in relation to a "swap," to denote that each 
party is satisfied with his bargain. 

Channel. An arm of the sea separating an 
island from the mainland, or two islands from 
each other. The fair-way or deepest part of a 
river, harbor, or strait. 

CH ANNEL-GROPERS (Enff.). Men-of-war which 
cruise in the English Channel. 

Channels. Flat ledges of white-oak plank 
projecting outboard from the ship s side for 
spreading the lower shrouds and giving addi 
tional support to the masts ; also called chains. 

CHANNEL-BOLTS. The bolts driven through 
the channels edgewise, and through the frame 
and planking, to secure them to the ship s side. 

CHANNEL-PUMP. A pump rigged in the 
channels. 

Chape. The top locket of the scabbard of a 
sword. 

Chapel. In a light breeze when the ship comes 
to against the helm, or is taken aback by a shift 
of wind, or by negligence at the helm, she may 
be recovered on the same tack without bracing 
the head-yards, by causing the ship to make a 
complete circle, until she arrives at her original 



position. This manoeuvre is called chapeling 
ship, or building a chapel. 

Chaph. ft Cassiopeice. 

Chaplain. See NAVAL CHAPLAIN. 

Chapman. A small trader ; a ship s super 
cargo. 

Char. A species of trout. 

Charcoal. A form of carbon obtained by 
burning wood with the imperfect access of air, 
or by heating or distilling it in iron cylinders so 
constructed as to allow of the collection of the 
volatile products, among which are tar and 
pyrollgneous acid, which is impure vinegar. 
The purity of the carbon varies directly with the 
temperature at which the wood is charred ; thus, 
charcoal charred at 480 contains 65 per cent, of 
carbon, while that charred at 750 contains 80, 
and that charred at 2730 contains 96; but the 
loss of charcoal occasioned by these high tem 
peratures is very great, the three percentages of 
charcoal corresponding to these temperatures 
being 50, 20, and 15. Among the many uses of 
charcoal, that of most interest to military and 
naval men is its employment in the manufacture 
of gunpowder (which see). For this purpose the 
charcoal from willows and alder is now chiefly 
used. A peculiar kind of charcoal, termed from 
its color cnarbon rouge, is prepared in France for 
the manufacture of the gunpowder used for 
sporting purposes, by subjecting wood in iron 
cylinders to the action of superheated steam 
under a pressure of two atmospheres. Powder 
made with this charcoal absorbs moisture more 
rapidly than ordinary gunpowder. 

Charge. The quantity of powder used in 
loading a fire-arm or in filling a shell or torpedo. 
Service charges are the ordinary charges author 
ized by the bureau of ordnance. Battering 
charges are larger than the service charges, and 
are used for a limited number of fires against 
ironclads or masonry at short range. A burst 
ing charge is the full charge of powder used in a 
shell ; a blowing charge is a small quantity of 
powder used in a shell in target practice when 
the object is to test the fuse. 

Charge and Specification. The formal written 
statement of the offense alleged to have been 
committed by the accused before a general court- 
martial. 

In the British service there is no distinction 
between the "charge," as such, and the "speci 
fication ;" the fact, or body of facts, constituting 
each offense being only presented in a single sen 
tence or paragraph, the separate paragraphs 
being numbered where the charges are more 
than one, but even when the offenses are all of 
the same class and character introduced by no 
general title or descriptive heading. In our ser 
vice, on the contrary, a military charge consists 
of two parts, the technical "charge" and the 
"specification." The former defines and desig 
nates the offense, and the latter sets forth a cer 
tain state of facts which are supposed to make 
out such offense. See COURT-MARTIAL. 

Charge d Affaires. The designation of diplo 
matic agents of the third class. 

Charity Sloops (Eng.}. Certain ten-gun brigs 
built toward the close of Napoleon s wars. They 
were rated sloops in order to give a command to 
a great number of commanders. 

Charles s Wain. The seven principal stars in 
Ursa Major, generally known as the "Dipper." 



CHARLESTON 



121 



CHART 



Charleston. A port of entry and the largest 
city of South Carolina, situated at the conflu 
ence of the Ashley and Cooper Rivers, which 
unite immediately below the town and form a 
good and spacious harbor, communicating with 
the ocean at Sullivan s Island, 7 miles below. It 
is 118 miles N.E. of Savannah, 580 miles S.W. 
of Baltimore, and 540 miles from Washington. 
Lat. 32 3 W N. ; Ion. 79 57 / W. Cooper and 
Ashley Rivers are from 30 to 40 feet deep, the 
former 1400 and the latter 2100 yards wide. The 
ground on which the city is built is elevated 8 
or 9 feot above the level of the harbor at high 
tide, which rises about 6 feet, flowing by the 
city with a strong current, thus contributing to 
its salubrity. It has a water front of 9 miles. 
A sandbar extends across the mouth of the har 
bor, affording, however, two entrances, of which 
the deepest, near Sullivan s Island, has 18 feet 
of water at low tide. The harbor is defended by 
Castle Pinckney and Fort Sumter, each on an 
island, the former 2 and the latter 6 miles below 
the city, and also by Fort Moultrie, on Sulli 
van s Island. Charleston is the most commer 
cial city of South Carolina, and has an advan 
tageous position for trade, having a harbor deep 
enough for the largest ships. Pop. 60,000. 

Charley Noble. The popular name for the 
galley-funnel. 

Chart. Chart is derived from the Greek c.hartes ; 
Latin, charta*, which was originally applied to a 
sort of paper made of the plant papyrus or biblus. 

In navigation it is defined as a representation, 
in piano, of a part or of the whole of the water 
on the surface of the globe and the adjacent 
coasts. 

To trace the history of cartography, an art 
probably as ancient as the invention of letters, 
would exceed the limits of this article. The 
period from Anaximander to Henry the Navi 
gator, extending over two thousand years, be 
longs rather to the province of the antiquary. 

Unquestionably the ancients had sea-maps 
which guided their barks in voyages of adven 
ture or profit, and did we possess fuller sources 
of information much that is interesting might be 
said of them. But of such knowledge a cele 
brated historian has remarked, " We possess 
only what has drifted ashore from a stranded 
vessel." 

Charts, therefore, as we understand them, may 
be assigned to the epoch of the inauguration of 
maritime enterprise among the nations of modern 
times. To Prince Henry, Duke of Visco, son 
of John I., King of Portugal, is ascribed the 
credit of first introducing them into the marine, 
about the year 1400. These were of the kind de 
nominated plane charts, and they have continued 
in use to the present day, being now employed 
only for very limited areas. 

The first chart made in England appeared in 
an almanac printed on vellum in 1520. 

In 1542, John Rotz, a Frenchman, made for 
King Henry VIII. "A Book of Hydrography," 
containing charts of the sea-coast finely painted 
on large skins of parchment, still preserved in 
the British Museum. 

For any considerable extent of surface charts 
of this construction were soon found to be incor 
rect, and their errors were successively exposed 
by Martin Cortes, Petrus Nonius, and Edward 
Wright ; especially the last named, in his treatise 



entitled " Certain Errors in Navigation Detected 
and Corrected," published at London in 1599. 

With a view to correcting these errors, Gerard 
Kauffman, more familiarly known by the Latin 
equivalent Mercator (merchant), a Flemish geog 
rapher, in the year 1556, published a chart in 
which the parallelism of the meridians was com 
pensated for by increasing the length of each de 
gree of latitude from the equator towards the 
poles. It, however, appears that his charts had 
no claim to accuracy; for the intervals between 
the parallels did not agree with the diiferences 
of the corresponding meridional parts of those 
parallels. It seems evident, therefore, that Mer 
cator had no correct method of dividing the en 
larged meridian. 

The discovery of a rule for this purpose was 
made by Wright and published in his book above 
mentioned. He states that the idea was suggested 
to him by Mercator s chart, " But the way how 
this should be done I learned neither from Mer 
cator nor any man else." 

The primitive idea of the projection upon 
which all our modern charts for navigating pur 
poses are constructed, expressed in the quaint 
language of its author, is as follows :* 

"Suppose a spheerical superficies, with me 
ridians, parallels, rumbes, and the whole hydro- 
graphicall description drawn thereupon, to be 
inscribed into a concave cylinder, their axes agree 
ing in one. Let the sphaerical superficies swell 
like a bladder (whiles it is in blowing) aequally 
alwayes in every part thereof (that is, as much 
in longitude as in latitude) till it apply, and joyn 
itself (round about, and all alongst till towards 
either pole) unto the concave superficies of the 
cylinder ; each parallel upon the sphaerical super 
ficies increasing successively from the equinoctial 
towards either pole, until it come to be of {equal 
diameter with the cylinder, and consequently the 
meridians still widening themselves, till they 
come to be so far distant everywhere each from 
the other as- they are at the ^equinoctial. Thus 
it may be most easily understood how a spherical 
superficies may (by extension) be made cylin 
drical, and consequently a plain parallelogram 
superficies; because the cylinder is nothing else 
but a plain parallelogram wound about two 
sequal equidistant circles. . . . Since in this 
projection the parallels are all made tequal to 
tHe equator, it is evident they are enlarged in 
the proportion of the radius to the co-sines of 
their respective latitudes ; wherefore the merid 
ian, in order to preserve everywhere its propor 
tion to the several parallels thus increased, must, 
at the latitude of each parallel, be enlarged in 
the proportion of the radius to the co-sine of the 
latitude, or so that the length of a minute of the 
true or proper meridian, which upon the globe 
is the same in all latitudes, and sequal to a min 
ute of the equator, may be to the length of a 
minute on the enlarged in any latitude, as the 
co-sine of the latitude to radius, or, which is the 
same, as radius is to the secant of the latitude. 
. . . Hence a table of natural secants to every 
degree and minute of the quadrant, and whose 
radius is 1, will express the several lengths of 
the enlarged meridian at the latitude belonging 
to those secants respectively. And hence the 

* Properly speaking, this should be called Mercator s de 
velopment ; it is not a projection in tlie strict sense of tho 
term. 



CHART 



122 



CHART 



sum of the secants of all the minutes from the 
beginning of the quadrant to the degree and 
minute of any parallel s latitude will be, in 
minutes of the equator, or nautical miles, the 
length of that part of the enlarged meridian 
which is contained between the equator and the 
given parallel." 

In this manner Wright constructed his " Table 
of Latitudes for Graduating a Meridian in the 
General Sea-Chart," which has since obtained 
the name of "A Table of Meridional Parts," 
called by the French " Latitudes Croissantes." 

The above method of dividing the meridian is 
not geometrically accurate. Wright understood 
this, and devised " A conceit for dividing the 
meridian of the nautical planisphsere that may 
satisfie the curious exactness of the geometrician. 
Since his time various mathematicians have im 
proved on his method. The first correct solution 
of the problem appears in " Norwood s Epitome 
of Navigation," 1645. Its author is unknown, 
and the ^demonstration was not given ; this was 
supplied by Mr. James Gregory, of Aberdeen, 
1668, and more concisely at a later period by 
Dr. Halley. 

In most works on navigation containing tables 
of meridional parts the calculations have been 
made on the supposition that the earth is a sphere, 
and this answers well enough for practical pur 
poses. But theory, confirmed by observation, 
has shown our globe to be an oblate spheroid, 
and Sir Isaac Newton and others have calculated 
the ratio of the equatorial to the polar diameter ; 
this is called the compression of the terrestrial 
spheroid. Its value has been variously estimated : 
that adopted by the Bureau of Navigation, 

is, c=_ - 

299.1528 

On the Mercator chart the loxodrome, or ship s 
track, is developed as a right line making the 
same angle with each meridian crossed, and this 
constitutes its chief advantage over other sys 
tems for purposes of navigation. As for every 
increase of latitude a new scale of measurement 
is introduced, objects near the pole are increased 
in size but their outlines are not distorted. The 
relative positions of places with respect to a 
rhumb-line are correct, but the relative distances 
between places are not shown with precision. 

Observed bearings, unless due north or south, 
or east and west at the equator, are never identi 
cal with bearings taken from the Mercator chart, 
and the error increases the higher the latitude. 
Such bearings being similar to courses on a great 
circle, it follows that this chart is not adapted for 
great circle sailing. 

Since bearings obtained either by means of the 
magnetic needle or astronomical observations 
cannot be laid off with accuracy, it is evident 
that the Mercator projection does not answer for 
the more refined purposes of surveying. 

All attempts to project a spherical surface on 
a plane result in more or less distortion of the 
country delineated, in large extents so great as 
to destroy the true proportion between the parts. 

For map-making and plotting the data of a 
survey various projections are employed, such as 
the orthographic, stereographic, equidistant, coni 
cal, gnomonic, and polyconic ; the last three are 
the only ones adapted to our present purpose. 
Since surveys are first plotted on one of these 
projections and then transferred to the Mercator 



chart for the use of the navigator, a brief con 
sideration of them is not out of place here. 

The conical projection is much used by Euro 
pean map-makers, and is drawn as if projected 
from the centre of the earth on the surface of a 
cone cutting the surface of the earth in the paral 
lels of latitude equidistant from the extremes 
and middle of the required limits. Within mod 
erate areas the distortion is quite inappreciable, 
and even for a considerable extent of country it 
is but trifling ; on this account it, or some modi 
fication of it, is now generally used for maps. 
For purposes of accurate measurement it has 
the disadvantage that, with the exception of the 
meridians, all great circles are represented on it 
by curved lines. Now, all measurements between 
places on the earth s surface are necessarily made 
on the arc of a great circle, and for these to be 
accurately represented on paper it is of the great 
est importance that the projection of every arc 
of a great circle should be a right line. This re 
quirement prevents the use of the orthographic 
projection, which near its centre is the most ac 
curate of all, and the same objection applies to 
the Mercator. 

The gnomonic projection fulfills this require 
ment. It is formed by lines drawn through the 
several points from the centre of a sphere to a 
plane touching the sphere in a point near the 
middle of the country to be represented. The 
distortion is greater than in the orthographic or 
conical projections, but within the limits of a 
survey, so trifling as to be practically inappre 
ciable. At a distance of 60 miles from the 
central point a mile so projected is but one foot 
too long, and no one chart on a moderately large 
scale exceeds 120 miles. 

For detailed charts, such as are drawn by 
surveyors in the progress of a survey, the gno 
monic projection is, practically speaking, accu 
rate ; and possessing the desired property of 
representing all great circles by straight lines, 
cutting each other at angles which within the 
required limits have no sensible difference from 
the angles at which the circles cut each other, it, 
or some modification of it, is much used by sur 
veyors. The numerical computations necessary 
for this projection require a knowledge of conic 
sections ; but such calculations are obviated by 
the use of Carrington s tables. Large charts of 
the gnomonic projection have been constructed 
for purposes of great circle sailing. Such charts 
are useful auxiliaries to rhumb sailing. 

These two projections are used by the Ad 
miralty surveyors and rnap-makers of Great 
Britain. 

The United States Coast Survey and Hydro- 
graphic Office have adopted the polyconic system 
in the plotting of surveys. The coast charts of 
the United States are issued in this projection, 
and the largest extends from Cape Hatteras to 
Cape Sable. This is a modification of the conical 
projection, and supposes each parallel of latitude 
to be developed upon its own cone, the vertex of 
which is on the axis of the sphere at its intersec 
tion with the tangent to the meridian at the 
parallel. The " Projection Tables," published 
by the Bureau of Navigation, give a description 
of the theory and practical construction of this 
projection. 

The survey is plotted on shipboard, as made 
from day to day, on blank projection sheets of 



CHAKT 



123 



CHAKT 



well-stretched drawing-paper. This work, to 
gether with all the data of the survey, is sent to 
the Hydrographic Office, where it is carefully 
revised ; the several sheets combined form a 
polyconic chart on a large scale. The work is 
then ready for transfer to the Mercator chart. 

The scale having been determined on, a Mer 
cator chart is developed within the required 
limits in the following manner: 

A sheet of Whatman s cold-pressed drawing- 
paper, previously stretched, is secured to the 
board by means of thumb-tacks ; the usual in 
struments of the draughtsman should be within 
reach. 

If the equator is to be included within the 
limits of the proposed chart, the values to be 
laid oif for latitude are given directly in the 
table. Should the equator not come within the 
chart, then the difference of the meridional parts 
corresponding to the upper and lower latitudes 
gives these values. Such quantities may be 
directly measured off by means of a diagonal 
scale, or reduced to the proper proportions from 
a scale of yards, metres, etc. If, for instance, it 
be required to construct a chart on a scale of one- 
quarter of an inch to five minutes of arc on the 
equator, a diagonal scale may first be constructed, 
on which ten meridional parts, or ten minutes of 
arc on the equator, have a length of half an inch. 
Then, in the usual manner, multiples of one 
meridional part may be measured on the base 
line, multiples of 0.1 on the lines parallel to the 
base-line, and multiples of 0.01 maybe estimated 
between the parallels. If an inch scale be used, 
the meridional parts, before being laid down on 
the projection, must be multiplied by 0.05 or 
divided by 20, since .20 minutes of arc on the 
equator, or 20 meridional parts, have to be made 
equal to one inch. 

Often it may be desirable to adapt the scale to 
a certain size of paper. In this case the extreme 
parallels are first drawn on the sheet, the dis 
tance between them measured, and the included 
number of meridional parts ascertained. Divid 
ing the measured distance by this number gives 
the length of one meridional part, this represents 
the scale of the chart, and by it all the merid 
ional parts taken from the table must be multi 
plied. 

The practical construction is best shown by an 
example : Suppose a projection be required for a 
chart of 14 extent in longitude, between the 
parallels of latitude 20 30 and 30 25 , and let 
the space available on the paper between these 
parallels measure 10 inches. 

Entering the column headed 20 in the table 
of meridional parts and running down to the line 
of 30 in the side column, will be found 1249.08 ; 
then entering the column headed 30 and run 
ning down to the line of 25 , will be found 1905.68. 
The" difference, 1905.68 1249.08 = 656.60, is the 
value of the meridional arc between those lati 
tudes, for which V of arc on the equator is taken 
as the unit. 

On the intended projection, therefore, l x of 



arc of longitude will measure 



10 in. 



=0.0152 



656.60 

inches, which will be the scale of the chart; 
for the sake of brevity call this 0.015. By this 
quantity all the values derived from the table 
must be multiplied before laying them down on 
the projection, if they are to be measured by a 



diagonal scale of one inch. This should not be 
confounded with the natural scale, which is the 
proportion that the chart bears to the earth, ob 
tained by reducing the number of feet in the 
minute of latitude to inches and dividing the 
product by the scale. 

Draw now in the centre of the sheet a vertical 
straight line, and assume it to be the middle me 
ridian of the chart. Construct very carefully on 
this line a perpendicular near the lower border 
of the sheet, and assume this perpendicular to be 
the parallel of latitude 20 30 ; it may also serve 
as the southern inner neat line of the chart. 
Prom the intersection of the vertical and hori 
zontal lines thus drawn, lay off on the latter, 
each side of the middle meridian, seven degrees of 
longitude, equal to 0.015 X 60 X 7 6.3 inches, 
and through the extremes draw parallels to 
the middle meridian, which will be the eastern 
and western inner neat lines of the chart. Find 
in the table the meridional parts for 21 O x , 
which are 1280.97 ; subtracting from this num 
ber the parts corresponding to 20 30 , and mul 
tiplying the difference by 0.015, we obtain 0.478 
inches, which is to be laid off from the parallel 
of 20 30 r on the verticals, and draw a straight 
line through the points thus established. Pro 
ceed in the same manner to lay off all the paral 
lels corresponding to full degrees of latitude. 

A degree of longitude will measure on this 
chart 0.015 X 60 = - 9 inches ; lay off on the 
extreme and middle parallels on each side of the 
middle meridian the distances 0.9 inches, 1.8 
inches, 2.7 inches, etc., determining the points 
where meridians of full degrees cross the paral 
lels on the chart, through them draw the merid 
ians. Draw the outer neat lines of the chart and 
extend to them the parallels and meridians. Be 
tween the neat lines subdivide the degrees of lati 
tude and longitude as minutely as the scale will 
allow. Subdivisions of longitude are found by 
dividing the degrees into equal parts, those for 
latitude being determined from the table, as ex 
plained for the full degree. L astly, draw the 
border-lines and a compass, graduated into points 
and quarter-points, from the magnetic meridian. 

The subdivisions between the parallels will 
serve for estimating distances. Distances be 
tween places bearing north and south of each 
other may be referred to the subdivisions between 
their parallels. Distances represented by lines 
at an angle to the meridians may be measured 
by taking a number of subdivisions near the 
middle latitude of the line to be measured in 
the dividers and applying them to that line. 

A chart may be transferred from any projec 
tion to the Mercator by drawing a system of cor 
responding horizontal and vertical lines on both 
charts, forming minute squares, and the outlines 
and characters contained in each square of the 
one may be copied in the corresponding squares 
of the other. 

The best trained eye and hand, aided by the 
most carefully constructed instruments, cannot 
render a chart perfect ; but this fact is no excuse 
for careless, hasty execution. 

The chart should be such that every portion of 
a sea-coast may be recognized without hesitation, 
and the best manner of approaching or avoiding 
it perceived and ports entered without the aid of 
a pilot in every state of weather, wind, and tide. 

Besides the outline of the shore, with soundings 



CHART 



124 



CHARTER 



and off-lying dangers and relative positions of 
the principal points, its character should be ac 
curately delineated. The extent of shoals, with 
the limits of the intervening channels, should be 
clearly shown and the sea-marks indicated, the 
directions expressed so tersely and simply that 
by the rapid opening or closing of the marks, and 
the sequence of the soundings, the mariner may 
be able to feel his way with decision and promp 
titude. 

The topographic portion of such a chart should 
be complete, containing all the principal features 
which are conspicuous from the offing and the 
relative positions of secondary objects. The 
table of signs and abbreviations employed at the 
United States Hydrographic Office gives the 
necessary information respecting hydrographical 
representations. 

For the purposes of the navigator the elabor 
ate systems of orographic representation are not 
necessary, and it is needless to discuss here the 
relative merits of the methods of Lehman, Du- 
four, and others. 

A judicious arrangement of light and shade, 
produced by increasing or diminishing the thick 
ness of the hachures and inclining them so as to 
give the general idea of the course taken by a 
drop of water, supposing it to flow from the sum 
mit to the foot of a declivity, gives a plastic 
effect and satisfies the eye. 

The title and other lettering on a chart should 
be executed in the plainest and neatest manner. 
Roman capitals are used for the principal titles, 
and other printing may be done in small Roman, 
Italics, and stump-writing. 

The grand division of sea or land to which the 
chart belongs should be stated, also the date of 
survey, and by whom made ; references to special 
plans that ma} r be included within the limits ; 
the longitude and prime meridian, or secondary, 
upon which the longitude depends ; the latitude ; 
the variation of the compass and its amount of 
annual change ; the plane of reference to which 
soundings are reduced, and whether soundings 
are expressed in feet or fathoms ; rise of spring 
tides at full and change of the moon, and curves 
of equal variation. 

Views of certain harbors and conspicuous ob 
jects are often drawn on the margins in Indian 
ink; in which case the bearings from the point 
of view should be given. 

The work of the draughtsman being complete, 
the chart passes into the hands of the engraver, 
and is transferred to the copper plate ; many 
months of careful labor must elapse before it is 
ready for printing and issue. 

Another method of reproducing charts has, 
from its economy and facility, been much used 
by the United States Hydrographic Office, and 
the camera has been utilized for this purpose. 
By photo-lithography a chart may be repro 
duced ; but this system lacks the clearness and 
accuracy of engraving, and it is not adapted to 
large extents. In preparing plans for this pro 
cess particular care is required in making with 
clearness all the details, and the scale should be 
somewhat larger than that intended for issue. 

Charts may be classed, according to their 
uses, under the following heads : Ocean, general, 
and coast charts, harbor plans, and physical 
charts. Various other charts are employed for 
scientific purposes, such as : 



Chart, Variation, a Mercator chart upon which 
are laid down curves representing the variation 
of the compass at those places through which 
they pass. Such a chart was first constructed by 
Dr. Halley, in 1700, with a view to finding the 
longitude. 

Chart of the Inclination, or Dip of the Mag 
netic Needle, containing curves expressing the 
amount of inclination, or dip of the needle, at the 
places through which they pass. The first chart 
of this kind appeared in England in 1721, and 
was published by Mr. Whiston in his treatise 
entitled " The Longitude and Latitude found 
by the Indinatory or Dipping Needle." 

Chart, Skeleton, or Track, blank sheets con 
structed on the Mercator projection for different 
latitudes, upon which the ship s track is to be 
plotted by the navigator during a cruise. 

Chart, Physical, showing the streams, cur 
rents, and drifts of the ocean, prevailing winds, 
and meteorological data compiled from the re 
cords of navigators, made during voyages at all 
seasons of the year in all parts of the world. 

Chart, Chorographic, a delineation of a par 
ticular country. 

Chart, Heliographic, a representation of the 
body of the sun and of the maculae, or spots, 
thereon. 

Chart, Selenographic, a representation of the 
moon and the spots on her disk. 

Chart, Telegraphic, a delineation of the tele 
graph on paper. 

Chart, Topographic, a minute and scientific 
delineation of a tract of country. In a military 
sense it may have particular reference to fortifi 
cations, camps, and the movement of troops. 

The charts published by the British Admiralty 
number over 2600, and are sold at prices varying 
from Gd. to 3s. each ; this is below their actual 
cost. 

In the financial year 1860-61 a sum of 11,000 
was provided for this branch irrespective of the 
surveying, which required a larger sum. The 
sale of these charts in five years numbered 
290,000 copies, besides the supply furnished the 
queen s ships. 

There are 866 charts published by the United 
States Hydrographic Office, and, with a view to 
encourage their general use, they are sold below 
the cost price. There are over ~ 700 charts pub 
lished by the United States Coast Survey Office. 
George P. Colvocor esses, Lieutenant U. S. Nary. 

Charter. To charter a vessel is to take her to 
freight under a charter-party (which see). 

CHARTERED SHIP. One let to hire to one or 
more exclusively, or to a company. A general 
ship is one loaded with the goods of persons not 
connected in interest. 

CHARTERER. The individuals, government, 
or company, hiring or chartering a ship. 

CHARTER-PARTY. -A contract of affreight 
ment in writing, by which the owner of a ship 
lets the whole or a part of her to a merchant for 
the conveyance of goods on a particular voyage, 
in consideration of the payment of freight. All 
contracts under seal were anciently called char 
ters ; they were divided into two parts, of which 
each party interested took one, and this was the 
meaning of the charta-partita. It was a deed or 
writing divided, consisting of two parts, like an 
indenture at common law. Lord Mansfield ob 
served that the charter-party was an old informal 



CHASE 



125 



CHERBOURG 



instrument, and by the introduction of different 
clauses at different times, it was inaccurate and 
sometimes contradictor} -. But this defect has 
been supplied by giving it, as mercantile con 
tracts usually receive, a liberal construction in 
furtherance of the real intention and the usage 
of trade. The charter-party describes the par 
ties, the ship, and the voyage, and contains, on 
the part of the owner, a stipulation as to sea 
worthiness and as to the promptitude with which 
the vessel shall receive the cargo and perform 
the voyage ; and the exception of such perils of 
the sea for which the master and ship-owners do 
not mean to be responsible. On the part of the 
freighter, it contains a stipulation to load and 
unload within a given time, with an allowance 
of so many lay, or running days for loading and 
unloading the cargo, and the rate and time of 
payment of the freight, and rate of demurrage 
beyond the allotted days. 

Chase. That part of a gun between the rein 
force and the swell of the muzzle. A ship which 
is being pursued by an enemy. When a ship is 
so built as to be able to fire several guns right 
ahead or right aft, she is said to have a good 
chase. To chase or to give chase, to pursue a ves 
sel. When the pursuer follows directly in the 
wake of the chase, it is a stern chase, which is 
said to be long but sure; each ship must depend 
entirely upon its speed, as there is little oppor 
tunity for manoeuvring and a shift of wind would 
affect them equally ; if the chaser have the 
superiority in speed there is little doubt but that 
the chase will be eventually captured. 

To chase in the wind s eye, to chase to wind 
ward. The chaser should persevere even though 
inferior in speed, as an accident, a shift of wind, 
or a lucky shot may give her an advantage ; on 
the other hand the chase should do her utmost 
to evade the pursuer, and to retard the time of 
being overtaken; as a fog, squall, shift of wind, 
darkness, or an accident to the chaser may enable 
the chase to escape. 

CHASE-GUNS. See CHASER, Bow (or STERN). 

CHASE-PORT. A port forward or aft, used for 
a chase-gun. 

CHASER. A vessel pursuing another. 

CHASER, Bow (or STERN). A gun so mounted 
as to fire nearly or directly ahead (or astern). 

Chasse Mafee (Fr.). A French coasting ves 
sel, generally lugger-rigged. 

Chat. A lazy fellow". A louse. A ship built 
on the Norwegian model. See CAT. 

Chatham, Chest of (Eng.}. An ancient in 
stitution, restored by Queen Elizabeth in 1590, 
for the wounded seamen of the Royal navy. It 
was supported by a tax on each man in the navy, 
according to amount of his pay. This tax was 
called smart-money. 

Chauncey, John S., Commodore U.S.N. 
Born in New York. Appointed from New York, 
January 1, 1812. 

Promoted to passed midshipman, 1821 ; sloop 
"Peacock," West India Squadron, 1822; in Au 
gust, 1822, engaged in thecaptureof seven piratical 
schooners off Bah i a Honda, Cuba, and a heavily- 
armed pirate-schooner by the boats of the " Pea 
cock" ; was ordered to command one of the 
prizes; the vessel was nearly decimated by yel 
low fever, thirty to forty deaths among the 
crew, and three or four lieutenants, himself the 
only midshipman remaining on dutyj ordered 



to schooner u Grampus," West India Squadron, 
as acting lieutenant, by Commodore Porter, 
1823; ordered to sloop "Ontario," as lieutenant, 
1824 ; Mediterranean Squadron, 1824-20. 

Commissioned as commander, September 8, 
1841; commanding sloop "Vandalia," West 
Indies, Home Squadron, 1843-45; inspector of 
ordnance, Washington, 1847-50. 

Commissioned as captain, September 14, 1855; 
commanding steam-sloop " Susquehanna," 1861 ; 
engaged at Forts Hatteras and Clark, as second 
in command, August 29 and 30, 1861 ; in com 
mand of the blockade of sounds of Virginia and 
North Carolina, September, 1861. 

Commissioned as commodore, July 16, 1862 ; 
inspector of ordnance, Reading, Pa., 1863; special 
service, court-martial duty, 1864-65 ; special 
service, navy-yard, New York, 18GG-67 ; retired 
1868 ; died 1874. 

Chaw. To chew. A quid of tobacco. 

CHAW-MOUTH. An opprobrious epithet. 

Cheat the Devil. One is said to cheat the 
devil when, instead of being profane, he makes 
use of such expressions as darn it, deuce take it, 
etc. 

Cheat the Glass. See FLOG THE GLASS. 

Chebacco-boat. A boat employed in the 
Newfoundland fisheries. 

Chebec. See CHEBACCO-BOAT. 

Check. To check a brace, bowline, etc., is to 
ease it off. To check the headway is to lessen the 
ship s progress through the water. To check a 
cable is to stop it from running out rapidly. 

Checkered Sides. Sides of a ship painted to 
show all the ports ; particularly applicable when 
there are two or more rows. 

Checking-line. A small line bent to the eye 
of the topgallant or royal lift and brace, and 
rove through a bull s-eye at the mast-head, to 
haul the lifts and braces in when the light yards 
are sent down. 

Cheek. Impudent assurance. The side of a 
gun-carriage. The side of a block. Generally, 
in any machine where there are two flat timbers 
or parts which are similar to each other, each 
timber is called a cheek. 

CHEEK-BLOCK. A block bolted to a mast or 
gaff, and having only one cheek, the mast or 
gaff forming the other side of the block. 

CHEEK-KNEES. Knees worked above and be 
low the hawse-pipes in the angle of the bow and 
cut-water, the brackets being a continuation of 
them to the billet or figure-head. 

Cheeks. An old sobriquet for a marine, de 
rived from a rough pun on his uniform in olden 
days. 

Cheer. To animate ; to encourage. To salute 
a person or ship by huzzaing. To cheer ship is 
to send the men in the rigging and salute a pass 
ing ship by cheering. It is forbidden by the 
regulations to give cheers to any officer on join 
ing a ship, while attached to her, or on being de 
tached from her. What cheer ? How fare ye ? 

CHEERILY. Heartily ; with a will. 

Cheese. A circular wad covered with canvas. 

Chelynge. An old name for the cod-fish. 

Cherbourg. A fortified seaport town and im 
portant naval station of France, department of 
Manche, on the English Channel, at the north 
end of the peninsula of Cotentin , about 85 miles 
west of Havre. Lat. 49 40 N. ; Ion. 1 35 W. 
Pop. 38,000. The principal buildings are the 



CHEREMERI 



126 



CHINE 



military and naval arsenals, hospitals, and bar 
racks. The commercial and naval ports are 
quite distinct from each other. The commercial 
port consists of a harbor and a basin, 1338 feet long 
and 416 feet wide. The basin communicates with 
the harbor by dock-gates, which prevent the re 
flux of the water. The channel from the harbor 
to the sea is 1968 feet long and 164 feet wide, 
lined by a granite quay with parapets. In this 
channel the depth of water is never less than 19 J 
feet. The Port Militaire and Arsenal de la Marine 
consist of a port 984 feet long and 754 feet wide, 
capable of containing 50 large ships of war, and 
accessible at all times of tide for vessels of the 
largest class ; a floating-basin closed by lock- 
gates, and a third basin. There are four slips 
for vessels of the largest size ; adjoining these 
slips is a dry-dock. The great work, however, 
for which Cherbourg is noted is the digue, or 
breakwater, stretching across the roadstead. The 
digue was commenced by Louis XVI., and 
finished in 1858. It is 2} miles from the harbor, 
in water varying from 40 to 65 feet deep. Its 
proportions are length, 4120 yards ; breadth at 
base, 262 feet ; at top, 102 feet. The entrance 
east of the digue is 3285 feet wide, and that to the 
west 9875 feet. A fort and light-house occupy 
the centre of the digue, and there are also light 
houses at each entrance to the roadstead, and 
one at the entrance to the commercial port. The 
defenses consist of the batteries of Fort National, 
of 100 guns, on the Isle of Pelee, and many other 
forts, which render Cherbourg, if not impreg 
nable from the sea, at least very difficult of at 
tack. 

Cheremeri. In the East, a bribe in making a 
contract or bargain. 

Cherry. A species of smelt or spirling in the 
Frith of Tay. 

Chesil. A term used for a bank of shingle. 

Chess-trees. Formerly, certain pieces of oak 
timber, fayed and bolted to the topsides, one on 
each side, abaft the fore-channels, which had a 
sheave fitted in the upper part, for the conven 
ience of hauling home the main tack. 

Chest. A box of wood in which articles are 
deposited; as, an arm-chest, a top-chest, etc. 
A sea-chest is generally capable of being taken 
apart and stowed in a small space. 

Chester (Pa.), on the Delaware River, 15 miles 
below Philadelphia. The celebrated ship-yards 
of John Roach, which give employment to 2500 
men, are situated here. Pop. 15,000. 

Chest-rope. Guess-rope, or guess-warp. 

Chevender. An old name for the chevin or 
chub. 

Chevil. See CAVIL. 

Chevron. The distinguishing stripes on the 
sleeves of non-commissioned officers of marines. 

Chevy. To shake or force with a shivering 
motion. 

Chewing Oakum, or Pitch. Said of a vessel 
which leaks from inefficient calking, or on ac 
count of the working of her timbers. 

Chicago (111.), a port of entry and the most 
important centre of commerce in the North 
western States, is situated at the mouth of the 
Chicago River, on the southwestern bend of Lake 
Michigan. Lat. 41 53 / 3" N. ; Ion. 87 37 30" 
W. The length of the city from north to south 
is from 7 to 8 miles, and its breadth from east to 
west about 5 miles ; area, about 36 square miles. 



It is divided by the Chicago River and its 
branches into three parts, the north, south, and 
west divisions, which are connected by 33 
bridges and 2 stone tunnels under the river-bed, 
one 1890 feet long under the main river, the 
other 1608 feet long, under the South Branch. 
Of these divisions the west is nearly double the 
size of the other two combined, embracing 15,104 
acres, while the north contains but 2533 acres, 
and the south 5363 acres. The imports into Chi 
cago during 1879 aggregated 19,000,000. The 
amount of duties received was $1,451,536. The 
exports reached the large sum of $10,000,000. 
The first shipment of wheat was made from Chi 
cago in 1839, and amounted to 1678 bushels. In 
1879 the receipts of grain of all kinds were 
138,154,571 bushels, while the shipments were 
121 ,094,000 bushels. Pop. 477,000. 

Chief. A familiar appellation for the senior 
engineer on board ship. 

Chief Officer, or Chief Mate. The first mate ; 
an officer of a merchant vessel next in rank to 
the master. 

Chief-of- staff. A line-officer who is attached 
to the flag-ship, and assists the commander-in- 
chief or flag-officer in the various details and 
arrangements for the management of the fleet or 
squadron. At present the duties of the chief-of- 
staif are performed by the commanding officer 
of the flag-ship. 

Chigre. A minute insect of tropical countries, 
which pierces th6 bottom of the foot and breeds 
there, producing great pain. See JIGGER. 

Chili. This comparatively small republic, 
which cast oif the Spanish yoke in 1810, now 
boasts a population of 2,000,000, an annual ex 
port trade of $19,000,000, and a revenue of 
$20,000,000. Its greatest enemies are its near 
neighbors, and to check them the state main 
tains a navy of 10 small steamers of 120 to 300 
horse-power, and 2 powerful ironclads. These 
two latter vessels are each 210 feet long and 45 
feet in breadth, of 2200 tons measurement, and 
of 2500 horse-power. The battery is amidship, 
and is armed with 6 12-ton rifled guns. The 
range of fire in both ships is peculiar, for al 
though they have the appearance of ordinary 
broadside ships, they are able, with the three 
guns on each side, to fire over all the points of 
the compass. This advantage was obtained by 
placing each of the fore-and-aft guns at the cor 
ners of the battery, and raising the side of the 
ship so as to enable the foremost guns to fire 
right forward and in a line with the keel, and 
in like manner the aft guns fire right aft. The 
corners of the batteries are made of an octagonal 
shape, so that the same guns which fire right 
forward and aft can be brought into the broad 
side position, and command any angle between 
them and the line of the keel. The midship 
guns on each side are made to fire with broad 
side, and also to support the fire of the forward 
guns. 

Chilled Shot. Shot which are rapidly cooled 
after being cast. They are very hard but brittle. 

Chimbe, Chime, or Chine. The ends of the 
staves which project beyond the head of a cask. 

CHIMBE AND CHIMBE. End to end ; as, casks 
or barrels. 

Chime in. To join in. 

Chinckle. A small bight in a line. 

Chine. To hollow out slightly. That part 



CHINESE NAVY 



127 



CHINESE NAVY 



of the water-way which is above the deck and 
hollowed out or beveled off to the spirketing. 
See CHIMBE. 

Chinese Navy, The. The Chinese navy dates 
back to a period before the foundation of the 
British navy was laid under the last two Henrys. 
The art of ship-building has a great antiquity in 
China. The junks of to-day, unaltered as they 
are from designs dating centuries back, will com 
pare favorably with the coasting craft of some 
Western countries now, and those in existence 
nearly three hundred years ago must have 
equaled in most respects and surpassed in many 
the barques, pinnaces, and caravals which sailed 
under the successors of Magellan and Andrade. 
The sea-going war-junks were often of large size, 
easily handled, and not bad sailers. Many of 
them had high bulwarks and pentagonal port 
holes. Guns were mounted only on the upper 
deck, frequently on immovable carriages, and 
the crews had but the most slender knowledge of 
gunnery. 

Early European travelers were often struck by 
the condition of the Chinese forces. Of the navy, 
one authority writes : " The greatest ships they 
have are called juncos, which are very great 
and are made for the wars, with castles very high 
in the poop and prore, like to the ships of the 
Levant. There are so many of these that it is 
easy for any general of the sea to join together 
in a little time a navy of from five hundred to a 
thousand of them." 

But from the early part of the 17th century 
onward, while progress in Europe was rapid, 
Chinese naval architecture remained stationary. 
When the British first came to blows with the 
Chinese nearly forty years ago, their army and 
navy were equipped in a manner which showed 
that but little advancement had been made since 
the middle of the 17th century. 

" In 1876 a naval yard was established near 
Shanghai, and though there are a few English 
men and Americans holding posts in it, the con 
trol of it is exclusively in the hands of native 
officials. Two steam-frigates of nearly 3000 tons 
measurement and five gun-vessels had been 
launched from it three years ago, and a small 
ironclad for river service completed. Of the fri 
gates one was in commission, and the writer, 
who has seen her actually at sea, was allowed to 
go over her when lying at anchor near Shanghai. 
She is a handsome craft, completely armed with 
Krupp guns. Her crew from the captain down, 
without exception, is composed of native China 
men. She did the Chinese credit in all respects. 
Attached to the dock-yard is a large military 
arsenal, in which are stored guns and small-arms 
of all descriptions, and in which projectiles for 
heavy and field guns and breech-loading rifles 
of the Remington pattern were being continu 
ously produced. Heavy machinery for the manu 
facture of armor-plates was being erected in a 
portion of the works. On the opposite bank of 
the river may be seen the great powder-factory, 
not long ago constructed for the manufacture of 
gunpowder of the European kind. 

" But perhaps the most marked instance of 
progress in this direction is to be observed at, or 
rather near, the treaty port of Foochow. Under 
the authority of the distinguished Tso-Tsung- 
Tang, M. Giguel, an officer of the French navy, 
began some twelve years ago to form a dock-yard 



on the Min Kiver, a few miles below the city 
just mentioned, which could be easily fortified. 
The extraordinary success which has attended 
his labors will be understood by some knowledge 
of the difficulties with which he had to contend. 
The very ground on which the navy-yard is 
formed had to be made. The soil was alluvial, 
formed by a thick layer of solidified mud covered 
with a coating of nearly liquid clay. In conse 
quence of the freshets in the river, the level of 
the ground had to be raised five feet. In spite 
of these and other disadvantages, M. Giguel, at 
the end of seven years, had iron-works, rolling- 
mills, engine-factories, and building-slips in 
fact, all the plant of a naval yard in full work 
ing order ; and had actually built the engines, 
and, in some cases, the armament for no less 
than fifteen vessels, of which eleven were over 
1000 tons displacement. Not only this, but a 
school for naval officers had been formed, and a 
training-ship, fitted to make cruises at sea, had 
been attached to the establishment. 

"Even this account of several great arsenals 
would not exhaust all that might be said in de 
scription of what has recently been done in China 
to increase the efficiency of the army and navy, 
which she has begun to consider necessary to her 
well-being." 

The Chinese do not rely entirely upon their 
own dock-yards constructors. In addition to the 
fleet of native production, they have recently 
had constructed in England a series of gunboats 
of the latest types, armed with the most improved 
and heaviest guns. 

In 1876-78 four gunboats were completed at 
the works of Sir William Armstrong for the 
Chinese government, of the British "Staunch" 
type, designed by a member of the firm, the 
talented engineer, Mr. G. W. Rendel, but in 
which several important improvements upon 
that type were introduced. These boats were 
named "Alpha," "Beta," "Gamma," and 
"Delta." The first two are each 118 feet long 
and 27 feet beam, with a mean draft of 7 feet 
6 inches, and a displacement of 319 tons. The 
last two are 120 feet between perpendiculars by 
30 feet beam, having a draft of 8 feet and a 
displacement of 400 tons. They are schooner- 
rigged, with tripod masts, are propelled by twin- 
screws, and can steam 9 knots per hour. 

But the increased dimensions of these last two 
vessels were of trivial importance compared with 
the difference in their armament ; for while the 
first two carry each a 26J-ton gun, the others 
carry each a 38-ton gun of the^British service 
pattern. The mounting of these guns on vessels 
of only 400 tons displacement was a most daring 
innovation, and its boldness becomes more ap 
parent when we remember that the only guns 
of the same weight and calibre then afloat were 
the two in the fore-turret of the great British 
ship "Thunderer," and that vessels of the size 
of these generally carried guns not exceeding 5 
or 6 tons in weight, and even the "Staunch," 
considered a serious innovation, a gun of only 
12J tons weight. 

The system of working these guns is notice 
able, the piece being so much heavier than those 
used in the English boats, and the little vessel 
herself being made to act as the gun-carriage. 
The gun is worked by hydraulic power, and the 
entire arrangement of the mechanism is similar 



CHINESE NAVY 



128 



CHOMMEKY 



to that employed by the Italians in working the 
100-ton gun at Spezia. Two heavy iron beams 
in the fore part of the vessel are placed side by 
side, on a level with the deck and parallel with 
the keel ; on these beams are bolted frames analo 
gous to the cross-head guides of a horizontal 
engine, and the trunnions of the gun are fitted 
in side-blocks, these last taking the place of the 
cross-head. Thus arranged, the gun can slide 
back and forth through a range of about three 
feet. The preponderance at the breech-end is 
supported by two secondary parallel bars inside 
the main gun-beams. These are hinged at the 
rear end, while at the forward end they are car 
ried on the cross-head of a vertical hydraulic 
ram fixed beneath the deck. The breech-end of 
the gun is supplied with a hoop and lugs; the 
lugs rest on the two secondary bars near their 
hinged ends, and thus, by causing the hydraulic 
ram to rise or fall, the gun can be elevated or 
depressed at will. No turning gear is provided, 
the lateral training of the gun being effected by 
turning the whole boat through the required 
arc by the use of the rudder and twin-screws. 
To run the gun in and out, two hydraulic cylin 
ders are used, one of which is fixed horizontally 
on each side-beam, the cross-heads of the rams 
taking hold of the trunnion side-blocks. The re 
coil is taken up by these rams, or, more property, 
pistons, delivering water under a weighted valve. 
The gun is loaded by a hydraulic rammer, the 
shot being brought to the muzzle by a trolley or 
carriage, off which it is pushed into the bore. 

During the trials of the " Gamma," the 38-ton 
gun was fired with charges consisting of 180 
pounds of powder behind an 800-pound projectile, 
the elevation being 3 degrees. The initial 
velocity was 1500 feet per second, and, as tested 
at Shoeburyness, capable of penetrating 19 
inches of iron in three thicknesses, sandwiched 
with 10 inches of teak. In addition to the heavy 
guns, two 12-pounders are also carried, and a 
machine-gun of the Gatling type. 

These vessels are iron-built, and each carries 
50 tons of coal and 50 rounds of ammunition. 
They all made successful passages to China, the 
first two being delivered at Foochow in 187G, 
and the last two at Tientsin in 1878. 

But the Chinese did not stop with the con 
struction of these four boats. Four more, built 
on the Tyne under the supervision of the Elswick 
firm, and armed each with a 35-ton gun of the 
Armstrong new type, sailed from England in 
July, 1879, for China. These boats, or " floating 
gun-carriages," are substantially of the same de 
sign and construction as those which have already 
been described. The most important difference 
is that they are built of steel instead of iron, and 
are double-ended, the stern and bow lines being 
after the same model, and are fitted with bow 
rudders, which enable them to steam either back 
ward or forward. The bulwarks have been 
heightened to give additional cover to the men. 

In addition to the vessels already described, 
there have also been built in England for the 
Chinese navy eight small gunboats, of from 100 
to 220 tons displacement, each carrying from 2 
to 7 guns. 

At the Foochow arsenal there have been built 
seventeen composite gunboats, each mounting 
one 7-ton or 9-ton gun with other light pieces, 
one composite corvette, carrying 11 guns, one of 



11 tons weight, and three transports. There are 
also the two wooden frigates and the five gun- 
vessels already mentioned as constructed at 
Shanghai. All of these vessels are now doing 
duty in southern waters. 

In addition to these gunboats, the Chinese 
have determined to still further equip themselves 
for coast defense by providing a supply of tor 
pedo-boats, and the first of the series proposed, 
an experimental boat, was shipped from England 
to China in August, 1879. Its dimensions are 
as follows: length, 52 feet; breadth, 7 feet; 
mean draft of water, 3 feet 6 inches ; maxi 
mum speed, 16 knots per hour. It is built of 
steel, is divided by six water-tight compartments, 
and is arranged to work three spar-torpedoes. 

The Chinese authorities have also taken the 
initiative step in the formation of an ironclad 
fleet, by ordering from Messrs. Mitchell & Co., 
on the Tyne, England, a double-turreted steel 
armor-clad, to have a speed of 16 knots, the ma 
chinery to be built by Hawthorne, of Newcastle. 

Chinse. To stop small seams by working in 
oakum with a knife or small iron when the searn 
will not bear the force required for calking. 

CHINSING-IRON. A light calking-iron. 

Chip. The triangular piece of wood attached 
to the log-Tine. See LOG. 

Chips. The familiar sobriquet of the carpenter 
on board ship. 

Chit. A note ; an I. O. U. In China they 
have a silver currency which being inconvenient 
to carry, credit is universally given by the mer 
chants, the purchaser giving a chit, which is pre 
sented for settlement at the end of the month. 

CHIT-BOOK. A book of printed forms for 
chits. 

Chiton. A mollusk with a many -jointed 
shell covering its back. 

Chiule. A Saxon ship. 

Chivey. A knife. 

Chock. Entirely ; quite; as, chock-full, chock- 
home, chock-aft, etc. A sort of wedge used to 
prevent a cask, or any other heavy body, from 
moving. Also, a small piece of wood fitted neatly 
into a larger piece of timber, in order to make 
good some deficiency in the main piece. Also, 
a piece sometimes placed between the head of 
the lower mast and the head of the topmast. 

CHOCK-A-BLOCK. See BLOCK-AND-BLOCK. 

CHOCK-CHANNELS. Channels with the spaces 
between the chain-plates filled in with wood. 

CHOCK OF THE BOWSPRIT. A wedge-shaped 
piece fayed to fit the hole above the bowsprit, 
after the bowsprit was shipped, in order to 
secure it. 

CHOCK or THE RUDDER. In former times 
a piece of timber fitted and kept in readiness to 
stop the motion of the rudder in the case of an} 
accident, and while a new tiller was being 
shipped. 

Chocolate-gale. A brisk N.W. wind of the 
West Indies and Spanish main. 

Chogset. See BURGALL. 

Choke. The nip of a rocket. To foul ; as, a 
rope in a block. To choke the luff, to thrust the 
hauling part of a tackle close up to the block, 
under the other parts, thus jamming the hauling 
part and keeping the tackle from rendering. 

Chokey. Inchokey, in jail ; in the brig. 

Chommery. Jack s word for chasse-marce, a 
French coasting-vessel. 



CHOP 



129 



CHRONOMETER 



Chop (Chinese). A permit, or clearance. 
Quality ; as, first chop, second chop, etc. A de 
vice or trade-mark. 

CHOP-BOAT. A licensed lighter employed ,in 
transporting goods. 

CHOP-DOLLAR. In China, when the silver 
dollar passes into a bank or large mercantile 
house it is tested and stamped ; in the course of 
time these impressions become so numerous that 
the piece of silver bears little resemblance to the 
original coin. From the resemblance which one 
of these coins bears to the face of a person badly 
marked with smallpox, the individual so marked 
receives the sobriquet of chop-dollar. 

Chop About. When the wind changes its 
direction suddenly it chops about. 

Chopping-sea. Tumbling waves dashing 
against each other. 

Chops. The junction of a channel with the 
sea ; as, the chops of the English Channel. 

Chow. See CHOW-CHOW. 

Chow-chow. A word from the Chinese, mean 
ing eatables. 

CHOW-CHOW CHOP. The lighter containing 
the articles which complete a ship s cargo. 

CHOW-CHOW WATER. Strong cross-currents 
and eddies in which vessels are difficult to 
manage. 

Chowder. A dish made of pork, biscuit, 
onions, etc., and fresh fish or clams. 

Chowder-head. A stupid fellow. 

Christening a Ship. The present system of 
"christening" ships may be considered a relic 
of the ancient libation practiced when they were 
launched. The action of "blessing" ships is 
alluded to by the monks of St. Denys. In July, 
1418, the Bishop of Bangor was sent to South 
ampton to "bless" the king s ship, the "Grace 
Dieu," and received 5 for his expenses. In 
the fleet commanded by John de Outremarins 
against the Tunisians, according to ancient cus 
tom and to insure success, the ships were blessed 
by the priests ; and being afterwards exposed to 
storms, the captains desired the soldiers and sail 
ors to invoke the Lord, and while they were at 
frayer the wind became suddenly favorable. In 
242, when Henry III. was at war with France, 
a fleet was prepared in which that monarch em 
barked, after visiting the shrines of many saints, 
to propitiate their influence against storms, and 
to insure success to his arms. Before the Refor 
mation it was usual for the priests at Yarmouth 
to give a blessing to the fishing-vessels yearly, 
and it was afterwards customary for the minister 
of the parish to preach a " fishing" sermon. 

Christian. A gold Danish coin. 

Christiania. The capital of Norway, situated 
at the head of the Christiania-Fiord, in lat. 59 
54 V N., Ion. 10 45 E. The fiord is frozen 
for two months of the year from about 20 miles 
from Christiania to the sea, and the harbor is 
generally locked up for three or four months. 
Pop. 100,000. 

Christiansand. A town of Norway, near its 
southern extremity, on a fiord of the Skager- 
Rack, 157 miles southwest of Christiania. Lat. 
58 8 N. ; Ion. 8 3 E. The harbor is deep and 
well sheltered, and is defended by several bat 
teries and by the fort of Christianholm, on the 
small island of Oddero, at the entrance of the 
harbor. Pop. 13,000. 

Christian s Gales. The fearful gales of 1795- 



96, which nearly destroyed a fleet under Admiral 
Christian while on his way to attack the French 
West India Islands. 

Chrockle. A thorough-foot (which see). 

Chronometer (Gr. chronos, time ; metron, a 
measure). A time-piece of superior construc 
tion, having adjustments and compensations for 
changes of temperature. The proposition to de 
termine the longitude at sea by means of a time 
piece and observation of the heavenly bodies 
was made by Gemma Frisius in 1530. In 1714 
the British government offered a reward of 
20,000 to the person who should so perfect this 
method as to determine the longitude within 30 
miles. In 1758 John Harrison received this re 
ward, his chronometer having shown an error of 
18 miles during a five months voyage. At the 
present day, under favorable circumstances, lon 
gitude determined by a chronometer can be relied 
upon to within two or three miles, and even this 
small error is due rather to the faults of observa 
tion than to the imperfections of the instrument. 
A sea-chronometer has for its moving-power a 
spring, the force of which is made uniform by a 
variable lever ; it is carried through all varieties 
of climate, and is therefore furnished with an 
expansion balance, formed by a combination of 
metals of different expansive qualities. 

In carrying a chronometer to and from the 
ship the gimbals are steadied by the stay, and 
care is taken not to give the instrument a circu 
lar motion. When on board, the chronometer 
is placed in a position not exposed to currents of 
air nor to sudden shocks, such as are occasioned 
by the striking of a sea against the side, or by 
the firing of salutes, etc., and metallic substances 
are kept at a distance from it. 

The chronometers in use on board ship are 
generally constructed to run for 56 hours, but 
they are wound every day at 8 A.M. In wind 
ing" it is handled carefully and the key turned 
steadily ; a pocket-chronometer is held immov 
able in one hand in order to avoid a circular mo 
tion. If a chronometer should run down, it is 
started by giving it a quick circular motion in 
the plane of the dial ; the hands are never 
touched. As no chronometer is absolutely per 
fect, the navigator ascertains its error and makes 
allowance for it. Three chronometers are sup 
plied to government vessels, and they are com 
pared with each other every day ; a sudden 
change in one will be shown by the other two. 

CHRONOMETER, ERROR or. The error of the 
chronometer is the difference between the time 
indicated by it and any other given time. The 
error is fast or slow as the chronometer is in ad 
vance of or behind the time in question. Before 
sailing the navigator must know the error of 
his chronometer. It can be determined in a 
variety of ways, the most reliable, of which is a 
comparison of the chronometer with the clock of 
an observatory. The general use of time-balls 
renders the clocks of the observatories available 
to everybody. In our ports the time at noon is 
always received at the telegraph-offices from the 
naval observatory at Washington. If unable to 
compare the chronometer with the clock of an 
observatory, the error is found by means of a 
sextant and an artificial horizon, either by a 
time-sight of the sun or star, or by equal alti 
tudes of the sun or star. 

CHRONOMETER, RATE or. The rate is the daily 



CHUB 



130 



CIKCLE 



change of error ; it is gaining when the chro 
nometer is running too fast ; losing if too slow. 
The rate is determined by finding the error on 
different days, and dividing the change of error 
by the number of days elapsed between the ob 
servations. On arrival at the first port after the 
beginning of a cruise, the navigator will gener 
ally find that the error of his chronometers, as 
shown by an observation or by comparison with 
an astronomical clock, does not coincide with the 
error shown by the rate obtained before sailing. 
By dividing the difference between this new error 
and the error on the day of sailing by the num 
ber of days elapsed a new rate is obtained, which 
is called the sea-rate, and thereafter is always 
made use of when at sea. 

Chub. The Leuciscus cephalis, a fresh-water 
fish. 

Chuck. A sea-shell. See CHOCK. 

Chuckle-head. A stupid fellow; a lubber. 
A person with a large round head. 

Chunam. A cement used in the East for the 
seams of ships. It becomes very hard, and when 
of good quality will take a polish. 

Chunk-block. A strongly-made block, having 
a metal sheave and a large swallow. 

Church. To riff church, to arrange the seats, 
altar, etc., for divine service on board ship. To 
unrig church, to clear up the decks after service. 

Chute, or Shoot. A pipe or channel for con 
veying ashes, refuse matter, and other articles 
down to a lower level. 

Cigar-boat. A peculiar boat shaped like a 
spindle, constructed by Winans. 

Cingle. A belt worn by sailors. 

Cinque Ports, The. These are five highly 
privileged stations, the once great emporiums 
of British commerce and maritime greatness ; 
they are Dover, Hastings, Sandwich, Komney, 
and Hythe, which, lying opposite to France, 
were considered of the utmost importance. To 
these were afterwards added Winchelsea, Rye, 
and Seaford. These places were honored with 
peculiar immunities and privileges, on condi 
tion of their providing a certain number of ships 
at their own charge for forty days. Being ex 
empted from the jurisdiction of the admiralty 
court, the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is 
authorized to make rules for the government of 
pilots within his jurisdiction, and in many other 
general acts exceptions are provided to save the 
franchises of the Cinque Ports unimpeached. It 
is a singular fact that it has never been legally 
determined whether the Downs and adjacent 
roadsteads are included in the limits of the Cinque 
Ports. All derelicts found without the limits 
by Cinque Port vessels are droits of admiralty. 
This organization was nearly broken up in the 
late state reforms, but the Lord Warden still 
possesses some power and jurisdiction. 

Cipango. A marvelous island described by 
Marco Polo, and represented as lying in the east 
ern seas, 1500 miles from the mainland. It was 
an object of diligent search with Columbus and 
the early navigators. It is supposed by some to 
be the same as Japan. (Written also Lipangi.} 

Circinus. The Roman compass. See CON 
STELLATION. 

Circle. A plain figure bounded by a curve, 
every point of which is equally distant from a 
point within it. The line bounding a circle. 

CIRCLE, ASTRONOMICAL. A reflecting instru 



ment for measuring angles, in which the limb is 
a complete circle of metal ; as, the mural circle, 
reflecting circle, repeating circle, etc. 

CIRCLE, DIURNAL. The diurnal circle of a 
heavenly body is the circle it describes in the 
apparent daily revolution of the celestial sphere. 
It is the parallel of declination passing through 
the body ; only when the body is in the equinoc 
tial is it a great circle. At the equinoxes the 
sun s diurnal circle is the equinoctial ; at the 
summer and winter solstices, its diurnal circle in 
the heavens corresponds to the tropics of Cancer 
and Capricorn on the surface of the earth. 

CIRCLE, HOUR. A great circle of the celes 
tial sphere perpendicular to the equinoctial, and 
therefore passing through the poles of the heav 
ens. See CO-ORDINATES FOR THE SURFACE OF 
A SPHERE. 

CIRCLE OF ALTITUDE, DECLINATION, LATI 
TUDE. In the different systems of co-ordinates 
for the surface of the celestial sphere, it is the 
common practice to regard the secondary great 
circles as ordinate circles to the primitive, and 
they are hence named after that one of the co 
ordinates which is measured upon them. Thus, 
the great circles which are ordinate circles to the 
horizon are called Circles of Altitude, because al 
titudes are measured upon them ; the great cir 
cles which are ordinate circles to the equinoctial 
are called Circles of Declination, because declina 
tions are measured upon them ; and the great 
circles which are ordinate circles to the ecliptic 
are called Circles of Latitude, because latitudes 
are measured upon them. Under a different 
system of nomenclature these are severally called 
Circles of Azimuth, Circles of Right Ascension, 
and Circles of Longitude, See CO-ORDINATES 
FOR THE SUR FACE OF A SPHERE. 

CIRCLE. OF A SPHERE. A circle on the sur 
face of a sphere ; when its plane passes through 
the centre of the sphere it is a great circle ; in all 
other cases it is a small circle. 

CIRCLE OF AZIMUTH, RIGHT ASCENSION, 
LONGITUDE. In the different systems of co 
ordinates for the surface of the celestial sphere, 
some writers allow the conception of polar co 
ordinates to predominate, and thus regard the 
secondary great circles as sweeping out angles 
at the pole ; they therefore name them after that 
one of the co-ordinates which is marked out by 
them. Thus, the great circles passing through 
the poles of the horizon are called Circles of 
Azimuth, because they each mark out all points 
which have the same azimuth ; the great circles 
passing through the poles of the equinoctial are 
called Circles of Right Ascension, because they 
each mark out all points which have the same 
right ascension ; and the great circles passing 
through the poles of the ecliptic are called Cir 
cles of Longitude, because they each mark out 
all points which have the same longitude. Under 
a different system of nomenclature these are sev 
erally called Circles of Altitude, Circles of Decli 
nation, Circles of Latitude. See CO-ORDINATES 
FOR THE SURFACE OF A SPHERE. 

CIRCLE OF ILLUMINATION. Approximately 
one-half of the earth s surface is always illu 
minated by the sun, while the opposite* hemi 
sphere is in the shade. The great circle which 
at any instant is the boundary between the illu 
minated and darkened hemispheres is called the 
Circle of Illumination. 



CIRCUIT 



131 



CLARK 



CIRCLE OF PERPETUAL APPARITION. A cir 
cle within which the heavenly bodies are always 
above the horizon. 

CIRCLE OF PERPETUAL OCCULTATION. A 
circle within which the heavenly bodies are al 
ways below the horizon. 

CIRCLE, POLAR. The polar circles are small 
circles of the terrestrial sphere, parallel to the 
equator, and 23 28 distant from the poles. The 
northern is the arctic, and the southern the ant 
arctic circle. 

CIRCLE, VERTICAL. A great circle passing 
through the zenith ; the prime vertical passes 
through the east and west points of the horizon. 

Circuit. A continuous electrical communica 
tion. A metallic circuit is one in which a return 
wire is used. To short circuit a battery is to 
connect its poles by a conductor whose resistance 
is practically zero." 

Circular. An official letter, generally printed, 
copies of which are sent to several persons. 

Circulating Pump. A pump used in connec 
tion with surface-condensers for circulating the 
refrigerating water through or among the tubes. 
It may be driven either directly by the recipro 
cating parts of the main engine, or by the inter 
vention of beams or levers, or by an independent 
engine. In the latter case rotary pumps are 
much used. The refrigerating water is drawn 
through a pipe passing through the side or 
bottom of the vessel, and discharged, after 
having done its work, through another pipe, at 
or near the load water-line. Both of these pipes 
can be closed at the ship s side by valves called, 
respectively, the " injection valve" and the " out 
board delivery valve." A branch suction-pipe, 
controlled by a valve, leads to the bilge, afford 
ing powerful means of freeing the vessel of 
water in cases of extraordinary leakage. See 
CONDENSER. 

Circummeridian (Lat. circum, about). About 
or near the meridian. Circummeridian altitudes 
are taken when the body is near the meridian. 
See ALTITUDE. 

Circumnavigate. To sail round; to pass around 
by water. 

Circumpolar. Situated about the pole. 

Cirripedia. A group of marine animals, allied 
to the Crustacea. They are free and natatory 
when young, but in the adult state attached to 
rocks or some floating substance. They are pro 
tected by a multivalve shell, and have long cili 
ated curled tentacles, whence their name (curl- 
footed}. The barnacles (Lepas) and the acorn- 
shells (Balanus) are familiar examples. 

Cirro-cumulus. See CLOUD. 

Cirro-stratus. See CLOUD. 

Cirrus. See CLOUD. 

Cisco. A fish of the herring kind, of which 
thousands of barrels are annually taken and 
salted in Lake Ontario. 

Cit. A citizen. 

CITS. Citizen s clothing. 

Citizen. In the United States, a person, native 

or naturalized, who has the privilege of voting 

for public officers, and who is qualified to fill 

offices in the gift of the people. (See ALIEN, 

NATURALIZATION.) The word is often used to 

distinguish a person engaged in civil pursuits 

from members of the military and naval services. 

City of Masts. A name applied to London 

in allusion to the magnitude of its commerce. 



Civil. The civil time, day, year, is that reck 
oning which is adopted for the social purposes 
of life. See TIME, DAY, YEAR. 

Civil Engineer. See ENGINEER, CIVIL. 
Civil Lord (Eng.). The junior member of 
the admiralty board. 

Civil War. A war between subjects of the 
same realm, or between factions of the same 
state. 

Civita Vecchia. A seaport city of Italy, on 
the Mediterranean, 38 miles by rail W.N.W. of 
Rome. Pop. 11,640. The port, which owes its 
origin to the Emperor Trajan, is one of the best 
in Central Italy. Two large moles form the 
harbor, and a breakwater outside protects the 
shipping from heavy seas; a light-house is 
erected on its southern end. Lat. 42 5 N. ; 
Ion. 11 45 E. The harbor has depth of water 
for vessels of 400 or 500 tons, and ships of greater 
draft may anchor inside the breakwater. The 
city has regular steam communication with the 
chief Mediterranean ports. 

Clake. A name for the barnacle goose (Anser 
bernicla], and also for the Lepas anatifera, a 
cirriped often found attached to vessels or tim 
ber by a long fleshy peduncle. 

Clam. A well-known bivalve shell-fish of 
different genera ; as, the Venus mercenaria, the 
Mya arenaria, and others. As happy as a clam 
at high water, a figurative expression for indolent 
comfort. 

Clamber. To ascend ; to climb. 

Clamps. The strakes of plank on which the 
deck-beams rest. 

CLAMP-NAILS. Nails used to fasten the clamps. 

Clang. The rattling and clashing of arms. 

Clap. A burst of sound ; as, a clap of thunder. 

CLAPPER. The tongue of a bell. 

Clap-match. A sort of seal distinct from the 
fur-seal. 

Clap On. To clap on to a rope is to lay hold 
of it in order to haul upon it. To clap on a 
stopper is to put on a stopper ; stop talking. To 
clap on canvas, to make more sail. 

Clap-sill. The lockage of a flood-gate. 

Clark, Ezra W., Chief of U. S. Revenue 
Marine. Born at Granville, Licking Co., O., in 
1839, his father being Rev. Ezra W. Clark, for 
about forty years a clergyman of the Baptist 
Church in Ohio. After receiving a rudimentary 
education he was, at the age of twelve years, 
apprenticed to the printing business. Having 
acquired this trade he was prepared for college 
at Lima, N. Y. Subsequently he pursued the 
study of Mathematics with Prof. Aaron Schuy- 
ler, president of Berea College, 0. He attended 
college at Otterbien University, in Ohio. He 
studied law with Hon. John K. Hord, of Tiffin, 
O. In April, 1861, he entered the Union army, 
and was a private soldier and subsequently a 
captain in the 8th Regiment Ohio Vols. Later, 
he was adjutant of the 34th Ohio infantry ; was 
appointed assistant adjutant-general of volun 
teers by President Lincoln in 1863; served as 
such in the army of West Virginia, and was 
assistant adjutant-general of a cavalry division 
under Gens. Hunter and Sheridan in the cam 
paigns of 1864. He was afterwards transferred 
to the staff of Maj.-Gen. W. S. Hancock, and 
became assistant adjutant-general of the Mid 
dle Military Grand Division, headquarters at 
Washington, D. C., and was transferred to Bal- 



CLARTY 



132 



CLASSIFICATION 



timore with Gen. Hancock when the latter as 
sumed command of the Middle Department. In 
the beginning of 1866, the war heing over, he 
left the army and entered the legal profession. 
He was admitted to the bar of the Supreme 
Court of the District of Columbia, and after 
wards to the bar of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. In 1871 he was appointed assist 
ant chief of the revenue marine, and, with Mr. 
S. I. Kimball, participated in the reorganiza 
tion of the revenue marine service and the life- 
saving service. He was appointed chief of the 
revenue marine July 1, 1878. In addition to his 
duties in charge of this bureau, he is a mem 
ber of the examining board of the Treasury De 
partment, to examine applicants for admission 
and promotion to clerkships in the Department ; 
also a member of the board designated by the 
Secretary of the Treasury to consider all matters 
pertaining to Alaska. 

Clarty. Wet; slippery; dirty; sticky. 
Clary, Albert G., Commodore U.S.N. Born 
in Massachusetts. Appointed, 1832 ; attached to 
sloop " Vincennes," Pacific Squadron, 1834-36; 
Naval School, New York, 1837. 

Promoted to passed midshipman, July 8, 1839 ; 
sloop "Marion," Brazil Squadron, 1839-42; re 
ceiving-ship, Boston, 1843-45. 

Commissioned as lieutenant, April 11, 1845; 
sloop " Preble," Home Squadron, during the war 
with Mexico, at Tuspan and Tabasco; sloop 
" Preble," Pacific Squadron, 1847-50 ; receiving- 
ship, Boston, 1852; sloop "Marion," coast of 
Africa, 1853; frigate "Constitution," coast of 
Africa, 1854-55; navy-yard, Portsmouth, N. H., 
1856-57 ; steam-frigate " Minnesota," East India 
Squadron, 1858-59; steam-frigate "Colorado," 
1861 ; commanding steamer " Anacostia," Poto 
mac Flotilla, 1861 ; engagement at Acquia Creek, 
May 31 and June 1, 1861 ; battle of Port Royal, 
November 7, 1861. 

Commissioned as commander, July 16, 1862 ; 
commanding steamer " Mount Vernon," North 
Atlantic Blockading Squadron, 1862; command 
ing steamer "Tioga," West India Squadron, 
1863; commanding steam-sloop "Dacotah," 
North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, 1864; 
commanding steam-sloop "Seminole," West 
Gulf Blockading Squadron, 1864-65 ; command 
ing receiving-ship, Norfolk, 1866. 

Commissioned as captain, November 21, 1866 ; 
commanding "Dictator," 1870-72. Commis 
sioned as commodore, 1873 ; retired, 1874. 
Clashy. Showery. 

Clasp-hook. A clip-hook (which see). 
Class. A group of objects, animate or inani 
mate, which possess common characteristics. A 
number of students of the same standing, or 
who are pursuing the same studies. 

Classification of Men-of-War. First-rates 
will comprise steamships of 4000 tons displace 
ment and upward ; ironclad steamers of 300C 
tons measurement and upward; ships-of-the- 
line commissioned for sea-service. 

Second-rates will comprise steamships of 200( 
to 4000 tons displacement ; ironclad steamers of 
2000 to 3000 tons measurement; frigates (sail 
ing) commissioned for sea-service. 

Third-rates will comprise steamships of 900 t 
2000 tons displacement; ironclad steamers of 
1200 to 2000 tons measurement ; sloops-of-wa: 
(sailing) commissioned for sea-service. 



st Class. 



2d Class. 
3d Class. 



French 
Veritas. 
3.3 1.1 

5.61.1 



Fourth-rates will comprise steamships below 
500 tons displacement, dispatch- vessels, and 
tore-ships. 

Whenever a vessel is commissioned as a re- 
ieiving-ship, her rate will be decided by the 
tfavy Department. 

Classification of Merchant-vessels. 

American British 

Lloyd s. Lloyd s. 

1st Grade 1st Class. A 1 A 1 
2d " " Al- 

3d " " A \y, " 

1st Grade 2d Class.. A l]Z- A 1 (in red) 5.6 2.1 

2d " " A 2 *JE I (in red) " " 

1st Grade 3d Class.. A 2- 2& 1 3.4 2.1 

2d " A. 2\^> -ZE 2 2.3 2.2 

The degrees of first and second class will 
mply confidence for the transportation of per 
ishable cargoes on long voyages. The degrees 
of third class will not imply confidence for the 
conveyance of cargoes in their nature subject to 
sea damage. 

The classification of shipping depends upon 
the quality and dimensions of materials used, 
the equalization of strength in their distribution 
in scarfs, laps, and butts, with mode and extent 
of fastening. Model and manner of construction 
must accord with the best practice of ship-build 
ing, for all grades. The sparring must be in 
good proportion, and all equipments efficient. 

The frame, head, and heels of timber must be 
square, and free from sap or decay ; the timber 
well seasoned, salted or pickled when in pro 
gress of construction ; ventilation preserved fore 
and aft ; and a water-course made on under side 
of floors to admit the water to the pumps. 

The frames must be of white oak, the principal 
timbers of live-oak or other timber of equal du 
rability, and the tops of frames mixed with red 
cedar, hackmatack, locust, or white-heart chest 
nut. The butts must be distributed out of line ; 
the timber scarfs not less than 4 feet 6 inches 
long; the floor timbers extending well towards 
the ends of the ship; the heels of the cants 
stepped in the dead-wood and bolted through 
with copper ; the wing and main transom well 
kneed and connected to the frames. 

The keel must be sided of sufficient size to 
admit of twice the thickness of the outside plank 
between rabbets on stem and stern-post, the rab 
bets to extend as far as practicable, to admit of 
fastening the wood ends thereto. The heel of 
stem must be a crook, and stepped in a hooked 
scarf on the keel, and not less than 3 feet 6 
inches long. The stern-post must also be stepped 
in the keel. 

Natural crooks are preferred for rising floors 
and second futtocks. The siding of timbers must 
be in proportion from floor-heads to heads of 
top-timbers ; the distance at centres for all ves 
sels of 800 tons and under must not be over 26 
inches, and vessels over that tonnage not over 
30 inches. 

The keelson must be sided not less than size 
of keel, and the scarfs not less than 7 feet long ; 
if single keelson, the shifts of scarfs to be at 
least one-third the length of the stick from the 
end of the scarf of the keel. In rider keelson the 
scarfs must not be less than six feet long ; assist 
ant keelson, if adopted, to be well bolted to first 
futtocks and to main keelson. The scarfs must 
be distributed so as not to be under the heel of a 
mast. 

The beams must be of oak or yellow pine of 



CLASSIFICATION 



133 



CLASSIFICATION 



sufficient size and 6 feet from centres, except 
for hatchways, and securely fastened to the side 
by knees carefully fitted to the timber, natural 
crooks. The lodge- and bosom-knees must be 
of oak or hackmatack. Seasoned oak or hackma 
tack is preferred for hanging-knees ; vessels of 
200 tons are required to have a hanging-knee of 
wood or iron under each end of each alternate 
beam ; if over 200 tons, to have a hanging-knee 
under each beam, the arms of good length, not 
less than 3 feet 6 inches ; the knees to be fas 
tened with through bolts driven from outside 
and clinched overlings, in addition to the blunt 
bolts driven from the inside, and each hanging 
knee must be keyed to the beam. 

The breasthooks and pointers must be square- 
fastened, one-third of the bolts driven from the 
outside through the timbers and clinched over 
rings on the inside, and all blunt bolts must be 
driven within one inch of through. Copper or 
composition bolts must be driven through the 
apron and inner stern-post not over 20 inches 
apart and clinched over rings of the same mate 
rial on the outside. Copper or composition bolts 
must be driven through the dead-wood 20 inches 
apart, passing through the heels and scarfs of 
stern and stern-post and clinched over rings on 
the outside and lower side of keel. 

Spar-deck water-ways must be fayed to the 
beams and timbers, the scarfs vertical, and at 
least three planks next the water-way must be 
one inch thicker than the adjoining plank, and 
alternately let one inch into and one inch over 
the beams and carlines, the edge bolted through 
water-ways and timbers, and clinched. The main 
and inner water-ways on lower decks must be 
cogged to the beams with locust, bolted through 
each beam and clinched, and bolted from outside 
through each timber and clinched over rings. 
The clamps and inside planking must be of good 
length, the clamp-scarfs to be hooked or keyed, 
arranged to suit the timbers, and in length not 
less than five times the length of the plank. The 
ceiling must be of good quality, the butts prop 
erly shifted, the whole square- fastened, and the 
edges beveled to good calking seams. In all 
cases the nibs of the butt-scarfs must be one- 
third the width of the planks, and reach the 
frame forward and abaft of their centres. 

The outside planking must be of white oak or 
yellow pine, and fit closely to each other on the 
inside. The garboard streaks must be, at least, 
from 3 to 1J inches thicker than the rest of the 
covering. No butts in any part of the planking 
must be nearer than 5 feet of each other, un 
less there be a streak wrought between them, 
when a distance of 4 feet will" be the minimum ; 
all butts on the same timber must have 3 streaks 
between. Vessels under 200 tons are exempt 
from the full operation of this rule. 

Deck-planks must be of white or yellow pine 
of best quality, and not less than 30 feet in 
length ; no planks to be over 5J inches wide and 
3 inches thick, and fastened with two copper 
spikes in the butt of each plank ; rail-scarfs must 
be hooked or keyed, and in length 5 times their 
width. Stanchions under deck-beams must be 
of oak or pitch-pine. 

Garboards, first and second, must be bolted to 
the floors with copper or composition driven 
through each frame and clinched, and edge 
bolted through keel and each other in addition 



to treenailing. All bolts going into the timber 
must be driven within one inch of through, and 
the plank, well wrought to the timbers with 
copper or composition spikes, must be square- 
fastened with locust treenails of best quality 
driven through and wedged, outside and in ; 
when the plank is 6 inches wide, then to be tree- 
nailed single and double in each frame; when 
10 inches, to be square-treenailed. Each plank 
must be fastened with at least one headed copper 
or composition bolt driven through the first 
frame and aft the butt, and clinched over rings 
on the inside of ceiling. 

Each alternate floor must be fastened to the 
keel with a copper bolt driven from above and 
clinched on the under side of the keel. The inter 
mediate floors must be fastened with a copper bolt 
driven through the main keelson and clinched 
on the under side of the keel. If a " rider keel 
son" is added, it must be fastened with one iron 
bolt in each floor through the rider to within 
one inch of the lower part of the keel. The ver 
tical bolting in the assistant keelsons to be driven 
through the first futtocks. 

In calking, the seams must be well filled with 
oakum thread, 50 feet to the pound, and at least 
one thread to each half-inch of the thickness of 
the plank. 

Ships exceeding 5 times their breadth in length 
should be iron strapped diagonally. 

The timber used in all vessels must be free 
from sap and decay. The stem above the fore 
foot must be of one piece, or if scarfed, the scarf 
must be above light-water line. Stern-post 
must be of one piece. Scarfs of keel not to be 
under a mast. Bilge streaks to correspond to 
tonnage. Vessels of 800 tons and over should 
have a heavy stringer under the lower knees. 

Channel-bolts must be driven through the 
frames and ceiling and clinched or keyed. The 
partial fastenings of ceiling and outside planking 
must be complete before the treenail holes are 
bored, and care should be taken not to split the 
plank in driving the treenails. The pumps of 
vessels must correspond to their tonnage, and be 
so distributed that they may free the ship from 
water at any time or inclination ; the pump-well 
must be accessible at all times. Vessels when 
wormed will not be classed until defects are re 
moved. All vessels must have anchors, cables, 
boats, compasses, charts, leads, lead-lines, etc. 
Vessels trading to ports beyond the Cape of 
Good Hope or Cape Horn must have two suits 
of courses, topsails, jibs, spankers, and fore-top 
mast stay-sails, and be metal sheathed within one 
foot of load-line. Other vessels* should carry a 
spare topsail and fore-topmast stay-sail. 

Vessels having two decks should have scup 
pers through the water-ways of lower deck. Ves 
sels transporting dry cargoes should have their 
masts coated. Vessels over-sparred or deficient 
will not receive classification. Vessels whose 
bowsprits step below the spar-deck, or whose 
hawse-holes are cut below the spar-deck, are 
subjected to a lower classification. 

New vessels are to be surveyed while building 
at the following stages : when the keel and keel 
son are united ; when the frame is raised and the 
keelson in ; when the deck frames are complete ; 
when treenailed and butt and bilge bolted ; when 
masted and fully equipped. When old vessels 
are examined for classification particular atten- 



CLASSIFICATION 



134 



CLASSIFICATION 



tion is directed to the state of the upper and 
main deck and coamings ; the upper and lower 
deck bolts ; the knees, beams, plank-shears, and 
water-ways ; the hawse timbers, breast-hooks, 
aprons, transoms, floor, and keelsons; the rudder, 
keel, windlass, planking, and treenails; the 
frame exposed, and inner surface of planking. 
A listing should be taken out of the ceiling 
above flopr-heads ; also, a short plank taken out 
uiider each tuck, and at such other places as may 
seem necessary. The sheer and general line of 
the ship, and the condition of the oakum and 
calking, are examined. 

Requirements for Grades of Classification. 
Vessels properly constructed and equipped class 
A 1 for 12 years ; if opened and bored at the 
expiration of that term and found sound, the 
class is continued for such a period as the sur 
veyors may determine. 

When vessels are built with floors of oak, birch, 
and beech, futtocks and top-timber of oak and 
hackmatack, covering of oak, scantlings of good 
size, and materials and workmanship first-class, 
they will receive the A 1 class 9 years, at the ex 
piration of which, if found sound, the class will 
be continued for 3 years. 

When vessels are built of mixed woods, such 
as birch, beech, elm, hackmatack, fir, pine, hem 
lock, spruce, etc., the treenails through ceiling 
and wedged outside and in, with butt bolts in 
plank, and all other parts fastened sufficiently, 
and deck frames secured by lodge- and hanging- 
knees, they will receive class A 1 8 years. 

Ships with depth of hold exceeding 23 feet will 
be required to have orlop-beams, secured with 
horizontal and hanging knees ; when exceed 
ing 25 feet, to have three full decks. Single- 
decked vessels, with depth of hold exceeding 12 
feet, to have partner-beams and secured with 
knees and masts wedged in partners. 

Single-decked vessels, when built of standard 
materials, with depth of hold not exceeding 11 
feet, the fastenings in accordance with the rules 
set forth, will receive the same class as double- 
decked vessels; when built of other materials, 
they will be classed in accordance with quality 
of materials and construction. 

Centre-board vessels of superior construction, 
with oak frames and coverings, all fastenings 
first-class, moderately sparred, and the centre 
board trunk well secured, will class A 7 years ; 
when built inferior to this grade, they will be 
classed in accordance with quality of build. 

Vessels having their centre-boards taken out 
will be required to have the floor timbers run 
across to meet the second futtocks, and chocks 
put in to meet the first futtocks. 

When vessels are rebuilt or thoroughly re 
paired, they will bo restored to original character 
if the materials used are equal to the original. 

IRON VESSELS. The classification of iron ves 
sels depends on the quality of iron, mode of con 
struction, dimensions of plating, frames, and 
angle-iron, the distribution of scarfs and butts, 
etc. 

Neither steam- nor sailing-vessels must ex 
ceed seven times their breadth in length ; the 
latter to have two bulkheads, and the former not 
less than four, and secured with angle-iron equal 
in size to that of frames ; the distance of frames 
at centres must not exceed 20 inches. 

The keel, stern, and stern-post must be of solid 



iron, the scarfs to be in length eight times the 
thickness of the material. Propeller-posts are 
required to be in thickness double that of keel, 
and to taper off along the line of keel ; the whole 
to be well united. 

Floor-plates must be fitted closely to the keel, 
riveted to every frame, and extend across the 
stern-post and above the bilges, that the sides 
may be properly connected. The depths of 
plate must be one-twelfth the depth of hold, 
measured from top of keelson to upper deck 
beams ; and a water-course to be preserved to 
admit the water to the pumps. A reduction in 
size of plates will be allowed towards the ends of 
the vessel. 

The keelson must be two-thirds the depth of 
floor-plates, and extend to stem and stern-post, 
and be connected thereto ; the butts must be 
properly shifted, well fitted, and riveted to floor- 
plates. Angle-iron must be fitted on top and 
bottom of vertical plating, and riveted to the 
reversed angle-iron on top of floors. Additional 
keelsons are required for vessels of 800 tons or 
over. 

The frames must be of the greatest possible 
length, the butts well shifted and fitted closely 
to the keel. The frames, if welded, must be per 
fect, and the whole strengthened with reverse 
angle-iron. All vessels must have double frames 
to above the bilges. 

The beams must be one-quarter of an inch in 
depth for each foot of length of midships beam. 
The angle-iron must be of good size, the two 
sides of each not less in breadth than three- 
fourths the depth of beam-plate. The beams to 
be all well connected to the frames with bracket 
ends of knee-plates equal in thickness to beams, 
and the arms to be three times the depth of 
beams. 

In vessels having three decks, the beams must 
be over each other, and stanchioned where prac 
ticable ; the orlop-beams must be fastened to 
every sixth frame, and have stringer-plates and 
angle-iron. on their ends fore and aft. Vessels 
of 20 feet depth must have the same number 
of hold and deck beams. A depth of hold of 16 
feet must have beams to every fourth frame, and 
secured with knee-plates and to stringer-plate at 
under side. 

All vessels must have stringer-plates on each 
tier of beams, connected at ends with angle-iron, 
and also to frames and outside planking. The 
clamps must be equal in dimensions to the 
stringers, and riveted to each frame. The tie- 
plates must be well riveted to each other, and to 
beams, hooks, and transoms, and the butts well 
shifted. When the deck arrangement will admit 
of it, all vessels are to have diagonal tie-plates. 
The hatchways, mast-holes, and partners must 
be strongly framed and secured with angle-irons 
and carlines. 

All butts must be double riveted, and the 
plating closely fitted to the frames and to each 
other, and no plate less in length than 5 spaces 
of frames ; a reduction in length and size of 
plating will be allowed toward the hood ends. 
The edges and butts must be well fitted and 
water-tight, the butts well supported to receive 
the plating, and united by straps of the same 
thickness as the plating, with the fibres of each 
in the same direction. The frame must have 
solid filling or lining pieces, closely fitted in one 



CLAW OFF 



135 



CLEVELAND 



length of the same breath as frames. In screw- 
vessels no reduction in plating towards the ends 
is allowed. 

Rivets must be of the best quality of iron, the 
rivet-holes equally spaced and carefully punched, 
and to be countersunk through the outer plating. 
The rivets must be at least their diameter from 
the edge of plating, lining pieces, or any angle- 
irons, and distant from each other 4 times their 
diameter ; all edges of horizontal joints of out 
side plating must be double-riveted throughout. 

The main piece of the rudder must be of 
wrought iron. The ceiling must be of a superior 
quality, in thickness from 2 to 3 inches, and 
secured so as to be detached when required. 

The decks and water-ways must be equal in 
thickness to wooden vessels of corresponding 
tonnage, and fastened with screw-bolts two in 
each plank, in every beam, the water-ways fas 
tened with screw-bolts, and secured at under side 
of stringers. 

Bulkheads must be made water-tight where 
ties, stringers, or screw-shafts pass through, 
closely fitted between two frames at each side, 
and riveted through them, the whole well sup 
ported by angle-irons 30 inches apart, and riv 
eted together and to the floors, beams, and 
frames, etc. A pump must be fitted to each 
compartment. Iron vessels are required to have 
the same equipments as wooden vessels of cor 
responding tonnage. 

STEAM-VESSELS. The classification of steam- 
vessels depends on the construction of the hull 
and the character and condition of machinery. 

In the construction no departure from .the 
standard rules will be admitted. The scantlings 
and dimensions must be regulated in proportion 
to capacity, to insure longitudinal strength. 
The floor must be filled in solid as high up as 
the turn of the bilge. The frame must be diagon 
ally iron strapped from the floor-heads to the 
upper deck beams, and bolted to each timber ; and 
when double laid, riveted in each timber room. 

There must be water-tight bulkheads, 30 to 50 
feet from stem and stern, to reach at least two 
feet above deep load-line, which must be well 
secured to strong stanchions on the after-side. 
Steam- vessels engaged in the transportation of 

Cjengers are required to have sufficient life- 
ts. Steam-vessels navigating the ocean or 
coast, are required to have a sufficient spread of 
canvas to make a port in case of derangement 
of machinery. All steam- vessels bottoms are to 
be examined annually, and are required to be 
opened for inspection at the expiration of 5 years, 
to ascertain the condition of their frame. 

Sea-going steamers of standard construction, 
and having sufficient canvas to make port in 
case the machinery is disabled, rate A 1*. 

Sea-going steamers with but little canvas, 
rate A 1. 

Steamers constructed for navigating sounds, 
lakes, and rivers, rate A 1 to A 2. 

Claw Off. To work to windward from a lee 
shore ; particularly when the operation is per 
formed under difficult circumstances. 

Clayborne, William. A surveyor by pro 
fession. Authorized by the rulers of Virginia 
to discover the limits of Chesapeake Bay, he 
pursued his investigation with great ardor be 
tween the 34th and 41st degrees of latitude, in 
1625. A company having obtained the royal 



license to trade with the Indians, Clayborne was 
placed at the head of an expedition, and leaving 
England with a number of persons disposed to 
settle in Virginia under his government, he 
planted a colony on Kent Island, in Chesapeake 
Bay. 

Cleaching Net. A hand-net with a hoop and 
bar, used by fishermen. 

Clean. Free from danger ; as, a clean coast, 
a clean harbor, etc. In general parlance it 
means quite, entirely. 

CLEAN BILL OF HEALTH. See BILL OF 
HEALTH. 

CLEAN DONE. Adroitly tricked ; purpose 
well effected. 

CLEAN-FULL. Rap full ; applied to the sails. 

CLEAN OFF THE REEL. When the ship is 
going so fast as to take the log-line off the reel 
without its being fed to her, she takes the line 
clean off the reel. The expression is used for 
anything that is done without stop or hindrance. 

CLEAN SHIP. A whale-ship unfortunate in 
her trip, having no fish nor oil. 

Clear. A word applied to many different ob 
jects, and its signification is generally opposed 
to foul. To clear a rock, vessel, or point, to get 
by it without touching. To clear a time-glass, 
to let all the sand run out of one end. To clear 
a rope, to remove any obstruction to its running 
freely. To clear a lighter, to discharge its cargo. 
To clear goods, to pay duties and go through the 
formalities required by the custom-house officials. 
To clear is to present the proper documents and 
receive permission of the proper authorities to 
sail. To clear the decks is to send or drive the 
men off from them. To clear up the decks is to 
lay up the ropes and put everything in its place. 
The weather clears up when the clouds break 
away, and there is a prospect of a return of fine 
weather. To clear away a rope is to let go the 
end of it. To clear for action, to prepare for 
battle. To clear the land, to gain such a distance 
from the land as to have plenty of sea-room. 

CLEARANCE. A document from the custom 
house certifying that the ship has cleared ; per 
mission to sail. 

CLEARING THE DISTANCE. The operation of 
deducing the true from the apparent lunar dis 
tance. 

CLEAR WATER. Water free from obstruc 
tions, as ice, rocks, etc. 

Cleat. A piece of wood or metal bolted to the 
side or deck to which a rope is belayed. Cleat is 
also the name given to a wedge-like piece of 
wood nailed on a spar to keep the rigging from 
slipping in or down. To cleat an object is to 
nail cleats against it to keep it from slipping. 

Clench. See CLINCH. 

Clerk. A civilian appointed by the officer 
who is entitled to his services ; as, captain s and 
paymaster s clerk. He is required to be at least 
18 years old, and to serve until regularly dis 
charged. A clerk is a steerage officer, but the 
captain s clerk sometimes messed with the com 
manding officer, in which case he was not en 
titled to quarters in the steerage. The com 
manding officer is not now entitled to a clerk, 
his di ties being performed by one of the junior 
officers attached to the vessel. 

Cleveland, a port of entry and second city of 
Ohio, is situated on the south shore of Lake 
Erie, at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, 



CLEW 



136 



GLITZ 



which flows through the city, affording a fine 
sheltered harbor, to which has been added a 
commodious ship-channel 200 feet wide, flanked 
by two piers extending 1200 feet into the lake. 
A harbor of refuge, commenced in 1878, is also 
in course of construction by the U. S. govern 
ment, extending from a point northerly from 
the west pier, and running west by south to the 
lake-shore. The work is under the supervision 
of an army engineer, and is estimated to cost 
$1,800,000. Lat. 41 30 5" N. ; Ion. 81 42 / 6" 
W. Pop. 160,000. 

Clew. The combination of nettles by which 
a hammock is suspended. The ordinary clews 
are plaited for a short distance below the ring 
or eye ; Spanish clevis are served without being 
plaited ; triangular spans and iron rings have 
been used to give spread to hammocks, but they 
do not give satisfaction. One of the lower cor 
ners of a square-sail, or the after lower corner of 
a fore-and-aft sail. From clew to earing, liter 
ally, the diagonal of a square-sail ; figuratively, 
from top to bottom ; entirely ; as, to shift one s 
clothes from clew to earing. A clew up, a case 
of despair. To clew down, to haul on the clew 
lines and force a yard down. To clew up, to run 
the clews of a sail up to the yard. 

CLEW-CRINGLE. A, cringle in the clew of a 
sail to which the sheet is bent. In our service 
clew-irons, or spectacle-irons, are used instead of 
rope cringles. 

CLEW-GARNET. A rope by which the clews 
of the courses are run up to the lower yards. 

CLEW-GARNET BLOCK. A large, single, iron- 
bound block at the slings of the lower yards, to 
act as a leader for the clew-garnet. Also the 
block at the clew of the sail through which the 
clew-garnet reeves. 

CLEW-IRON. The iron shackle in the clew 
of a sail to which the sheet is bent. The 
iron is galvanized, and has two eyes with thim 
bles inserted ; the round shape of the iron and 
the position of the two eyes give it the appear 
ance of a pair of spectacles; hence the name 
spectacle-iron, which is sometimes applied to it. 
The objection which is sometimes made to the 
use of clew-irons is that they may iron-mold the 
canvas. They are stronger than rope and when 
galvanized do not rust for a long time, and when 
the sail is worn out they may be galvanized 
afresh and put in a new sail. They are univer 
sally used in the navy. 

CLEW-JIGGER. A temporary purchase for 
hauling up the clews of courses and topsails 
forward of and above the yard ; they are not 
used at sea. The fore clew-jigger is also used as 
the inner halliards of the lower stun sail, and 
both fore and main clew-jiggers are used as reef- 
tackles. 

CLEW-LINE. A rope by which the clews of 
all square-sails except courses are run up to their 
yards. 

CLEW-LINE BLOCK. The block at the clew 
of a topsail through which the clew-line reeves. 
Formerly, the quarter-block was called a clew 
line block. 

CLEW-ROPE. The roping at the clew of a sail. 
A rope leading from the clew of a trysail to the 
jaws of the gaff. 
Click. A small pawl. 

Cliff. A precipitous termination of the land. 
See CRAG. 



Clinch. A kind of hitch, in which the end 
of a rope is taken around the standing part and 
seized to its own part. In the inner clinch the 
end is inside of the other part, and in the outer 
clinch the end part is outside. The seizings are 
called bends. To clinch a rope is to secure the 
end of it by means of a clinch. To clinch a bolt 
is to rivet the end of it over a ring or plate. To 
clinch a bargain is to settle it beyond further dis 
pute. 

CLINCH-BOLT. A bolt, the end of which is 
turned over by hammering. 

CLINCHER. An incontrovertible argument. 

CLINCH-NAILS. Nails made of malleable 
metal, as copper, wrought iron, etc., whose 
ends may be turned back. 

Clinch-built. See CLINKER-BUILT. 

Clincher-built. See CLINKER-BUILT. 

Clincher-work. See CLINKER-WORK. 

Clinker-built. A term to denote that the 
planks of a boat overlap. When the plates of 
iron vessels overlap they are distinguished as 
lap-jointed. See CLINKER- WORK. 

Clinker-work. Lap-jointed work. A mode 
of building in which the lower edge of each 
plank laps over the upper edge of the plank next 
below. This method of building is employed in 
boats of light construction, and sometimes in iron 
ships. 

Clinton, George, Admiral. Governor of New 
York, September, 1743-October, 1753. Died 
governor of Newfoundland, July 10, 1761. 
Youngest son of Francis, sixth earl of Lincoln. 
Appointed commodore and governor of New 
foundland, 1732. Subsequently appointed gov 
ernor of New York. His want of skill in civil 
affairs peculiarly exposed him to the tumults and 
commotions of colonial government. In his 
controversies with the assembly Golden, after 
wards lieutenant-governor, was his champion 
with the pen ; his chief opponent being Horse- 
mander. Clinton afterwards became governor 
of Greenwich hospital ; in 1745 became vice- 
admiral of the red, and admiral of the fleet in 
1757. 

Clip-hook. A hook composed of two parts 
moving on the same pivot. When hooked and 
moused these two parts form a solid hook, and 
cannot beseparated until the mousing is removed. 

Clipper. A long, low, sharp, fast-sailing 
ship. 

CLIPPER-BUILT. Built on the model of a 
clipper. 

Glitz, John M. B., Rear-Admiral U.S.N. 
Born in New York, March 10, 1823. Appointed 
from Michigan, August 12, 1837 ; attached to 
sloop "Ontario," West India Squadron, 1838- 
42; Naval School, Philadelphia, 1843. 

Promoted to passed midshipman, June 29, 
1843; sloop " St. Mary s," Mediterranean Squad 
ron, 1844-45; sloop " Falmouth," Home Squad 
ron, 1845-46 ; bomb-brig " Hecla," Home Squad 
ron, 1847; capitulation of castle of San Juan 
d Ulloa and capture of Tuspan ; steamer " Pe- 
trita," Home Squadron, 1847-48 ; frigate " Cum 
berland," Mediterranean Squadron, 1849-51. 

Commissioned as lieutenant, April 6, 1851; 
Coast Survey, 1851-52; steam-frigate u Missis 
sippi," East India Squadron, 1852-55; special 
duty, Washington, 1856; sloop "Decatur," Pa 
cific Squadron, 1858-59; steam-sloop " Iro- 
quois," 1861. 



CLIYE 



137 



CLOUD 



Commissioned as commander, July 16, 1862 ; 
commanding steamer " Penobscot," North At 
lantic Blockading Squadron, 1863 ; commanding 
steam-sloop "Juniata," East Gulf Blockading 
Squadron, 1863; commanding steamer "Osce- 
ola," North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, 
1864-65 ; at both attacks on Fort Fisher ; navy- 
yard, Boston, 1866. 

Commissioned as captain, July 25, 1866 ; com 
manding steam-sloop " Pawnee," South Atlantic 
Squadron, 1868-69; ordnance duty, navy-yard, 
New York, 1870; commanding "California" 
(second-rate), Pacific Fleet, 1870-72. 

Commissioned as commodore, December 28, 
1872 ; commanding naval station, Port Royal, 
S. C., 1876-77; light-house inspector, 1878-80; 
commissioned as rear-admiral, 1880; under or 
ders to command East India Squadron. 

Clive. An old spelling of cliff. 

Clock, Astronomical. A pendulum clock of 
superior construction and specially adapted for 
astronomical observations. It is adjusted to 
show sidereal time, and indicates O h O m s when 
the first point of Aries is on the meridian. It is 
regulated by observing with a transit instrument 
the meridian passage of the heavenly bodies. 
The astronomical clock furnishes the best means 
of rating a chronometer. 

CLOCK, MEAN SOLAR. A clock which indi 
cates mean solar or civil time. See TIME. 

CLOCK, SIDEREAL. A clock which indicates 
sidereal time. See TIME. 

CLOCK-STARS. A name for the nautical stars 
(which see). 

Clock-calm. Dead calm ; not a breath of 
air stirring. 

Clod-hopper. A clownish landsman. 

Close. Near. To draw near. 

CLOSE ABOARD. Near the ship. 

CLOSE BUTT. A shipwright s definition of a 
close butt is, a butt of a half-way piece either in 
the outside planking or the deck of a vessel, not 
intended to be calked. Before this piece is put 
into position the seams and the butts of the said 
half-way pieces are made tight or close for ap 
pearance only. 

The calker s definition of a close butt is, one 
that cannot be properly calked without cutting, 
whereas a proper open butt involves no extra 
expense, and leaves a smooth edge for the forma 
tion of a perfect oakum wedge. 

CLOSED PORT. An interdicted or blockaded 
port. 

CLOSE-FIGHTS. See CLOSE-QUARTERS. 

CLOSE-FISTED. Stingy ; penurious. 

CLOSE HARBOR. An artificial harbor with an 
entrance which may be opened and closed at will. 

CLOSE-HAULED. The situation of a ship when 
her yards are braced up sharp and she is sailing 
as close to the wind as possible. The after-yards 
should be braced in a little more than the head- 
yards, and the upper yards a little more than the 
one next below, in order that the after-sails may 
lift before the sails on the fore, and the light 
sails before the courses and top?ails. The helms 
man steers by the weather-leech of the upper sail 
on the main. 

CLOSE PACK. See PACK-ICE. 

CLOSE PORT. A port which lies up a river, in 
contradistinction to an out-port. 

CLOSE-QUARTERS, or CLOSE-FIGHTS. In olden 
times heavy bulkheads or barricades, fitted with 



loop-holes, were erected, and the crew retreated 
to this place when they were unable to drive the 
enemy s boarders back. The fight was then 
carried on from inside the barricade. The term, 
which was then confined to these hand-to-hand 
combats, is now applied to a fight at short range 
between ships. 

CLOSE-REEF. The last reef in a sail. 

CLOSE-SIGHT. The notch in the base-ring of 
old guns. 

CLOSE TO THE WIND. As near the wind as 
possible without causing the sails to lift. 

CLOSE WITH. To approach ; as, to close with 
an enemy. 

Cloth. A general term for the sails of a ship. 
Canvas is wove in cloths or breadths, and the 
width of a sail is denoted by the number of 
cloths it contains. 

CLOTH IN THE WIND. Too near the wind ; 
sails lifting. Also, half intoxicated. 

Clothed. The lower masts are said to be 
clothed when the courses have a great deal of 
drop. A ship is clothed with canvas when she is 
carrying all sail. 

Clothes-line. A system of parallel lines on 
wnich the men s washed clothes are stopped to 
dry. The harbor-lines extend from the bowsprit 
to the spanker-boom, and are triced well up to 
the lower yards. The sea-lines extend from the 
main to the mizzen rigging. 

Clothing. The rigging of the bowsprit. To 
clothe the bowsprit, to rig it. 

Cloud. Clouds are masses of visible vapor or 
watery particles suspended in the atmosphere. A 
cloud, motionless or nearly so, lying at or near 
the surface of the earth, receives the name of 
haze, mist, or fog, according to its density. The 
term scud is applied to loose vapory fragments 
of clouds driven by the wind. 

The formation and height of clouds vary with 
the amount of vapor in the air, the course and 
height of air-currents, the climate, season, tem 
perature, extent of sea and land, and the height 
of the land. Cloud-strata in mountains vary 
from 1600 to 3400 feet. Remarkable cloud-rings 
prevail over the calm zones of the equator, and 
over those of the tropics of Cancer and Capri 
corn. Kaemtz regards the usual height of cir 
rus to be 10,000 to 24,000 feet ; cumulus, 3000 
to 10,000; nimbus, 1500 to 5000; but cirrus 
may descend to 2000 or 3000 feet, and nimbus 
to within a few hundred feet of the earth. 

Clouds moderate the sun s rays during the day 
and the earth s radiation at night; they are the 
source of moisture required by plants ; of the 
water for springs, lakes, and rivers ; and of the 
polar, glacial, and winter snows. 

The scale adopted for indicating the amount 
of cloud is to 10, denoting a clear sky, 5, a 
sky half covered, and 10, the sky overcast or 
wholly obscured. 

In 1802, Howard proposed the following classi 
fication of clouds, which has been universally 
adopted : cirrus, cumulus, stratus, cirro-cumu 
lus, cirro-stratus, cumulo-stratus, and cumulo- 
cirro-stratus, or nimbus. 

Cirrus, or curl-cloud, consists of streaks, wisps, 
and fibres. It is the highest and least dense of 
clouds ; varies most in extent and shape ; retains 
longest its outlines ; and is illuminated longest 
after sunset and before sunrise. Cirrus seems to 
arise from the mixing of parallel air-currents, or 



CLOUD 



138 



CLUBS 



are the relics of dissolving clouds drawn out by 
the wind. Cirrus being so high must consist of 
minute snow-crystals, whose refractions and re 
flections produce the halos, coronse, and mock 
suns and moons almost restricted to this cloud, 
and its derivatives, the cirro-cumulus and cirro- 
stratus. 

Cumulus, day-, or summer-cloud, consists of 
dense, convex, hemispherical, or conical heaps 
of cloud piled or stacked on each other. Cumulus 
begins after sunrise as a few scattered specks in 
the clear sky ; these specks increase and unite to 
form clouds, which sometimes cover the whole 
sky in the afternoon, and generally decrease and 
vanish about sunset. The tops of these clouds 
become cirrus in very dry air. 

Stratus, fall-, or night-cloud, the lowest of 
clouds, is a widely extended horizontal sheet of 
varied thickness. It is common in summer and 
autumn from sunset to sunrise, and is densest 
about midnight. After sunrise it generally rises 
from the ground, breaks up into cumulus, and 
vanishes with the increasing heat; sometimes 
it accumulates in layers and becomes nimbus. 
Stratus does not wet objects which it touches, 
and thus differs from a variety, cirro-stratus, Of 
like external aspect. 

Cirro-cumulus, or sonder-cloud, is composed 
of well-defined, small, rounded patches, or 
woolly irregular tufts at great heights. It often 
has the appearance of flocks of sheep at rest 
(" sheep in a meadow"), and is commonly known 
as the " mackerel sky." It may vanish or pass 
into cirrus or cirro-stratus. It often occurs in 
warm dry weather. 

Cirro-stratus, or vane-cloud, consists of long 
thin layers with undulated edges. It often as 
sumes a barred appearance, or resembles a shoal 
of fish. The cloud partakes of the nature of the 
cirrus and stratus. In distinguishing it, atten 
tion must be paid not so much to the form as to 
the structure, which is dense in the middle and 
thin towards the edges. 

Cumulo-stratus, or t wain-cloud, is a cirro- 
stratus mixed with cumulus heaps, or a wide, 
flat base surmounted by a bulky cumulus with 
fleecy protuberances. It is much denser than 
cumulus, though the air is not dry enough to 
round off sharply its tops. It often forms vast 
banks with overhanging masses, and is common 
towards night in windy weather, when it has a 
leaden hue. It generally arises from cumulus, 
and tends towards nimbus. 

Nimbus, or cumulo-cirro-stratus, the rain- 
cloud, is a mixed system of clouds, ending in 
rain, snow, or hail. It is a dense, continuous, 
horizontal block, or gray sheet, with fringed 
edges, a cap of cirrus, and cumulus on the sides 
and below. Before rain, vast towering masses of 
cumulus often pass on to cumulo-stratus, which, 
increasing in density, darkness, and extent, be 
come nimbus capped with cirro-stratus. 

In Admiral Fitzroy s system there are four 
primary classes of clouds, viz. : cirrus, stratus, 
nimbus, and cumulus. He combines these 
words to describe the intermediate modifications, 
and renders the terms more explanatory by the 
use of the terminations onus and itus; as, cirro- 
nus, cirritus, cirrono-stratus, cirrito-stratus, etc. 
See WEATHER. 

CLOUDS, MAGELLANIC. Two nebulae situated 
near the south pole. 



Clout. A blow. A gore of blood. A chaf- 
ing-plate on the arm of the axle of a wooden 
gun-carriage. 

CLOUT-NAILS. Nails with which piles and 
ships bottoms were studded before the introduc 
tion of copper sheathing. 

Clove-hitch. Two half hitches, in which the 
end parts come out parallel with, and opposite 
to, each other. 

Clove-hook. See CLIP-HOOK. 

Cloy. To spike (which see). 

Club. To drift down a current with an anchor 
out. Vessels drifting in this manner generally 
have a spring from the quarter to the ring of the 
anchor, by which they can be sprung broadside 
to the current. The objection to this manoeuvre 
is the probability of fouling the anchor. 

To club a feet is to mano3uvre so as to place 
the first division to windward. 

Clubbock. The spotted blenny, or gunnel 
((jrunellus vulgar is). 

Club-haul. In clawing off a lee shore when 
there is no room to wear, and therefore an abso 
lute necessity for going about without running 
the risk of missing stays, the ship is club-hauled. 
The lee anchor is got ready for letting go, and a 
hawser is bent to it and taken to the lee quarter. 
Proceed as in tacking ; if she goes around, so 
much the better. If, however, it is evident that 
she will not go round, let go the anchor when 
the headway ceases, and brace around the after- 
yards. When she swings to the anchor the wind 
will be ahead or perhaps a little on what was the 
lee bow. Haul in the hawser and make it fast ; 
veer chain, and when the hawser has the strain, 
slip the cable; when the after-sails fill, brace 
around the head-yards and cut the hawser. This 
manoeuvre is attempted only when absolutely 
necessary, as it results in the loss of an anchor, 
and a part of a cable and hawser. 

Clubs, British Service. At every important 
naval and military station of the British empire 
are to be found service clubs, whose members 
are officers on duty at those places, but the lead 
ing British service clubs are in London, and we 
give them according to their date of formation. 

The Guards Club, 70 Pall-Mali, was founded 
in 1813 for the officers of the three regiments of 
Guards. January 1, 1880, it contained 357 mem 
bers. The entrance fee 1s 30 guineas, and the 
yearly subscription 10 guineas. 

The United Service Club, 116 Pali-Mall, was 
founded in 1815 for senior officers of the army, 
navy, and marine corps ; the limit is major in the 
army and marines and commander in the navy. 
January 1, 1880, it contained 1550 members. 
The entrance fee is 40, and the yearly subscrip 
tion 7 guineas. 

The Junior United Service Club, Charles 
Street, St. James Square, was founded in 1827 
for officers of all grades in the army, navy, ma 
rines, and militia. January 1, 1880, it contained 
2000 members. The entrance fee is 40, and the 
yearly subscription 7 guineas. 

The Army and Navy Club, 36 Pall-Mall, was 
founded in 1838 for officers of the armj-, navy, 
and marines of all grades. January 1, 1880, it 
contained 2342 members. The entrance fee is 40 
guineas, and the yearly subscription 10 guineas. 

In 1838, Sir Edward" Barnes and other officers, 
just arrived from India, finding that from the 
lists of candidates for the United Service and 



CLUBS 



139 



COAL 



Junior United Service Clubs it would be sev 
eral years before they could obtain admission, 
concluded to start an Army Club, and asked the 
Duke of Wellington to be the president. He 
declined unless the navy and marines were ad 
mitted. That being agreed to it was founded. 
The Duke of Wellington was the first president. 
He was succeeded by the Duke of Cambridge. 
At the death of the latter the present Duke of 
Cambridge was elected, and is still the president. 
The club occupied temporary quarters in King 
Street, St. James Square, until the present build 
ing was completed, in 1854. 

The Naval and Military Club, 94 Piccadilly, 
was founded in 18C2 for officers of the army, 
navy, and marines of all grades. January 1, 
1880, it contained 2000 members. The entrance 
fee is 35 guineas, and the yearly subscription 8 
guineas. 

The Junior Army and Navy Club, 12 Grafton 
Street, was founded in 1871 for officers of all 
grades of the army, navy, and marines. Jan 
uary 1, 1880, it contained 800 members. The 
entrance fee is 10 guineas, and the yearly sub 
scription 7 guineas. 

The Koyal Artillery and Engineers Club, 3 
Pali-Mall East, was founded in 1873 for officers 
of the artillery and engineers. January 1, 1880, 
it contained 400 members. There is no entrance 
fee, and the yearly subscription is 3 guineas. 

The Junior Naval and Military Club was re- 
founded in 1879 at 27 Dover Street, Piccadilly, 
for officers of all grades of the army, navy, ma 
rines, and militia. It was established first, in 1875, 
as a proprietary club on Pall-Mall , but the fail 
ure of the proprietor in 1879, and other causes, 
the principal one of which was to eliminate ob 
jectionable members, caused it to be re-estab 
lished at the present address. January 1, 1880, 
it numbered over 500 members, and no limit was 
fixed. The entrance fee was nil, and the yearly 
subscription 8 guineas. 

The East India United Service Club, 14 St. 
James Square, was founded in 1847 for officers 
of all grades in the East India service, both 
military and naval. January 1, 1880, it con 
tained 1200 members. The entrance fee is 30 
guineas, and the yearly subscription 8 guineas. 

The United Service, Junior United Service, 
and Army and Navy Clubs occupy perfect pal 
aces, which were built especially for them. The 
Naval and Military occupy the house of the late 
Lord Palmerston, and their proximity to Hyde 
Park and outlook on Green Park gives them 
the finest location in London. They have been 
recently doing up their club-house, which com 
pares well with the first three mentioned. They 
have a long lease on the club-house, whereas the 
other three mentioned own the buildings, and 
two of them the ground. 

The Guards own their club-house, the others 
lease the buildings. The appointments of all 
the service clubs in London are first-class. The 
cuisine is the best, the servants who wear the 
club liveries are attentive, polite, and well trained. 
Every comfort of a home is to be found in them, 
and some who live in London merely take lodg 
ings near their clubs, where they spend unoccu 
pied time. The rules and regulations of the ser 
vice clubs are strict and enforced, yet so framed 
as to be a protection to the individuality of each 
member. Socially, they rank at the head of the 



ninety-odd London clubs, and expulsion from 
them, as well as other London clubs, means a 
social disgrace. The number of candidates for 
admission is always large, and generally five to 
seven years elapse between proposal and election. 
In the Army and Navy Club, which always has 
a large list, as long as twelve years occasionally 
happens ; their average is about eight to ten 
years. 

Military and naval attaches of foreign govern 
ments, and also the diplomatic corps, are honor 
ary members, while in Great Britain foreign 
officers can also be elected as such for three 
months and extension by the club committee, 
provided they are regularly proposed and sec 
onded. The oldest club in London is White s, 
founded in 1730. The diplomatic club is the 
St. James , 106 Piccadilly. The leading social 
club is the Marlborough, on Pail-Mall. Officers 
of the army and navy are eligible to election at 
nearly all the London clubs. Gambling is strictly 
prohibited at all the London service clubs ; for 
any games the limits of the wager are fixed at a 
small amount. The experiments of a ladies and 
gentlemen s club are tried successfully at the 
Albemarle, 25 Albemarle Street, and the Kussell, 
316 Regent Street. 

There are no exclusively service clubs in 
France. French officers in garrison towns gen 
erally make one of the cafes a resort similar to a 
club. There is a navy club at Cronstadt, in 
Russia, and the Guard s Club at St. Petersburg. 
H. T. Stockton, Lieutenant U.S.N. 

Clue. See CLEW. 

Clump-block. A short, thick, single block 
with a metal sheave. 

Clutch. A forked stanchion. The oyster- 
spawn adhering to stones, oyster-shells, etc. 

Cluttery Weather. Weather inclined to be 
stormy. 

Co. An abbreviation of complement; as, co- 
latitude, co-sine, etc. 

CO-ALTITUDE. The complement of the alti 
tude, or the zenith distance. 

CO-DECLINATION. The complement of the 
declination, or the polar distance. 

Coach, or Couch (06s.). An apartment in 
& large ship-of-war near the stern was formerly 
called a " coach." The floor of it was formed by 
the aftermost part of the quarter-deck, and the 
roof of it by the poop. It was generally the 
habitation of the captain. 

An apartment before the captain s cabin. 

Coach-horses. The picked men who man 
the barge. 

Coach- whip. The narrow pennant. 

Coak. To place pieces of hard wood, either 
circular or square, in the edges or surfaces of any 
pieces that are to be united, to prevent their 
working or sliding over each other. A small 
piece of hard wood or dowel used in coaking. 

Coal. A word formerly applied to any sub 
stance which was used as fuel. Thus, Sir John 
Pettus in his "Fodinaj Regales," published in 
1660, mentions two kinds of "coale": black, 
such as is burnt or "charkt"; and white, which 
is only baked in an oven to make it dry for 
"fewele." The two substances here mentioned 
are evidently charcoal and white or uncharred 1 
wood, so that with this author "coale" means 
wood fuel. Mineral fuel, however, has now so 
long and justly ranked first among fuels that 



COAL 



140 



COAL 



the word coal has come to be applied to that 
substance alone. 

Coal is found in beds or strata in that group 
of the secondary rocks which includes the red 
sandstone and mountain limestone formations, 
and which is commonly called the Carboniferous 
group, or coal-measures. From the peculiarities 
of their deposition they are often spoken of 
under the names of coal-basins and coal-fields. 
The vegetable origin of coal is evidenced both by 
its chemical composition, the elements of which, 
viz., carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and a small 
proportion of nitrogen, are precisely analogous 
to those of all vegetable organic compounds, and 
by the fact that vegetable tissue is obvious either 
to the unaided eye or under the microscope in 
nearly every species of coal formation. There 
has been considerable difference of opinion as to 
the mode of deposition of the coal strata, some 
holding that they have been deposited by the 
action of water in bringing down drift-wood, 
others adopting the theory proposed by Dr. 
Mohr, that they are of marine origin and have 
been formed by the carbonization of sea-weeds, 
such as the great kelp plant of the Pacific, while 
the still more generally received opinion is that 
they are the result of the transformation of plants 
on the site of their growth. This latter theory 
seems to be verified by the fact that all coal 
strata rest on old soils, and practically consist of 
nothing but vegetable matter. The abundance 
of roots shows that the soils supported a luxuriant 
growth of plants, and these, as they died and fell 
to the ground, would supply exactly the material 
for the production of coal. Prominent among 
the vegetable fossils contained in the " under- 
day," or "seat-stones," on which the coal 
seams rest, are certain long, cylindrical branch 
ing bodies called Stigmaria. These lie horizon 
tally in the underclay, and their filaments run out 
in all directions, till the clay is often one thickly 
matted mass of them. They were long generally 
accepted as being the roots of a plant called Sigil 
laria, often found fossil in the coal-measures, 
though Stigmaria had never been found actually 
attached to Sigillaria. It was reserved for Mr. 
Binney to supply this missing link in the evi 
dence. He discovered in a railway cutting a 
number of trunks of Sigillaria standing erect as 
they grew with roots still attached to them. The 
roots were Stigmaria, and the rock into which 
they struck down, which was of course the soil 
on which the trees grew, was the seat-stone of a 
thin seam of coal. This discovery seemed to 
render complete the proof that the herbs and 
trees of which coal is formed grew on the areas 
where the coal now occurs. One variety of coal 
cannel forms probably an exception to the 
general rule here stated. The presence of fossil 
fish in cannel-coals shows that they must have 
been formed under water, and they probably 
consist of vegetable matter which was drifted 
down into ponds or lakes. They always occur in 
dish-shaped patches, thinning away to nothing 
on all sides. 

Vegetable matter undergoing decomposition, 
freely exposed to the action of the air and rain, 
passes into a dark-brown, moldy substance 
known to chemists under the name of Humus or 
Ulmin ; but the process of decomposition does 
not stop with the formation of humus ; the 
transformation, which mainly consists in the 



gradual elimination of the oxygen and the con 
centration of the carbon, still proceeds, and re 
sults in the composition of the organic substance 
of peat, which is largely made up of altered 
humus, generally, although not altogether, de 
rived from the decomposition of the vegetable 
matter of mosses. Peat varies in external charac 
ter and chemical composition with its age and po 
sition in the beds in which it is found. The upper 
layer is light in color and soft and spongy in 
texture, and its vegetable origin is obvious even 
on the most superficial inspection. Deeper down 
in the bog the layers become darker and are more 
strongly pressed together, the vegetable struc 
ture becomes less and less apparent, until near 
the bottom of a deep bog the peat is almost 
black, has a density nearly equal to that of coal, 
and requires rather careful scrutiny to detect any 
organized structure. The chemical composition 
of the moss alters with this change in outward 
character ; the relative proportion of the oxygen 
steadily diminishes, whilst that of the carbon as 
steadily increases. The altered vegetable mat 
ter now passes into a form analogous to that met 
with in Lignite, a dark-brown, somewhat fri 
able substance, of a compact, woody texture. 
As this woody texture disappears the substance 
passes into brown coal, which contains a still 
larger percentage of carbon and a smaller per 
centage of oxygen than the true lignites. From 
the brown coal we pass by insensible gradations 
to the black coal, or coal proper. The change 
is attended by an absolute loss of ligneous struc 
ture, by an increased density, and a tolerably 
well developed cubical fracture. When finely 
powdered most black coals show more or less of 
a brown color in proportion corresponding to the 
amount of oxygen which they contain. The 
softer varieties of these black coals are usually 
classed as bituminous coals, a term which is 
founded on a misapprehension, for there is no 
thing, strictly speaking, of the nature of bitumen 
in them. Some coals when thrown on the fire 
seem to fuse and swell up ; these are technically 
known as caking coals, in contradistinction to the 
dry, or free-burning coals, which retain their 
shape, but tend to split into columnar fragments. 
The cause of this difference is not clearly made 
out. It is certainly not dependent on ultimate 
composition, for two varieties of coal occurring 
in the same bed may have the same proportions 
of elementary constituents and yet behave very 
differently on heating. Many coals lose their 
power of caking by long exposure to the air ; but, 
on the other hand, the slack of non-caking coal 
may often be made to fuse together into a com 
pact mass if heated suddenly. 

The blacker and harder varieties of coal grad 
ually merge into the kind known as stone coal, 
or anthracite. Anthracite has a brilliant lustre ; 
is denser, harder, and more brittle than ordinary 
bituminous coal, and has a conchoidal fracture. 
It ignites with difficulty, and gives out little 
flame on burning, owing to the non-formation 
of volatile hydrocarbons. The manner in which 
anthracite has been formed has given rise to 
much discussion. The general opinion is that 
it is simply bituminous coal modified or altered 
by heat. The evidence on this point is, however, 
far from being conclusive. Many coals tend to 
become anthracitic by simple exposure to air at 
ordinary temperatures. It has also been observed 



COAL 



141 



COAL 



that coal in the vicinity of open faults, or imme 
diately below a sandstone roof, alters in texture, 
loses its cubical fracture, and is more highly car 
bonaceous than the ordinary bituminous varie 
ties. Hence it must not be supposed that anthra 
cite is necessarily the oldest because it is the most 
altered form of coal. There are coal-basins in 
which the coal is of the same age throughout, 
while in one part it is of the ordinary bitumi 
nous kind and in another part anthracite. 

The essential conditions for the formation of 
the coal strata would seem to have been : 

1. A luxuriant vegetable growth on the site 
of deposition. 

2. A gradual subsidence of the area covered 
with the vegetable deposit beneath a shallow sea, 
during which beds of sediment sand or clay 
were deposited on top of it. 

3. A re-elevation of the submerged area, and 
a repetition of the processes of growth, deposition, 
subsidence, sedimentary deposits, and emergence. 

We have no means of knowing, even approx 
imately, what amount of woody fibre would be 
required to make coal. Mohr has calculated that 
the transformation is attended with a loss of 75 
per cent, in weight, and that when regard is had 
to the density of the two substances, the volume 
of the coal is only about one-twelfth of the woody 
matter from which it has been derived, but the 
data for such computations are not very trust 
worthy. 

Attempts have been made by Cagniard de la 
Tour, Kiviere, Daubree, and others to imitate by 
heat the mode in which coal has been produced 
from wood. According to Baroulier, vegetable 
matter, such as sawdust, twigs, stalks, and 
leaves, imbedded in moist clay and heated from 
200 to 300 C. for some time, yields a carbonized 
mass very similar to some varieties of coal. 

Let us now briefly glance at coal as a source 
of power.- The foot-pound, by which is meant 
the amount of work necessary to raise a pound in 
weight through a foot of space, may be taken as 
a convenient unit by which to measure the 
energy of heat in the production of power. The 
brilliant researches of Joule, Weber, and others 
inform us that (in round numbers) 772 foot 
pounds of work are necessary to produce a unit 
of heat, and conversely, that a unit of heat, if 
entirely used up in the production of mechanical 
work, will perform 772 foot-pounds. From vari 
ous experiments made on the calorific power of 
coal, it has been deduced that a pound of good 
coal in the state in which it is ordinarily used 
gives out during combustion about 14,000 units 
of heat. By multiplying the number of units 
of heat produced by the combustion of a pound 
of coal by 772 we obtain the number of foot 
pounds of work to which the heat is equivalent. 
By this rule the average mechanical value of a 
pound of coal is 14,000 X 772 = 10,808,000 foot 
pounds, in round numbers 10,000,000 foot 
pounds. The following table gives the number 
of foot-pounds of work which can be done under 
favorable conditions by a man and a horse, to 
gether with the number of pounds of coal the 
combustion of which would produce the same 
amount of work. The result is that a man and 
a horse, under the most favorable circumstances 
referred to in the table, could only do in a day 
as much work as is locked up in two-tenths and 
twelve-tenths of a pound of coal respectively. 



Kind of Work. 



Agent, Man. 

Raising his own weight up stair or 
ladder 

Carrying weights up-stairs and re 
turning unloaded 

Pushing or pulling horizontally 

Working pump 



Agent, Horse. 

Drawing cart or boat (walking) 

Drawing light railway truck (can 
tering and trotting) 



of 



Foot-pounds 
of work 
per day. 



Number 

pounds 
coal the heat 

of combus 
tion of which 
is equivalent 
to work. 



2,088,000 

399,600 
1,626,400 
1,188,000 



12,441,600 
6,444,000 



0.21 

0.04 
0.15 
0.12 



1.24 
0.64 



It must be remembered, however, that only a 
small proportion of the total heat supplied by the 
combustion of the coal is employed in the pro 
duction of useful work. The loss of the re 
mainder is due to several causes, which, although 
theoretically preventable, will probably never be 
completely done away with. Some of them, 
such as imperfect combustion, conduction, and 
radiation, may, by careful firing and improved 
construction of furnaces, be rendered very small, 
but as things are the net result is that only from 
50 to 70 per cent, of heat is transmitted to the 
water and steam, and that of this a small frac 
tion, amounting in the best engines to only 
about 11 per cent., is converted into work. The 
enormous loss of power which thus occurs in the 
steam-engine has from time to time prompted 
efforts to devise other forms of machines, which, 
while equally serviceable for practical purposes, 
shall more efficiently utilize the heat of the fuel 
employed. The electric-engine, the air-engine, 
and the gas-engine are among the results of the 
efforts thus inspired. Coal is the source of 
power in them all, though the machinery for 
transforming its energy into useful work is 
widely different. In the steam- and air engines 
it is employed directly ; from it the gas required 
for the gas-engine is extracted, and by it the 
zinc or other metals used in the galvanic cell are 
smelted. The subjoined table gives, in the sec 
ond column, the percentage of heat which the 
various machines named transform into work 
under favorable conditions, and in the third, the 
relative cost of the fuel capable of producing 
equal quantities of work in each. 



Electric-engine. 

Air-engine 

Steam-engine ... 
Gas-engine 



Percentage 
of heat 
utilized. 



Relative cost 
of fuel for 
equal quan 
tities of 
work. 



55.00 
0.84 
1.00 
6.00 



The electric-engine and the gas-engine are 
convenient, both because they can be set in mo 
tion without delay and because the expenses con 
nected with them are incurred only when they 
are actually working. They are compact in 
form, and are well suited for operations in which 



COAL 



142 



COAL 



a small amount of power at irregular intervals 
only is needed. The cost of the fuel is, how 
ever, in both cases too great to admit of their 
employment on a large scale. The air-engine, 
on the other hand, though making a better use 
than the steam-engine of the fuel with which it 
is supplied, is discarded on account of its bulk, 
and because the hot air oxidizes, and so destroys 
the metallic surfaces with which it is in contact. 
In respect of their steam-producing qualities, 
the different varieties of coal possess merits and 
defects the importance of which can be esti 
mated only by eference to the special purpose 
in view. Recent experiments carefully made 
by a board of chief engineers of the navy with 
anthracite and certain typical varieties of bitu 
minous and semi-bituminous coals, afford the fol 
lowing data for a comparison of the vaporiza 
tion efficiencies of the kinds of coal named : 



than any other coal, and more men are required 
to produce a given weight of steam in a given 
time with it than are required with any of the 
coals likely to be placed in competition with it. 
But its supreme defect is its excessive slowness 
of combustion, in which respect it is inferior to 
any other coal, requiring a correspondingly 
larger boiler to produce a given weight of steam 
in a given time. For a naval steamer, where 
space is the most difficult thing to obtain, this 
defect is most serious, requiring a longer vessel 
to hold the greater quantity of boiler for a given 
speed ; or, if this additional length be not given, 
then obtaining the speed at the expense of other 
valuable qualities of the vessel. 

The semi-bituminous coals of Maryland and 
Southern Pennsylvania, which are the analogues 
of the steam-coals of Southern Wales, have 
merits and defects less strongly marked than the 







Rate of combus 


Pounds of water vaporized 


I 








tion per hour 


from the temperature of 










per square foot 


212 degrees Fahrenheit, 


IB 


Weight of the coals. 






of grate -sur 


and under the standard 


a 








face. 


atmospheric pressure. 


I 




Kind of Coal. 


Rate of Com 
bustion. 


nds of the crude 
al. 


Ijl 


3 

T3 

a 

Els 


5-2 
of . 

ill 

III 


cubic foot of the 
ude coal. 


1 

s 
.p 

9 2 


centum of the 
>al in refuse of 
h, clinker, and 
ot. 


!{ 


ic feet of space 
quired to stow 
ic ton of coal. 






r 


l* 


feS 


I s * 


o 
p. 


z 


fe ce m 


** 


|* s 




Slow 


79896 


74809 


109595 


11 7047 


534 2756 


26 7 6 86 


63670 


4875 


45 9487 






13.0334 l 12.2036 10.2023 


10.8960 


497.3621 


3989 14 


6.3670 


4875 


45.9487 




Maximum 14.3664 13.4517 10.1386 


10.8280 


494.2567 


4369.67 


6.3670 


48.75 


45.9487 


!j Slow 78199 


6858 103361 1 1 7SA8 


558.1494 


2424 93 


12 3005 


5400 


41 4815 


Medium 11.6340 


10.203 | 99357 


11.3292 


536.5278 


3467.69 


123005 


54.00 


41.4815 


Maximum 139875 


12.267 I 9.6912 


11.0505 


523 3248 


4066.80 


12.3005 


54.00 


41.4815 


Slow 


7.7905 


6.611 


9.9923] 11.7751 


559.5688 


2335.36 


15.1402 


56.00 


40.0000 


i Mcilimti 


10 5798 


8978 


9.9923 11.7751 


659 5688 


3171.50 


15.1402 


56.00 


400000 




Maximum 


12.9531 


10.992 


9.9923 11.7751 

I 


559.5688 


3882.96 


15.1402 I 56.00 


40.0000 



The merits of the anthracite as a steam-pro 
ducer on board of vessels are very considerable. 
It gives a high economic vaporization, which is 
less affected by forcing the rate of combustion 
than in the case of other coals. It has a greater 
density than other coals, whereby a greater 
weight can be stowed in the same space ; this is 
a very important merit for all vessels, and in an 
especial degree for naval vessels, where the space 
allowed for coal is necessarily more restricted, 
and where the need of carrying a long supply is 
greater than in merchant vessels. It possesses 
such strong cohesion that it is always furnished 
in lumps, and it suffers scarcely any waste by 
transportation or handling; but the same quality 
entails more labor in breaking it on the fire-room 
floor to suitable lumps for firing. 

Anthracite is scarcely affected by weather or 
water, it emits no smoke, deposits but little soot, 
and is in no danger of spontaneous combustion, 
all very important merits for steamers, and 
particularly for naval steamers. The absence of 
smoke is of the highest value to naval steamers 
in time of war, the presence of smoke betraying 
their position at long distances. 

A great defect of anthracite is its large per 
centum of refuse, a considerable part of which 
is strongly adherent clinker, entailing great 
labor on the firemen. In this respect it is worse 



anthracite. Their economic vaporization is sen 
sibly the same as that of anthracite, but their 
density is less, causing a greater space to be re 
quired for the stowage of a ton. They are more 
injured by weather and water, and occasionally 
suffer spontaneous combustion, but very favor 
able conditions are necessary to produce it. Be 
ing very friable, they make a great deal of dust, 
and the loss in handling from this cause is greater 
than with anthracite. They emit a moderate 
quantity of light-brown smoke, and deposit a 
moderate amount of soot on the heating surfaces 
of the boiler. They give a less per centum of 
refuse than anthracite, and of that refuse a less 
proportion is clinker. In firing a given weight 
of coal the labor is much less with the semi- 
bituminous than with the anthracite. As steam- 
producers the semi-bituminous coals have a 
marked superiority over the anthracite in their 
much greater rate of combustion, a merit of the 
highest value for all steamers, and in an especial 
degree for naval steamers, allowing, with a given 
quantity of boiler, a greater speed of vessel than 
is possible with anthracite. In the case, how 
ever, of a forced combustion by steam-jets or 
blowers, the economic vaporization of the semi- 
bituminous coal would be less than that of the 
anthracite. 

The bituminous coal gives off somewhat more 



COAL-FISH 



143 



COAST SURVEY 



smoke than the semi-bituminous coal, and de 
posits correspondingly more soot on the heating- 
surfaces of the boiler. It has less density and 
requires more space to stow a given weight, but 
is about as friable, has about the same propor 
tion of dust, and wastes about as much in hand 
ling and in transportation. Its economic vapor 
ization is higher than that of either the semi- 
bituminous coal or of anthracite at all rates of 
combustion, due to its less per centum of refuse, 
for the economic vaporization of its gasifiable 
portion is less than that of the gasifiable portion 
of those coals. Its rate of combustion is higher 
than that of the semi-bituminous coal, and con 
siderably higher than that of anthracite. Its 
per centum of refuse is greatly less, and a given 
weight of it can be fired with much less labor 
than in the case of either anthracite or semi- 
bituminous coal. As regards smoke, soot, dust, 
and spontaneous combustion, it is no more ob 
jectionable than the best of other coals, exclusive 
of anthracite, while it exceeds all in economic 
vaporization, rate of combustion, and ease of 
firing. Its great defect for use on shipboard is 
its low density, nearly one-seventh more space 
being required to stow equal weights than with 
anthracite, and nearly one-ninth more than with 
semi-bituminous coal. But if the comparison be 
made for the bulks required to produce equal 
quantities of steam, then the bituminous coal re 
quires about one-eighth more space than anthra 
cite and about one-tenth more space than semi- 
bituminous coal. 

COAL-HEAVER. One employed in handling 
coal in loading and unloading, or in bringing it 
to a furnace in such quantities and at such times 
as may be required. In steamships the coal- 
heaver must break the coal to a proper size, re 
move all ashes and refuse, sweep boiler-flues or 
tubes, and assist in handling the fires and clean 
ing the machinery. Intelligent men acquire 
the art of " fireman" or "stoker" in a short 
time. On board vessels of war, at "general 
quarters," such coal-heavers as are not actually 
employed in serving the furnaces are attached to 
the powder division ; and when the ship is under 
sail, without steam, they are placed in the deck- 
watches. 

COAL-TAR. Tar extracted from bituminous 
coal. 

Coal-fish. The Oadus carbonarius. Called 
gerrack in its first year, cuth or queth in its 
second, sayth in its third, lythe in its fourth, and 
colmie in its fifth, when it is full grown. 

Coal-sacks. An early name of dark patches 
of sky in the Milky Way, nearly void of stars 
visible to the naked eye. The largest patch is 
near the Southern Cross, and called the Black 
Magellanic Cloud. 

Coal-say. The coal-fish. 

Coamings. The pieces that lie fore and aft 
in the framing of the hatchways and scuttles. 
The pieces that lie athwart ship, to form the ends, 
are called head-ledges. 

Coast. The sea-shore ; the sea-front of the 
land. 

COASTER. A small vessel engaged in coasting. 

COASTING. Sailing along the coast, for which 
is necessary a minute knowledge of the tides, 
currents, prevailing winds, rocks, shoals, har 
bors, landmarks, etc. The position of the ship 
is determined by the lead and by bearings. 



COASTING TRADE, The commerce between 
two ports of the same realm or state. See COM- 

ME.RCE. 

COAST-PILOT. A pilot licensed to conduct 
vessels from one part of the coast to another. 
On going into port he is superseded by the local 
pilot. 

COAST-WARNING. A storm-signal on the 
coast. 

COASTWISE. By way of or along the coast. 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. The scope of 
the United States Coast arid Geodetic Survey em 
braces, 1, & geodetic survey of the whole area of 
the United States ; 2, a topographical survey of 
the lands bordering the sea-coast and the rivers 
to the head of ship navigation, " to be carried as 
far inland as may be necessary for purposes either 
of commerce or defense" (Plan of the Survey) ; 
and, 3, the hydrography of the waters adjacent 
to the coast, Lake Champlain, the bays, har 
bors, and navigable rivers to the head of ship 
navigation, and including the Gulf Stream, its 
approaches, and extension. 

GEODESY. The geodetic work comprises a 
system of triangles, starting from a measured 
base and spreading over large areas, controlled 
in direction with reference to the meridian by 
astronomical azimuths. Three orders of trian- 
gulation are recognized on the work, viz., the 
primary, with sides varying in length from 20 
to 169 miles ; the secondary, with sides of from 
5 to 40 miles ; and the tertiary, with sides of less 
than 6 miles.* 

The primary and part of the secondary series, 
composed principal!} 7 of quadrilaterals, and veri 
fied at intervals by the measurement of additional 
bases, and by new determinations of the astro 
nomical azimuth, latitude, and longitude, consti 
tute the standard geodesy of the survey. From 
this class of work, in connection with pendulum 
observations for the determination of gravity, 
the dimensions and figure of the earth are de 
duced. Measurements of arcs of the meridian 
and of the 39th parallel of latitude are now (1880) 
in progress. Part of the secondary triangulation 
is used to connect the primary with the tertiary. 
The primary bases are measured with compen 
sated bars or rods, designed by the late Prof. 
A. D. Bache, by whom the imperfections in the 
base apparatus previously in use were almost 
entirely eliminated. An apparatus is about to 
be constructed, upon the design of Assistant C. 
A. Schott, on the principle of the Borda ther 
mometer. It will consist of two rods protected 
by wooden cases, very light and portable. Each 
rod will be provided with two compensations, by 
one of which the length is kept constant through 
all changes of temperature, whether sudden or 
gradual, "and by the other the rear end is kept in 
place when the rod is set in its trestles. Like 
those now in use, the new rod will be provided 
with the level-sector for measuring inclinations. 
The forward end of each rod will be provided 
with an agate face, and the rear end with the 
sliding -contact attachment, terminating in an 
agate knife-edge, set horizontally. 

The angular measurements are made with 
theodolites of the most perfect character known 
to the present state of science. In the astronom- 



* Field Work of the Triangulation, by Gen. B. D. Cutte, As 
sistant. 



COAST SURVEY 



144 



COAST SURVEY 



ical work the transit instrument for time obser 
vations and the zenith-telescope for latitudes are 
used. The magnetic telegraph is used for meas 
uring differences of longitude, measurements 
being made from station to station around a cir 
cuit, observers exchanging positions between sta 
tions, and finally returning to the initial point 
as a test of the accuracy of the work. Early ad 
vantage was taken of the transatlantic cables 
by the Superintendent of the coast survey to 
connect the principal observatories of Europe 
with those of the United States, assistants being 
sent abroad for that purpose. 

Geodetic-leveling. In order that all distances 
may be reduced to the level of the sea, the heights 
of primary points are measured by leveling in 
struments of the most refined character, and by 
methods which secure the utmost precision. 
Owing to local needs, the geodetic work has been 
begun independently in several parts of the 
country; the junction of these partial systems 
offers a crucial test of the accuracy of the work. 
Only selected observers of long training and 
great skill are employed on this portion of the 
survey. Trigonometric surveys are being carried 
on in several of the States by the Coast and Geo 
detic Survey in connection with the geodetic 
work ; under instructions from the Superinten 
dent the work is executed by college professors 
during their vacations, subject to the supervision 
of the chief of the geodetic division. 

TOPOGRAPHY. By the tertiary triangulation > 
based upon the secondary, are located points for 
the use of the topographers and hydrographers ; 
being an essential part of the topography, it 
covers practically the same ground as the latter, 
as above described. Every triangulation point 
is permanently marked, and a sketch and de 
scription of the locality taken, with the bearings 
and distances of witness-marks, placed for the 
purpose if necessary, so that the point may be 
recovered when needed. The latitude and lon 
gitude of each triangulation point are computed, 
and its distance and azimuth from at least two 
other points. 

Projections. In all the original or manuscript 
maps and charts of the Coast and Geodetic Sur 
vey, as well as in the published series, the poly- 
conic projection is used for representing the sur 
face of the earth upon a plane, this projection ex 
hibiting areas with the minimum of distortion, 
and showing distances in all parts of the sheet to 
the same scale. The projection is drawn upon 
the sheet before it is taken into the field. The 
parallels and meridians are drawn usually for 
each minute of latitude and longitude respect 
ively. All triangulation points determined, fall 
ing within its limits, are plotted upon the sheet. 
The plane-table is the instrument used in the 
topographical survey. By this instrument all 
topographical features are represented upon the 
sheet in their true position (i.e., in bearing and 
distance), relative to the already established 
points, and are drawn to scale. Cultivated fields, 
woodlands, grass, salt- and fresh-water marshes, 
hill and plain, sand- beaches, re^fs, and other 
topographical features, whether natural or arti 
ficial, are represented, each with its appropriate 
conventional symbol. In order to avail himself 
of the triangulation points the topographer erects 
signals over them, unless, as often happens, they 
are located upon some conspicuous object, which 



itself answers for a signal. The scales of original 
topographical sheets vary from 1-20,000 of nature, 
the smallest scale, to 1-1200, the largest ; those 
most frequently used are 1-20,000 and 1-10,000, 
or, approximately, 3 T 6 7 inches to the geograph 
ical mile, and 7^ inches. The topographer 
locates the shore-line to low-water mark, and 
fixes the position of all islands, reefs, and rocks 
which are visible at low water. Elevations are 
represented by drawing the contours of different 
heights, usually for every 10 or every 20 feet 
above the datum-plane. 

HYDROGRAPHY. There are three classes of 
hydrography, differing mainly as to their results 
in the number of soundings in a given area : 
they are, 1, harbor and river work ; 2, inshore- 
soundings along the coast; and, 3, deep-sea sound 
ings. The first two are intended, first, for the 
development of fair-ways and anchorages, of 
shoals, bars, reefs, and other obstructions to 
navigation ; and, second, to show the changes 
which from time to time take place. The har 
bor and river work is close enough for ordinary 
constructive works, though special surveys are 
usually made for that purpose. The area to be 
surveyed having been determined by the Super 
intendent, a projection covering the same is fur 
nished to the hydrographer ; all triangulation 
points which fall within its limits are plotted on 
the sheet, together with the shore-line, and any 
topographical objects or features, natural or 
artificial, which may assist him in his work. 
Copies of the sketches and descriptions of triangu 
lation points above referred to are furnished him 
to enable him to find them the more readily. 
Having selected and recovered such points as he 
needs, he erects u hydrographic signals" over 
them (fixing new points for himself if needed), 
establishes his tide-gauge, and is then ready to 
begin his soundings. It is usual to run the 
soundings in parallel lines, with a second system 
of lines crossing the first at right angles ; the 
number of lines and of soundings upon each line 
depend upon local conditions and needs. The 
time, depth, and character of the bottom are 
noted at each sounding. The position of the 
vessel or boat is fixed from time to time, either 
by simultaneous cuts from two theodolite sta 
tions on shore, or by measuring from the boat 
with a sextant, the angle between a selected cen 
tral signal and one on either side of it respec 
tively, or, as it is usually known, by the " three- 
point problem." In the deep-sea work the posi 
tions are determined astronomically. Other 
systems of lines in addition to the above are used 
for special purposes, such as the development 
of bars, shoals, intricate channels, etc. The 
soundings before being plotted are (in the har 
bor and inshore work) reduced to the plane of 
mean low water, or, on the Pacific coast, to that 
of lower-low waters. The curves of equal depths 
are drawn to correspond with the contours of 
equal elevation on shore. The work of the hy 
drographer extends to high-water mark, thus 
lapping that of the topographer. Tidal observa 
tions are carried on to give data for the reduc 
tion of soundings, for the computation of the 
tidal establishment, and for computing tide-tables 
in advance ; in the last are predicted the times 
and heights (above or below the usual plane of 
reference) of the high and low waters at the 
stated parts for every day in the year. In many 



COAST SURVEY 



145 



COAST-GUARD 



localities continuous tidal observations, covering 
a complete lunar cycle, nineteen years, have 
been made, or are in progress. 

DEEP-SEA HYDROGRAPHY. Under this head 
are being investigated the depths, currents, sur 
face and sub-surface, the temperatures and den 
sities of the sea-water from surface to bottom. 
Specimens of the water and of the bottom are 
being obtained for examination and analysis, 
and deep-sea dredgings of the most successful 
character are being carried on. For all sound 
ings of over 100 fathoms wire is used, with the 
very perfect apparatus designed by Lieutenant- 
Commander C. D. Sigsbee, U.S.N., Assistant 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. Much of the deep- 
sea work is designed for the study of the origin, 
extent, phenomena, and influences of the Gulf 
Stream. 

Physical Hydrography. Under this head are 
investigated, either by special observations or by 
those taken in connection with other work, the 
tidal circulation and movements, the flow of 
rivers, the action of the waves, and the effect of 
each and of all combined in producing changes 
in harbors and upon the coasts ; the effects, in 
conjunction with these, of artificial works, 
whether protective, such as breakwaters and 
jetties ; for improvements, such as the deepen 
ing of channels and fair-ways ; or economical, 
such as wharves, etc. ; or for the reclaiming of 
overflowed lands, and, by analogy, the probable 
effects of any such works when in contemplation. 

COAST-PILOT. The work of this division con 
sists in preparing descriptions and views of the 
coasts, particularly the approaches to ports, har 
bors of refuge, etc., the description of the dangers 
to navigation, of the established artificial aids to 
navigation, and of sailing directions for navi 
gating the coast, and for entering and leaving 
the ports and harbors. 

MAGNETIC WORK. Observations are in con 
tinuous progress, at fixed magnetic observatories, 
and by parties moving from place to place on 
land and at ^ sea, for declination and the other 
magnetic elements. The results are used for the 
preparation and correction of the isogonic charts, 
for keeping the variation of compass correctly 
noted upon the marine charts, and for recording 
the secular changes in the variation. It is hoped 
that sufficient data will ultimately be obtained 
to determine the law of the secular change, and 
to make it possible to predict it for many years 
in advance. 

INSTRUCTIONS. The work of each party in the 
field is executed under written instructions issued 
by the Superintendent. 

OFFICE WORK. All original sheets and field- 
notes are carefully preserved, and sent to the 
office at Washington, where, under the imme 
diate direction of the assistant-in-charge of office, 
the computations and reductions are examined 
and checked, or made independently by a corps 
of trained computers. Plotting done in the field 
is carefully inspected, and, if need be, replotted 
from the original notes. Drawings for charts 
are made by one set of draughtsmen reducing 
-the work from the original sheets to the pub 
lication scale, after which the reductions are 
verified by other draughtsmen. The charts thus 
prepared are engraved upon copper plates, from 
which, after careful examination, electrotype 
plates are made for the plate-printer, no print- 
10 



ing being done from the engraved plate. The 
work passes through many hands and processes, 
by which a constant check is kept upon its accu 
racy, and at each stage it is examined, and must 
be approved by the Superintendent. 

PUBLICATIONS. The regular publications of 
the Coast and Geodetic Survey consist of Marine 
Charts, Magnetic Charts, the Coast-pilot, the 
Superintendent s Annual Report of Progress, 
the Tide-tables of the Atlantic and Pacific 
Coasts, and the series entitled u Methods, Dis 
cussions, and Results," in which last, as the 
name implies, are described the plan of the sur 
vey, the methods, instruments, and appliances 
used, and the results expected and required. 
The most of these are scientific papers of great 
value. The occasional publications, usually con 
tained in the appendix to the Annual Eeport, 
are scientific papers, which do not fall under the 
last-named head. The Charts are in four series, 
viz. : 1, sailing charts, on a scale of 1-1,200,000 ; 

2, general coast charts, on a scale of 1-400,000 ; 

3, coast charts, on a scale of 1-80,000 ; and, 4, 
harbor charts, on larger scales. 

ORGANIZATION. The personnel of the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey comprises a superintendent, 
in general charge of the work, with a corps of 
assistants, sub-assistants, aids, and recorders for 
field service ; of computers, tidal computers, 
draughtsmen, engravers, electricians, mechan 
icians, and plate-printers for office work; a dis 
bursing agent and accountant ; a secretary, and 
copyists. By authority of law, officers and men 
of the navy are employed upon the hydrographic 
work of the survey. There have been thus far 
four superintendents, viz., Ferdinand R. Hassler, 
from the first organization of the work to 1843 ; 
A. Dallas Bache, LL.D., from 1843 to 1867; 
Benjamin Peirce, LL.D., from 1867 to 1874; 
and Carlisle P. Patterson, C.E., LL.D., since 
1874. 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. The superintend 
ent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey is also su 
perintendent of the standard weights and meas 
ures of the United States. Edward P. Lull, 
Commander U.S.N. 

Coast- Guard of Great Britain, The, originally 
instituted as a means of revenue protection, has 
taken, on account of the free-trade policy of 
Great Britain, which exempts almost all articles 
from duty except spirits and tobacco, the char 
acter of a naval reserve and a life-saving and sig 
nal service. It employs 4000 officers and men 
ashore ; afloat, there are 9 large ships (iron 
clads) and 40 small vessels, the latter used as 
cruising and watch vessels, and varying from 
100 to 500 tons each. The first named form the 
squadron of the first reserve ; one is attached to 
each coast-guard district, and is commanded by 
the captain commanding the district; they are 
all under reduced complements. 

The whole coast is divided into 9 districts, 
termed the Hull, Harwich, Newhaven, Wey- 
mouth, Liverpool, Leith, Clyde, Limerick, and 
Kingstown districts. The districts are sub 
divided into 79 divisions, in charge of inspecting 
officers, of whom, at present writing (May, 1880), 
36 are commanders, 32 lieutenants, and the re 
mainder subordinate coast-guard officers. The 
divisions are again divided into 225 stations, each 
in charge of a chief officer, who is about equal in 
rank to a warrant-officer. The whole is under 



COAT 



146 



COD 



the command of an admiral superintendent, 
whose principal office is in London. 

At each station are erected neat groups of cot 
tages for the men, in which they may live with 
their families. The coast lying between the sta 
tions is patrolled at all times, and means of sig 
naling from point to point are at hand. During 
the summer months all the force that can be 
spared is embarked in the 9 co,ast-guard ships, 
which then cruise in squadron for 6 weeks, gen 
erally as part of the Channel squadron. The 
men are thus kept in a high state of efficiency as 
regards drill and seamanship. 

The qualifications for entry into the coast 
guard are as follows : "Every seaman in the navy 
of good character, who has completed 8 years 
continuous service, whose age does not exceed 
37, who is either a trained man or a seaman 
gunner, and who wears at least one good con 
duct badge, is, upon the recommendation of his 
captain, eligible. There is no restriction as to 
the number of candidates to be recommended 
from any particular ship. 

All men are discharged from the coast-guard 
at 50, whether fit for service or not, excepting 
chief boatmen in charge, who are discharged at 
55. On leaving they are under the same rules as 
regards pensions as the other men of the navy. 

Men. who enter the coast-guard must renew 
their continuous-service engagements while 
serving in that force ; they may also be dis 
charged into a sea-going ship for misconduct, or 
at their own request. 

This unequaled body of men forms England s 
most efficient and valuable reserve in time of 
war, there being enough men employed to fur 
nish the men of the seamen class for a squadron 
of 15 large ships. 

The estimates of 1880 for the men of the coast 
guard are 50,781. The total charge of the 
coast-guard service, including officers and men 
of the ships and vessels employed, provisions, 
stores, buildings, etc., including the above 
50,781, is 454,414. F. E. Chadwick, Lieuten 
ant-Commander U.S.N. 

Coat. A piece of canvas fitted around the 
partners of the masts to prevent the water from 
getting below. A layer of paint, varnish, shel 
lac, etc. 

COAT-TACKS. The peculiar nails with which 
mast-coats are fastened. 

Coat of Mail. The chiton shell. 

Cob. To punish by striking on the breech 
with a strap or cobbing-board. A young her 
ring. A sea-gull. A breakwater or" dock made 
of piles and timber and filled in with rocks. 

Cobb. A Gibraltar term for a Spanish dollar. 

Cobbo. The small fish known as the miller s 
thumb. 

Coble, or Cobble. A low flat-floored boat 
used in the cod- and turbot-fisheries ; the rudder 
extends 4 or 5 feet under the bottom. There is 
also a small boat of the same name used by sal 
mon-fishers. 

Coboose. See CABOOSE. 

Cock. A device for regulating or stopping 
the flow of fluids through small pipes. It con 
sists principally of a conical "plug," accurately 
fitted to a "shell" or "chamber," with its axis 
at right angles to that of the pipe to which it is 
attached, the plug being penetrated by a hole 
equal in area to that of the pipe. When the 



plug is turned on its axis the opening may be 
increased or diminished at will, or closed alto 
gether. The shell is provided with flanges or 
screw-nipples for attaching it to the pipe, and 
the plug with a handle. When a cock is used 
for drawing liquids from a reservoir it is fre 
quently called a "faucet" or "spigot." The 
hammer of a gun-lock. To cock a piece is to 
raise the hammer to its full extent. 

Cockade. A knot of ribbons or rosette worn 
on the hat as a badge. 

Cock-a-hoop. Full of confidence and high 
spirits. 

Cockandy. A name for the puffin, otherwise 
called Tom Noddy (Fratercula arctica). 

Cock-bill. To cock-bill the anchor is to sus 
pend it from the cat-head preparatory to letting 
go. To cock-bill the yards is to top them up at an 
angle with the deck, the symbol of mourning. 

Cock-boat. A very small boat used on rivers 
or near the shore. 

Cockburn, Sir George, Admiral. Serving 
the crown of Great Britain from his youth, this 
officer as he advanced in rank manifested a 
capacity for responsible command. During the 
long war with revolutionary France and the 
Empire he captured the island of Martinique. 
At a later period, when peace had been made 
with France and a war begun with the United 
States, Cockburn was sent to America, and 
numbered among his exploits the destruction 
of some of the buildings in Washington and on 
the shores of the Chesapeake and Potomac. Fi 
nally he was intrusted with the duty of convey 
ing Napoleon I. and his suite to their prison on 
the island of St. Helena. 

Cocked Hat. The full-dress head-covering of 
naval officers. See UNIFORM. 

Cocket (Eng.}. A cock-boat. A custom-house 
seal. An instrument sealed and delivered by 
officers of the customs as a warrant that mer 
chandise is entered. An office in the custom 
house where goods to be exported are entered. 

Cocket-bread. Hard sea-biscuit, 

Cockle. A common bivalve mollusk (Car- 
dium edule), often used as food. 

Cockling Sea. Tumbling waves dashing 
against each other with a short and quick mo 
tion. 

Cock-paddle. A name of the paddle, or lump- 
fish (Cyclopterus lumpus). 

Cockpit. An apartment below the water- 
line, in which the wounded are placed during 
an engagement. The rooms are used as store 
rooms and for quarters for such officers as can 
not be accommodated in the steerage. In olden 
times the warrant-officers were quartered in the 
fore cockpit, and subsequently under the fore 
castle ; hence the name forward-officers. 

COCKPITARIAN. A name for one who was 
quartered in the cockpit. 

Cocksetus. An old law-term for a boatman 
or coxswain. 

Cocksure. Dead certain. 

Cockswain. See COXSWAIN. 

Cocoanut-tree. The Palma cocos yields toddy ; 
the nut a valuable oil and milky juice ; the stern, 
bark, branches, etc., also serve numerous pur 
poses. 

Cod. The centre of a deep bay. The bight of 
a trawl or seine. Also, the Gadus morrhua, one 
of the most important of oceanic fishes. The 



CODDY-MODDY 



147 



COLHOUN 



ccd is always found on the submerged hills 
known as banks ; as, the Dogger Bank and 
banks of Newfoundland. To cod, to rig ; to 
harass ; to tantalize. 

COD-BAIT. The large sea-worm, or lug, dug 
from the wet sands ; the squid or cuttle, her 
rings, caplin, any meat, or even a false fish of 
bright tin or pewter. 

COD-FISH. See COD. 

COD-FISHER. A banker, or fishing-vessel, 
which anchors in 60 or 70 fathoms, and remains 
fishing until full, or driven off by stress of 
weather. Season from June until October. See 
FISHERIES. 

COD-LINE. An eighteen-thread line. 

COD-SOUNDS. The swim-bladders of cod-fish, 
cured and packed for the market. 

Coddy-moddy. A gull in its first year s 
plumage. 

Code. See SIGNALS. 

Codrington, Sir Edward, Admiral. In 1827, 
when the Greeks were resisting Turkish oppres 
sion, a combined French, Kussian, and English 
fleet was dispatched to the Mediterranean to stop 
the cruelties practiced by Ibrahim Pacha, who was 
then in command of an Egyptian fleet. Sir Ed 
ward Codrington commanded the British squad 
ron. Entering the harbor of Navarino, he com 
menced negotiations with the pacha, with the 
view of putting an end to the barbarities of the 
Turks. A reference to Constantinople being 
deemed necessary before any compact could be 
concluded, it was arranged that the pacha s 
fleet should remain in the harbor until the sul 
tan s reply was received, and in the meanwhile 
the European fleets retired ; but they had scarcely 
left Navarino when the Turks violated the ar 
mistice and attempted to sail out of the harbor. 
Codrington forced them back. A fierce battle en 
sued, and the Turkish fleet of 81 men-of-war was 
destroyed, only 1 frigate and 15 smaller vessels 
being left in a condition to put to sea again. 

Coehorn. A small mortar, usually of. bronze, 
throwing a shell of from 12 to 24 pounds, and 
convenient for ships gangways, launches, etc., 
afloat ; and for advanced trenches, the attack of 
stockades, etc., ashore. It takes its name from 
its inventor, Baron van Coehorn, a celebrated 
Dutch engineer and general of the latter part of 
the 17th and early part of the 18th centuries. 

Coffer-dam. A device employed in hydraulic 
engineering to lay bare a portion of the sub 
merged surface. It consists of a water-tight in- 
closure, formed by double lines of piles filled 
in with clay tightly rammed. It may also be 
made with piles only, the piles being driven close 
together, and sometimes notched or dovetailed 
into one another; or, if the water is not very 
deep, the piles may be driven at a distance of 
five or six feet from each other and grooved in 
the sides, with boards let down between them in 
the grooves. However formed, it must be made 
very strong and well braced from the inside to 
resist the pressure of the water from without. 
The water inclosed within the dam is gotten rid 
of by being pumped out. 

Cog. The tooth of a wheel, by which motion 
is communicated to another wheel. A coak or 
dowel. 

Cogge. An Anglo-Saxon word for a cock 
boat or light yawl. 

COGGE-WARE. Goods carried in a cogge. 



Goggle, or Cog. A small fishing-boat. 

Cogmen. Shipwrecked mariners who wander 
about begging and stealing ; nautical tramps. 

Coguing the Nose. Making comfortable over 
hot grog. 

Coign. See QUOIN. 

Coil. A quantity of rope wound into a ring 
or series of rings ; each turn of the rope is a 
fake, and several of these fakes, one within the 
other, are called a sheave or tier. In a Flemish 
coil there is but one sheave, the hauling part 
being in the centre. 

Coir. The fibrous husks of the cocoa-nut, 
used for making ropes, mats, brushes, brooms, 
etc. Coir cables have the advantage of floating 
on the water, but they are disagreeable to handle. 

Coke. The charcoal obtained by heating coal 
with the imperfect access of air, or by its distilla 
tion. The former is usually called oven coke ; the 
latter gas coke, being abundantly produced in 
gas-works. Caking coal (for which see COAL) is 
most suitable for the manufacture of coke. As 
the coal becomes heated it evolves a number of 
substances, solids, liquids, and gases, and yields 
a residue, the coke, relatively richer in carbon 
than the original coal. Coke is hard, brittle, 
and porous, varying in color from iron-gray to 
blackish-gray, and more or less of a metallic 
lustre. It absorbs moisture from the air some 
times to the extent of 30 per cent., and contains 
an amount of ash ranging from \ up to 15 per 
cent. It gives off no smoke in burning, is of 
great value as a fuel, evolving a very large 
amount of heat, and is used extensively in smelt 
ing ores and for other purposes. 

Coker. The old name for a cocoa-nut-tree. 

Cold-blast. Air forced into a smelting-fur- 
nace at a natural temperature, in contradistinc 
tion to a heated blast, which is more economical, 
but produces iron of an inferior quality. 

Cold-chisel. A stout chisel made of steel, 
used for cutting iron when it is cold. 

Cold-eel. The Gymnotus electmcus. 

Cold-hammering. The hammering of metal 
at a low temperature to give hardness and 
temper. 

Cole. Colewort, or sea-kale. 

Cole-goose. A name for the cormorant (Pha- 
lacrocorax carbo). 

Cole-perch. A small fish less than the com 
mon perch. 

Colhoun, Edmund R., Commodore U.S.N., 
was born at Chambersburg, Pa., May 6, 1821 ; 




terranean and Brazil Squadrons, 1842-44 ; Naval 
School, Philadelphia, 1845; promoted to passed 
midshipman, July 2, 1845; frigate "Cumber 
land," Home Squadron, 1846-47. Served in the 
Mexican war, being present at the first attack on 
Alvarado, under Commodore D. Conner, and 
also under Commodore M. C. Perry, at the cap 
ture of Tabasco. Keceiving-ship at Philadelphia, 
1850-51 ; frigate " St. Lawrence," Pacific Squad 
ron, 1851-53 ; resigned June 27, 1853. Re-en 
tered the navy as an acting lieutenant, 1861 ; 
commanded steamers "Shawsheen" and "Hunch 
back," North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, 
1861-62; was in the following engagements: 
Roanoke Island, February 7 and 8, 1862 ; capture 
of Newbern, March 14, 1862 ; engagement on the 



COLLAR 



148 



COLORS 



Black-water River, below Franklin, Va., October, 
1862 ; commissioned as commander, November 
17, 1862; commander steamer " Ladona," North 
Atlantic Blockading Squadron, 1863; monitor 
" Weehawken," South Atlantic Blockading 
Squadron, 1863; took part in the different ac 
tions with Forts Sumter, Wagner, Beauregard, 
etc., from July 10 to September 15, 1863; com 
manded monitor "Saugus," 1864-65; engaged 
Hewlett s Battery on James River, June 21 and 
Dec. 5, 1864 ; took part in the bombardment of 
Fort Fisher, Dec. 25, 1864, and its capture, Jan. 
15, 1865; was on special duty at New York, 
1866 ; fleet-captain, South Pacific Squadron, 
1866-67 ; commissioned as captain, March 2, 
1869 ; commanded monitor " Dictator," 1869-70 ; 
flag-ship "Hartford," Asiatic Station, 1873-74; 
was in command of the Asiatic Station for four 
months ; was then transferred to the " Rich 
mond," flag-ship of the South Pacific Station, 
being in command of her from August, 1874, to 
July, 1875; commissioned as commodore, April 
26, 1876. Relieved rear-admiral John Rodgers, 
in command of the navy-yard, Mare Island, 
Cal., April 17, 1877, of which yard he is at pres 
ent date commandant. 

Collar. The part of a stay which goes over 
the mast-head. A strap or grommet in which 
is seized a heart or dead-eye ; used for stays, 
bobstays, bowsprit-shrouds, etc. 

In mechanism, a ring of metal placed upon a 
shaft to prevent motion in direction of the shaft s 
axis while leaving it free for rotative motion. A 
collar may be wrought or cast upon the shaft as 
a part thereof, or it may be a separate piece con 
fined by pins or set-screws. 

COLLAR-HEART. See HEAKT. 

Collar-beam (Obs.). Formerly, it was the 
beam upon which the stanchions of the beak- 
head bulkhead stood. The upper side of it kept 
well with the upper deck port-sills, and was let 
down into the spirketing at the side, but its 
springing over the bowsprit in the middle gave 
it a form which in timber was not to be ob 
tained without great difficulty; a framing of 
carlings, with a stanchion on each side, was 
generally substituted in its place. 

Collier. A vessel employed exclusively in the 
coal-trade. 

Collimation, Axis or Line of. The axial 
line of a telescope, or an imaginary line which 
passes through the optical centre of the object- 
glass and the intersection of cross-wires at its 
focus. The error of collimation is the deviation 
of the line of collimation from its normal posi 
tion. 

Collingwood, Lord Cuthbert, Admiral. A 
disciple of the famous Nelson, and worthy of 
all honor for his services and undaunted bear 
ing throughout a long career in the British 
navy. He played a 1 conspicuous part in the 
great victories achieved by Lord Howe and 
Lord St. Vincent (which see), and in command 
of a line-of-battle ship at the famous battle of 
Trafalgar he was the first to break the line of 
the French and Spanish fleets. When Nelson 
saw him leading his squadron into the enemy s 
array, he exclaimed, "See how that noble fel 
low Collingwood takes his ship into action." 
Firm, mild, brave but prudent, he was adored 
in the navy, and died, in 1810, deeply regretted. 

Collins, Napoleon, Rear-Admiral U.S.N. 



Born in Pennsylvania. Appointed from Iowa, 
January 2, 1834. 

Promoted to passed midshipman, July 16, 
1840. 

Commissioned as lieutenant, November 6, 
1846; sloop u Decatur," Home Squadron, 1846- 
49 ; at Tuspan and Tabasco, Mexican war ; 
steamer "Michigan," on the lakes, 1850-53; 
commanding store-ship "John P. Kennedy," 
North Pacific Expedition, 1853-54 j steam-frigate 
" Susquehanna," East India Squadron, 1854-55; 
navy-yard, Mare Island, California, 1856-57 ; 
sloop "John Adams," Pacific Squadron, 1857- 
58; steamer "Michigan," on the lakes, 1858- 
60; commanding steamer " Anacosta," Potomac 
Flotilla, 1861 ; engagement at Acquia Creek, 
May 31 and June 1, 1861 ; commanding gun 
boat "Unadilla," South Atlantic Blockading 
Squadron, 1861-62; battle of Port Royal, No 
vember 7, 1862; various expeditions on the 
coasts of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, 
1861-62. 

Commissioned as commander, July 16, 1862 ; 
commanding steamer "Octorara," West India 
Squadron, 1862-68; commanding steam-sloop 
" Wachusett," special service, 1863-64; on the 
7th of October, 1864, Commander Collins, then 
in the "Wachusett," seized the rebel steamer 
"Florida," lying within the harbor of Bahia, 
Brazil ; the capture was effected without loss of 
life. 

Commissioned as captain, July 25, 1866 ; com 
manding steam-sloop " Sacramento," special ser 
vice, 1867 ; navy-yard, Norfolk, 1869-70. Com 
missioned as commodore 1871, and as rear-admiral 
1874. Died in 1876. 

Collision. See RULE OF THE ROAD AT SEA. 

COLLISION-CLAUSE. See RUNNING-DOWN 
CLAUSE. 

Collop. A cut from a joint of meat. 

Colmie. A fifth -year or full-grown coal-fish ; 
sometimes called comb. 

Colmow. An old word for the sea-mew, de 
rived from the Anglo-Saxon. 

Colombo. The principal seaport town and 
the capital of Ceylon, on its west coast, in lat. 6 
56 N., Ion. 79 49 E. Pop. 100,000. The har 
bor, defended by several forts, is small, and the 
roadstead is safe only during the southeast mon 
soon. 

Colonnati. The Spanish pillared dollar. 

Colorable. Ship s papers so drawn as to be 
available for more than one purpose. In ad 
miralty law, a probable plea. 

Colors. A national flag. In port the colors 
are hoisted at 8 A.M., and kept flying till sunset. 
At sea the colors are generally shown on falling 
in with another vessel. The colors are half- 
masted as a symbol of mourning, and are hauled 
down as a token of submission. Dipping the 
colors is a compliment or salute, but our men- 
of-war are forbidden to dip their colors except 
in return for a similar compliment. The boats 
of a man-of-war are required to keep their colors 
flying while absent from their ship. In a funeral 
procession the colors are draped. 

In the navies of some European countries, 
when the colors are hauled down they are re 
ceived by a commissioned officer, and all persons 
on deck take off their caps as a mark of respect. 

COLOR-CHEST. See SIGNAL-CHEST. 

COLOR-LOCKER. See SIGNAL-LOCKER. 



COLT 



149 



COMMANDER 



Colt. A short piece of rope with a knot on 
one end, formerly used to start skulkers. 

Columba (Lat. "The Dove"). A constella 
tion next to, and to the S.W. of, Canis Major. 
a Columbce may be found by producing the line 
joining Procyon and Sirius to about the same 
distance. 

Columbia. A name often given to America 
in honor of the great discoverer. The patriotic 
ballad, "Hail Columbia, happy land," was 
written by Joseph Hopkinson for the benefit of 
an actor named Fox, and to an air entitled 
"The President s March," composed in 1789 
by a German named Teyles, on the occasion of 
Gen. Washington s first visit to a New York 
theatre. 

Columbiad. A kind of heavy cannon in 
vented by Col. Bomford. See ORDNANCE. 

Columbus, Christopher, a native of Corsica, 
when the island was under the government of 
the republic of Genoa, cherished for eighteen years 
the theory of the rotundity of the earth, and 
sought to establish it by endeavoring to get the 
means for sailing in a westerly direction from the 
shores of Spain. He was doomed to many checks 
and disappointments, and endured the ridicule 
of the ignorant. A-t length, Isabella, the queen 
of Ferdinand of Spain, caused him to be supplied 
with ships and provisions that he might make a 
voyage of discovery in the direction he had in 
dicated. His attempt was attended with danger, 
for the crew of his ship, impatient of its slow 
progress, murmured and exhibited a mutinous 
disposition, but his science, courage, and deter 
mination had a happy issue, for in 1492 he dis 
covered San Salvador, in the western hemi 
sphere. A second expedition in 1493-96 con 
ducted him to that of the outlying islands, and 
he reached the continent of America on a third 
voyage, in 1498. The discoveries and fulfillment 
of the theory of Columbus did not reap the rec 
ompense to which so much energy and persever 
ance entitled him. He was pursued by envy and 
jealousy, and fell a victim to his triumph over 
ignorance and superstition, dying in poverty at 
Valladolid, in Spain, 20th May, 1506. 

Column. See FLEET TACTICS. 

Colures (Gr. kolouros, dock-tailed, or cutting 
the tail ; from kolouein, to cut, and oura, the 
tail). A term originally applied to any great 
circle passing through the poles of the heavens. 
It is derived by some from the fact that one part 
of each of these circles appears always "cut off" 
by the horizon. A more probable explanation 
of the word seems to be "cutting the tail" of 
the northern constellation, i.e., passing through 
the pole star. This star is situated in the tail 
of the Lesser Bear, a group which appears to 
have been more anciently figured as a dog ; hence 
the pole star is called the Cynosure (kunosoura), 
" The Dog s Tail" (kudn, kunos, a dog, and oura, 
the tail). The word colures has more lately be 
come restricted to the two circles of the system 
which pass through the four cardinal points of 
the ecliptic, the equinoctial and solstitial points, 
the former being called the Equinoctial Colure, 
and the latter the Solstitial Colure. The equi 
noctial colure may be regarded as the initial 
position of the hour-circle ; the solstitial colure 
passes through the poles of the ecliptic as well as 
those of the equinoctial. 

Coma Berenices. See CONSTELLATION. 



Comb. The projection on the hammer of a 
gun-lock, to which the thumb is applied in 
cocking the piece. A name for the colmie. A 
wooden form used by riggers in weaving mats, 
gaskets, etc. 

Comber. A long curling wave. 

COMBER, BEACH-. See BEACH-COMBER. 

COMBER, GRASS-. See GRASS-COMBER. 

Combing. See COAMING. 

Comb the Cat. To separate the tails of the 
"cat" by running the fingers through them. 

Combustion. The practical means of pro 
ducing artificial heat. It is the union of oxygen 
with the carbon and hydrocarbon contained in 
the various kinds of fuels, most of which are 
hydrocarbons, and which have been produced 
by the heat of the sun. 

Come. To come to is to luff, or bring the 
ship s head nearer to the wind. To come to, or 
to come to an anchor, to let go the anchor. T<t 
come up a rope or tackle, to slack it oiF or let it 
go. To come up with a vessel is to overtake her. 
The anchor comes home when it slips through 
the mud in heaving up, that is, the anchor is 
dragged toward the ship instead of the ship being 
hauled up toward the anchor. 

Comity of Nations (Lat. comitas gentium}. 
That species of international legal courtesy by 
which the laws and institutions of one country 
are recognized and given effect to by another. 
See INTERNATIONAL LAW. 

Command. To order with authority. To di 
rect. To exercise supreme authority over. To 
lead. The word is also used to express both the 
order given and the force commanded. It sig 
nifies also advantage of position ; as, when we 
say that one place commands another, we mean 
that it overtops or overlooks the other. 

Commandant. The officer in command of a 
navy-yard or naval station. Under the direc 
tion of the Secretary of the Navy he exercises 
control over every department in the yard, and 
is held responsible for the preservation of all 
buildings, stores, and vessels, and for the judi 
cious application of all labor. 

He is to see that none but effective men are 
employed, and that the rate of wages conforms 
with that of private establishments in the vicin 
ity. He is to see that the officers perform their 
duties in a proper manner, and that all reports 
and returns are made at the time and in the 
manner directed by the department. He is to 
establish regulations to guard against fire, and 
cause the entire force of the yard to be organ 
ized into fire companies, and drilled once a 
month. 

He will not permit any vessel to be repaired 
at the yard without an order from the Depart 
ment, except in an emergency, and all vessels 
repairing are under his control. 

Commandant of Cadets. The executive-offi 
cer of the U. S. Naval Academy. 

Commander. This title in the British and 
United States navies has the same derivation as 
commodore, viz., from the Spanish " Comenda- 
dor." It was first introduced into the U. S. 
navy in 1838, when it was enacted that "mas 
ter-commandants" should be known and styled 
" commanders," although the pay-bill, approved 
March 3, 1835, recognized the title. It is the 
next rank below that of captain, and corresponds 
with that of lieutenant-colonel in the army. 



COMMANDER 



150 



COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF 



A commander commands vessels of the third 
and fourth classes ; may be employed as chief 
of staff to a commodore ; on duty under a bureau ; 
or as aid to a flag-officer of either grade on shore- 
stations. 

Commander. A heavy wooden maul, for 
beating down the eyes of the rigging, and for 
other purposes where the use of an iron instru 
ment would injure the rigging. 

Commander, Master and, or Master-Com 
mandant. For some time after the formation of 
the regular Royal navy by Henry V., of England, 
those who attended to the navigation of the ship 
and the mariners were a totally distinct class 
from those who superintended the fighting de 
partment and the soldiers. The first attempt to 
unite in one person the two offices may be traced 
in the now abandoned term of master and com 
mander. The first officer of the rank was Robert 
Best, appointed September 13, 1667, in the Med 
iterranean, by Sir John Narborough, to a vessel 
called the " Orange-Tree." 

Commander, Lieutenant-. This intermediate 
rank between commander and lieutenant was 
first introduced into the United States service at 
the reorganization of the navy in 1862. Before 
that time lieutenants when in command of a small 
vessel-of-war were styled lieutenants command 
ing. A lieutenant-commander holds assimilated 
rank with a major in the army. 

A lieutenant-commander may act as aid to an 
admiral, vice-admiral, rear-admiral, or commo 
dore commanding afloat ; as aid or executive of 
a commanding officer, navigating, or watch- 
officer in first- , second-, and third-rates ; and per 
forms duty at shore-stations or under a bureau, 
and may be ordered to command a vessel of the 
fourth class. 

Commander-in-chief. The President of the 
"United States is the commander-in-chief of the 
army and navy, but the title of commander-in- 
chief is given to an officer in command of an in 
dependent fleet or squadron, when appointed as 
such by the Navy Department. He possesses all 
the rights, honors, and responsibilities from the 
date on which his flag is hoisted until it is finally 
hauled down. 

He will make himself well acquainted with 
the sailing and steaming qualities of the vessels 
under his command, and inform himself of the 
quantity of coal each vessel can carry, the amount 
used in average and in full steaming during 
twenty-four hours. He will inspect the vessels 
under his command at least once in six months, 
and satisfy himself that they are in a state of 
efficiency to perform any service that may be re 
quired. 

He will cause the boats of his fleet or squadron, 
manned and armed, to be frequently assembled, 
inspected, and exercised in manoeuvres in land 
ing, embarking, and boarding vessels. He will 
see that the vessels of his fleet are frequently 
practiced in exercises in port and in performing 
manoeuvres at sea ; he will frequently exercise 
the officers in making night- and day-signals to 
insure accuracy, and he will cause quarterly re 
ports of all general exercises to be made in ac 
cordance with the prescribed form, which, with 
his remarks, are to be forwarded to the Navy 
Department. He will not inflict punishment 
upon the people of any civilized nation with 
whom the United States has treaties, for any 



violation, alleged or otherwise, of such treaties 
or of international law ; but in the absence of a 
diplomatic representative, he will enter into cor 
respondence with the authorities of the nation, 
and will take the earliest opportunity to com 
municate all the information in his possession to 
the Navy Department. He is to satisfy himself 
that the laws and regulations of the navy are 
maintained on board every vessel under his com 
mand, and also that all the special orders of the 
Secretary of the Navy, through the different 
bureaus of the Navy Department, are strictly 
observed. 

The commander-in-chief of a squadron, being 
frequently invested with a great charge, on which 
the fate of a nation may depend, ought certainly 
to be possessed of abilities equal to so important 
a station and so extensive a command. His 
squadron is unavoidably exposed to a variety of 
perplexing situations in a precarious element. A 
train of dangerous incidents necessarily arise 
from those situations. The health, order, and 
discipline of his people are not less the objects of 
his consideration than the condition and quali 
ties of his ships. A sudden change of climate, 
a rank and infectious air, a scarcity or unwhole- 
someness of provisions maybe as pernicious to 
the former as tempestuous weather or dan 
gerous navigation to the latter. He ought to 
have sufficient experience to anticipate all the 
probable events that may happen to his squad 
ron during an expedition or cruise, and to pro 
vide against them. His skill should be able to 
counteract the various disasters which his squad 
ron may suffer from different causes. His vigi 
lance and presence of mind are necessary to seize 
every favorable opportunity that his situation 
may offer to prosecute his principal design ; to 
extricate himself from any difficulty or distress ; 
to check unfortunate events in the beginning, 
and retard the progress of any great calamity. 
He should be endued with resolution and forti 
tude to animate his officers by force of example, 
and promote a sense of emulation in those who 
are under his command, as well to improve any 
advantage as to frustrate or defeat the efforts of 
his ill fortune. 

He should be well acquainted with the princi 
ples of naval law, that he may judge with pro 
priety of the proceedings of courts-martial, and 
correct the errors and restrain the abuses which 
may happen therein by mistake, ignorance, or 
inattention. 

As he is frequently called upon to represent 
the government on occasions of great moment, 
he should be well versed in international law. 

He does his utmost to protect the commerce of 
his country, and to this end causes surveys to be 
made of all dangers to navigation, and in time 
of war affords convoy and protection to mer 
chantmen of the United States, and also to the 
merchantmen of nations which may be in alli 
ance with the United States. 

The most essential part of his duty is military 
conduct. He is required to keep pace with the 
various improvements in vessels and ordnance, 
and the changes in fleet tactics in consequence 
thereof. When preparing a fleet or squadron 
for sea, in time of war, as the vessels join him, 
he will furnish each commanding officer with a 
copy of all general orders, dispositions, private 
signals, orders of battle, etc., so that they may 



COMMANDING 



151 



COMMANDING 



have a complete understanding of what they will 
be called upon to do on going into action. 

When the squadron shall put to sea it is fre 
quently exercised in fleet tactics that the officers 
may become proficient in their duties. When 
he meditates an attack the commanding officers 
should be made acquainted with the plan of bat 
tle, and his orders should be drawn up with the 
greatest care ; they should be simple, perspicu 
ous, direct, and comprehensive, and should di 
rect the plan to be followed in case either of suc 
cess or defeat. History and experience confirm 
the necessity of these observations, and present 
us with a variety of disasters that have happened 
on such occasions merely by a deficiency in this 
material article. 

When an admiral conquers in battje, he should 
endeavor to improve his victory by pushing the 
acquired advantages as far as prudence directs ; 
when he shall be defeated, he ought to embrace 
every opportunity of saving as many of his ships 
as possible, and endeavor principally to assist 
those which have been disabled. In short, it is 
his duty to avail himself of every practicable ex 
pedient rather than sink under his misfortune, 
and suffer himself to become an easy prey to an 
enemy. 

Commanding Officer. The officer in actual 
command of a government vessel. He is a line- 
officer, and in case of his absence or death, he is 
succeeded by the line-officer next in rank. 

The duties of the commanding officer are very 
comprehensive, inasmuch as he is not only an 
swerable for any bad conduct in the military 
government, navigation, and equipment of the 
ship he commands, but also for any neglect of 
duty or ill-management in his inferior officers, 
whose several duties he is appointed to superin 
tend and regulate. 

On first joining his vessel he will make a 
thorough personal examination of her, and will 
inform himself fully as to the condition of the 
vessel, her engines and boilers, as also regarding 
the qualifications of the officers placed under his 
command. He will be furnished by the com 
mandant of the navy-yard, or by the previous 
commanding officer of the vessel, if the vessel is 
already in commission, with a statement of her 
condition and of her presumed or ascertained 
qualities, as also with drawings and plans show 
ing the dimensions of the vessel, the arrange 
ment and stowage of the holds, store-rooms, 
magazines, shell-rooms, shot-lockers, etc. 

He will not sail from a port in the United 
States until the men are watched, quartered, and 
stationed ; and before proceeding to sea, he is, if 
possible, to exercise the men at the different evo 
lutions, and practice them at target-tiring. He 
will cause a routine of drills to be prepared, and 
will see that the men are thoroughly conversant 
with their various duties. He will cause the 
senior engineer to submit to him, for approval, 
his watch, fire, quarter, and cleaning bills, show 
ing the specific duties of each member of the 
force under his charge. He will pay the great 
est attention to the health of the crew and the 
cleanliness of the vessel, frequently inspecting 
her throughout ; he will see that the officers are 
considerate as regards the health of the men, and 
that they are not unnecessarily exposed to the 
sun or to the night-dews, and he will see that 
all regulations regarding the meal-hours are ob 



served. He will make careful and repeated trials 
of the vessel, under sail and under steam, with 
every variety of wind and weather, and will in 
form himself thoroughly as to her capabilities 
for every service, and of the length of time that 
she would be able to keep the sea under steam. 
He will make a quarterly report of her sailing 
qualities to the Navy Department in accordance 
with the prescribed form. When in command 
of _an iron vessel, he will have the bottom exam 
ined on every opportunity, being careful that the 
plates are cleaned and coated with preserving 
composition as often as necessary, that no injury 
be done by corrosion, and that no copper articles 
rest on the bottom in contact with the iron. 

On putting to sea he will cause a bright look 
out to be kept, and on approaching a foreign 
man-of-war, or being approached by one under 
suspicious circumstances, he will have the crew 
at quarters, ready for battle, and preserve this 
disposition until he ascertains her intentions. 
He will not suffer his vessel to be searched by 
any foreign power under any pretext, nor any 
officers or men to be taken out, so long as they 
have power of resistance ; if force be used, re 
sistance must be continued as long as possible ; 
if overcome, he is to yield his vessel, but not his 
men without the vessel. 

When a vessel of an enemy strikes her flag in an 
action, it will be the duty of the commanding offi 
cer to send an officer on board, if possible, to de 
mand the captain s sword, and to bring that offi 
cer with him, as a proof that the vessel has sur 
rendered ; and if, under these circumstances, she 
should again hoist her flag and continue the 
fight, she may be destroyed. On taking posses 
sion of a captured vessel he will adopt all neces 
sary precautions to prevent her from being re 
captured. He will send all the officers and a 
number of the crew of the captured vessel on 
board of the vessel he commands, and will pre 
serve all journals, signals, written orders, and 
important papers, particularly those that certify 
to the validity of the prize. He will see tha t 
prisoners of war are treated with humanity, that 
their personal property is carefully protected, 
and that they have the use of such of their effects 
as are necessary to their comfort, and that they 
are duly supplied with rations, but he will take 
care that prisoners of war are guarded and de 
prived of all means of escape or revolt. When 
an action is over, it is the duty of the com 
manding officer of a vessel to repair all damages 
and put the vessel under his command in good 
fighting order without delay ; to have reported 
to him the exact amount of munitions of war re 
maining on board, and to transmit to the com- 
mander-in-chief an account of the battle, in 
cluding a statement of the conduct of the officers 
and crew under his command, with a list of 
killed and wounded. Should he be compelled to 
strike the flag, he is to take special care to de 
stroy all signals and papers, the possession of 
which by an enemy might be injurious to the 
United States, and he will keep them so pre 
pared, with weights attached, that they will sink 
immediately on being thrown overboard. 

He will make to the Department, through the 
com mander-in- chief, a full report of any action, 
chase, or important movement in which the ves 
sel he commands may be engaged, and will also 
furnish diagrams illustrating the positions and 



COMMERCE 



152 



COMMERCE 



movements of the vessels, the direction of the 
wind, the bearing, distance, and outline of land, 
should any be in sight, and all information which 
may tend to a clear understanding of the occur 
rence. He will keep a journal, noting in it all 
desirable information in regard to the naval 
forces or armament of foreign powers, with such 
information regarding commerce, hydrography, 
etc., as may be useful to the government, and 
he will communicate immediately to the Bureau 
of Navigation all hydrographic information 
which may affect the charts or sailing directions. 
At the expiration of the cruise the journal will 
be forwarded to the Bureau of Navigation. He 
will direct the officers under his command, when 
visiting foreign ports, to obtain and report to 
him in writing such information as he may des 
ignate, and will himself report to the Navy De 
partment the capacity, power, and speed of the 
foreign vessels of war he meets with. 

He will see that the sailing directions, charts, 
and light-lists are carefully compared with those 
of all public vessels that he may meet having 
later information ; will have those of the vessel 
under his command corrected, and tracings or 
copies made of any new charts or hydrographic 
information. He will keep a file of all the hy 
drographic notices, notices to mariners, and hy 
drographic information that he receives. He 
will cause careful surveys to be made, and charts 
constructed, of any shoals, dangers, or harbors 
not correctly located, or which may require ex 
amination ; and, when completed, he will for 
ward them, with all the original data and com 
putations, to the Bureau of Navigation. When 
passing in the vicinity of doubtful dangers, or 
where there is an indication of shoal water or 
danger not on the charts, he will make, unless 
there be special reasons to the contrary, such 
search as the weather and other circumstances 
permit, and will forward the results to the 
Bureau of Navigation, with a track-chart of the 
traverses made, soundings taken, etc., and in 
general fulfill the conditions indicated by the 
hydrographer for making such examinations. 

In a port where there is not a consul of the 
United States, and on the high seas, commanders 
of fleets, squadrons, and of single vessels are au 
thorized and empowered by law to exercise the 
powers of consuls, in regard to mariners of the 
United States. 

Commerce, Modern. The commercial activity 
of nations has in all ages been taken as consti 
tuting a fair measure of their development in 
civilization, and in most cases the organized 
international exchanges comprehended in this 
single word have formed the direct civilizing 
agency. Asiatic history affords exceptions to 
this generalization, undoubtedly, if we admit 
that the ancient Indian and Chinese civilizations 
can claim any rank with those of modern times 
in Europe and the West ; and again, with Rome 
there was a form of national energy capable of 
great results, yet having little in common with 
the civilization of Europe even in the middle 
ages. As these ages develop, and as Europe 
becomes a family of nations, the function of 
commerce rises to the highest place as a law of 
development, until now the most powerful 
agencies of internal movement in every country 
are no more than equal to the strictly commercial 
systems of exchange conducted between nations. 



No one country is independent of the necessity 
to exchange its products with those of other 
countries. No people, whatever their nationality 
or origin, can isolate themselves from other 
peoples. A force superior to all others compels 
them to come into the general family of nations, 
to exchange their products and their services with 
all others, and to recognize a common interest 
which no one of them can resist. 

Modern commerce is the commerce of even the 
most recent times greatly intensified, and active 
to a degree only recently rendered possible. The 
steamship, as a freighting vessel, is new within 
a very few years, and the fleets of steamers now 
almost daily laden for transatlantic trade are 
scarcely yet known to the country as the facts 
of magnitude they are. The actual commerce 
of the United States with Europe conducted by 
these steamer fleets is enormous, and it increases 
with a degree of rapidity greater than is repre 
sented by the growth of either continent ; that 
is, the demand for these exchanges is itself in 
creasing independently of the increased produc/- 
tion of the articles or quantities exchanged. A 
larger proportion of the wheat crop and of the 
corn crop of the United States is now demanded 
and consumed in Europe than at any previous 
time, and the proportion sold abroad will be still 
greater hereafter. It is so with many other 
staples of export, with provisions and meats, 
with lard, cheese, butter, petroleum, and many 
other articles. The original inquiry or experi 
ment as to the salable value of any one of these 
commodities has changed to an imperative neces 
sity for these articles as staples of consumption, 
and this necessity cannot be delayed or denied. 
The nations of Europe cannot now dispense with 
the supply of food furnished by these steam fleets 
laden with grain and provisions. In place of 
the hesitating choice with which they were taken 
but a few years ago, the various forms in which 
corn is prepared are now unquestionably accepted 
as a staple food for all classes, and the shipments 
during the current year are consequently one- 
third greater than ever before. Having estab 
lished the position of Indian corn as the best and 
cheapest grain food for Europe, we need not again 
apprehend its waste by using it as fuel. Nor will 
the freight-carrying lines of the interior fail to 
find a profitable business in moving it across the 
country to the sea-board. 

This outward movement already constitutes a 
circulation altogether vital to the security of 
business. If this circulation is clogged or stopped, 
even for a day, it affects the greatest interests. A 
week of obstruction would bring on a financial 
panic, entailing enormous losses, and becoming 
general in its effects on all other business in 
terests. The value of the export movement is 
now felt by every farmer in the Mississippi Val 
ley, and the sense of international dependence is 
keenly felt at every railroad station in the west. 
Much of the advantage resulting to all the par 
ties to these exchanges is due to the perfection 
attained in economically handling these staples, 
and to the triumph over time and distance 
achieved by railroads and freighting facilities as 
they now are. If these had not been greatly 
improved, the value of meats and grains would 
be eaten up by the cost of transit, and the west 
ern producer would have little for the articles 
themselves. As it is, however, the perfection 



COMMEBCE 



153 



COMMERCE 



attained in freighting is wonderful, both inland 
and at sea, and the provisions sent to Europe are 
worth all they cost to the ultimate consumers. 

The weekly export of general merchandise 
grain and provisions being the chief articles is 
now about 10 millions of dollars in value at the 
port of New York alone, and this average has 
been maintained now for several months. The 
highest shipment on a single day was 1,254,500 
bushels of grain, wheat, and corn a quantity 
nearly approached on one or two other days, and 
likely again to be reached at any time. 

It will be seen by these illustrations that com 
merce in general has assumed proportions which 
strikingly illustrate the greater productive capa 
city of the present age, and the efficiency of all 
the appliances of business. It could not exist if 
agricultural production remained where it was 
twenty-five years ago, nor if railroads, elevator?, 
and steamships were the same as then. It could 
not supply the necessities of nations with any 
less efficient machinery than that now in use, 
and we pass on to these changes and improve 
ments in a great degree unconscious of the mag 
nitude of the general movement. 

The following table, giving the aggregate 
values of merchandise imported into and ex 
ported from the United States for ten years, will 
show the rapid increase now taking place, the 
years ending June 30 in each case : 



Value of Imports. 

1870 8462,377,587 

1871 541,493,708 

1872 640,338,376 

1873 663,617,147 

1874 595,861,248 

1875 553,906,153 

1876 476,667,871 

1877 492,097,540 

1878 466,872,846 

1879 466,073,775 

1880 760,919,875 



Value of Exports. 
$499,092,143 
562,518,651 
549,219,718 
649,132,563 
693,039,054 
643,094,767 
644,956,406 
676,115,592 
722,811,815 
717,093,777 
852,845,943 



For the last year 1879-80 the importation 
of a large amount of gold adds an unusual value 
to the imports, the merchandise account being im 
ports $667,885,565, and the exports $835, 793,924. 
The gold and silver coin imported reached the 
large sum of $93,034,310 ; the gold and silver ex 
ports being $17,142,919. For other years of the 
table there was little difference between the ex 
ports and imports of gold. 

This period embraces at least one of the com 
plete cycles of foreign trade characteristic of this 
country in the great increase of business of 1872 
and 1873, followed by the depression of 1874 to 
1879. Again, there was a remarkable change in 
1879, bringing in a fresh flood of importations in 
1880 of more than one hundred millions in value 
greater than in the previous year. Generally, 
while the imports have decreased in value, and 
in some classes of goods have almost ceased to 
come in as part of the necessary supply, the ex 
ports have increased one half, rising from 500 
millions in 1870 to 750 millions in 1880. To go 
a few years farther back the contrast would be 
still more striking : the average for several years 
near to 1860 would be about 300 millions ; for 
1870, about 500 millions; and for 1880, about 
750 millions. And in 1879 and 1880 there has 
been a total cessation of the usual large specie 
exports, very little being sent, while during 1879 
the imports of specie were large, being about 80 
millions in excess of any other recent year. 

The increase of shipping in the carrying trade 



is even more decisive, the total tonnage capacity 
of vessels entering all the ports of the United 
States from foreign countries being, for 



1870 6,270,189 

1871 6,994,187 

1872 7,769,986 

1873 8.394,749 

1874 10,009,655 



1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 



9,143,338 

. 9,715,904 

10,406,488 

11,530,527 

13,772,300 



For 1880 the figures would be still larger, and 
it may be stated that the shipping engaged in 
foreign trade has doubled within ten years. 
There would be more satisfaction with this re 
sult if the increase had been in American ves 
sels ; but, on the contrary, it is almost wholly 
foreign. The vast fleet of half-em ployed foreign 
steamers has been turned into the transatlantic 
trade with the United States by wholesale, as 
the best-paying trade of the world, and the only 
one that offers unlimited opportunity for expan 
sion. 

The new transatlantic fleet of steamers is 
almost wholly under foreign flags. Of the en 
tire tonnage arriving at New York not one 
steamship is American, and but four of those at 
other ports, these four belonging to the American 
line between Philadelphia and Liverpool. The 
contrast between the nationality of vessels under 
sail and those under steam is extreme, and it re 
sults from the narrow and sordid policy of Con 
gress in regard to the encouragement of steam 
lines. All European nations faithfully and per 
sistently support the steamship lines, through 
which alone a successful foreign commerce can 
now be conducted, and our government, on the 
contrary, with equal stubbornness and persist 
ence, refuses not only all assistance, but all rec 
ognition as vessels under the protection of the 
United States. The result is that, with a trade 
the richest in the world, and a vast and daily 
increasing commerce, we are defeated the mo 
ment we leave our own shores. 

The commerce of Europe has become more 
general and more decisive in its influence on re 
mote countries with every step of its general 
progress. The establishment of regular steam 
ship lines to all countries affording a constant 
trade was the greatest step of progress, and with 
its accompanying certainty of mail carriage and 
of passenger transportation, it has now for twenty 
years or more constituted the most powerful civil 
izing agency the world has known. This triumph 
is almost wholly to be credited to England, as the 
originator of the steam mail-service by sea, al 
though every other maritime nation has followed 
the example set by England more or less re 
motely, several European countries maintaining 
effective lines of distant service, but none ap 
proaching the English in number. Great and 
regular lines to the Indies, and by the way of 
the Indies to Australia, were established, and 
continue as the leading feature of the British 
mail service ; next are the South American 
and transatlantic lines, South America being 
reached by lines passing the French and Spanish 
coasts, and touching at Havre, Bordeaux, Lis 
bon, and the Azores on their way to Pernam- 
buco; thence to Eio Janeiro and the River 
Plate, and with extensions through the Straits 
of Magellan to the west coast of South America, 
Chili, "Peru, Ecuador, and Panama. No less 
than ten lines of steamers ran in 1877 to 1879 
from European ports to South America, five 



COMMISSION 



154 



COMMISSIONERS 



English, employing 58 vessels, and five German, 
French, and Italian, employing 43 vessels, all 
being steamships of large capacity and heavily 
freighted in both directions. The Royal Mail 
Steamship Company, the oldest of the lines, ran 
10 vessels from Southampton to Rio Janeiro 
and the River Plate, monthly and semi-monthly ; 
the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, with 
the same number of vessels, ran through to the 
west coast of South America with a monthly 
service; the Allan Line, to Brazil, with 10 ves 
sels; the Liverpool, Brazil, and River Plate, 
with 20 vessels; and the Clyde Line, with 6 
vessels, complete the English list. The North 
German Lloyds and the Hamburgh and South 
American constitute two German lines ; the 
"Chargeurs Reunis," the " Compagnie Mes- 
sageries Maritimes," and the " Sodete Generale 
Trans- Atlantique," constitute the French lines ; 
and one Italian line, from Genoa, completes the 
list. 

This is an illustration of the extent and com 
pleteness of the mail steamship service of modern 
commerce. It extends to every country having 
sufficient development to justify communication 
with Europe, and it radiates from English ports 
almost universally, although duplicated to a 
considerable extent from French, German, and 
Belgian ports. There is always an English line, 
and there may be, in addition, a French, Ger 
man, or Italian line. Neither of these last has 
any general field exclusive of the English. In 
all this service the United States have no part, ex 
cept in the "American Line" of four steamers 
from Philadelphia to Liverpool, and the line of 
John Roach & Co., of three steamers, from 
New York to Rio Janeiro. Neither of these 
lines receives especial recognition or compensa 
tion for mail service, although both carry some 
portion of the mails. Repeated efforts have been 
made to establish lines, or to obtain from Con 
gress authority for conducting a mail service by 
sea, but in only two instances have such efforts 
been successful, and the authority under which 
they were conducted has some years since ex 
pired. The Pacific mail service is now paid by 
the Australian governments of New South 
Wales and New Zealand, these two colonial 
governments uniting in payment for a monthly 
mail service from Sydney and Auckland to San 
Francisco, the withdrawal of which would com 
pel a discontinuance of that branch of the Pa 
cific mail steamship service. 

Such is the commerce of the present time, 
briefly reviewed. It is unquestionably in a transi 
tion state, and certain to undergo great changes 
within a comparatively brief period. These 
changes will not be in the direction of dimin 
ished volume or of inferior appliances, but they 
will probably exhibit a higher and more general 
appreciation, in the United States at least, of the 
true function of commerce itself, and a recogni 
tion of the duty of every great government to 
maintain its own proper relation to the necessary 
exchanges of the world. Lorin Blodgett. 

Commission (Lat. committere, to commit, 
to intrust). An instrument in writing in the 
form of a warrant, or letters patent ; a certificate 
of rank. The chief executive, or the supreme 
authority of the state, issues commissions to the 
officers of the army and navy, by virtue of which 
they hold office and exercise the duties thereof. 



Such officers are termed commissioned officers 
to distinguish those of the navy from warrant- 
officers ; those of the army from now-com 
missioned officers. By Section 1467, Revised 
Statutes, line-officers take rank in each grade ac 
cording to the dates of their commissions. 

A commission survives only during the pleasure 
of the authority whence it emanates. The Duke 
of Maryborough, while at the height of his power, 
exerted all his great influence to have his com 
mission as captain-general extended for life ; but 
the lord chancellor of England, having searched 
the records in vain for a precedent, declared that 
"a patent for life would be an innovation, to 
which he would not put the Great Seal" (Earl 
Stanhope s "Reign of Queen Anne"). It was 
found that the commission issued to Monk, who 
as " Restorer of the Monarchy" might claim es 
pecial privilege, was made to continue "during 
pleasure" only. Not satisfied with this decision, 
Maryborough, during the campaign in Flanders, 
addressed a personal letter to Queen Anne pray 
ing to be made general for life. To this the 
queen, on consulting with her ministers, re 
turned a positive refusal. 

The commission issued to Washington by Con 
gress under date of June 19, 1775, giving him 
the rank of commander-in-chief of the Ameri 
can army, stated that it was "to continue in 
for^e until revoked by this or a future Congress." 

Following immemorial custom, all commis 
sions issued to officers in the public service of 
the United States contain the following : "This 
commission to continue in force during the pleas 
ure of the President of the United States for the 
time being." 

In past years the President of the United 
States has, on several notable occasions, actually 
exercised his prerogative, by summarily dis 
missing officers. But Congress has now limited 
that power to a time of war. Article 36 of the 
Articles for the Government of the United States 
Navy, commonly known as the Articles of War, 
declares that " No officer shall be dismissed from 
the naval service except by the order of the 
President or by sentence of a general court- 
martial ; and in time of peace no officer shall be 
dismissed except in pursuance of the sentence of 
a general court-martial or in mitigation there 
of." Congress has further decreed that under 
certain conditions the President s order of dis 
missal shall be void. (Act of June 22, 1874.) 

A commission sometimes includes a number 
of persons associated together for some particular 
object. The commission issued by Queen Vic 
toria (1858) to Earl Hardwicke and eight others, 
"to inquire into the best means of manning the 
Royal Navy," led to the present admirable sys 
tem of training boys for that navy. 

The act of putting a vessel of war " in com 
mission" is accomplished by hoisting, in their ap 
propriate places, the national colors and the pen 
nant of the commanding officer. The command 
ing officer then assembles the officers and crew, 
and reads to them the order by virtue of which 
he assumes command. S. B. Luce, Captain 
U.S.N. 

COMMISSIONED OFFICER. An officer holding 
a commission from the President, as distin 
guished from non-commissioned and warrant- 
officers. 

Commissioners, Board of Navy. In 1815 



COMMISSIONERS 



155 



COMPASS 



Congress authorized the formation of a board 
of navy commissioners, which was placed under 
the superintendence of the Secretary of the Navy, 
and was charged with all the ministerial duties 
of the department relating to the procuring of 
supplies and stores, the collection of materials, 
the construction, armament, and employment of 
all the vessels. Commodores Kodgers, Hull, and 
Porter were appointed the first commissioners. 
The board was abolished in 1842. See ADMIN 
ISTRATION, NAVAL. 

Commissioners of the Navy (Eng.}. Cer 
tain officers formerly appointed to superintend 
the affairs of the navy under direction of the 
lords commissioners of the Admiralty. Their 
duty was more immediately concerned in the 
building, docking, and repairing of ships in the 
dock-yards ; they had also the appointment of 
some of the officers, as surgeons, masters, etc., 
and the transport, victualing, and medical de 
partments were controlled by that board. It 
was abolished in 1831. See ADMINISTRATION, 
NAVAL. 

Commodore. This rank of no remote date in 
the British service, and only now a brevet rank, 
so to speak, for a captain in command of a squad 
ron or a division of a fleet, is not noticed in the 
dictionaries of the 17th century. It is supposed 
to be derived from the Spanish " Comendador," 
one having command over others, or a company. 

Until 1861 captains in the United States navy 
commanding, or having commanded, squadrons, 
were recognized as commodores, though never 
commissioned as such, and wore a broad pennant 
distinctive of that rank. In 1862 it was estab 
lished by law as a fixed rank, and in July of that 
year l q were commissioned on the active and 17 
on the retired list. 

A commodore has assimilated rank with a brig 
adier-general of the army ; and the chief naval 
constructor, paymaster-general, surgeon-general 
and engineer-in-chief of the navy, bureau offi 
cers, rank with commodores. 

A commodore may command a division or a 
squadron, or be chief of staff of a naval force 
commanded by an admiral, a vice- or rear-ad 
miral ; or may command ships of the first class, 
naval stations, or the vessel of an admiral, vice- 
admiral, or rear-admiral commanding a fleet. 

Companion. The skylights or framing and 
sash-lights on the upper deck, by which light 
passes to the deck below. A kind of wooden 
hood over the staircase of the cabin in small 
ships, Companions are generally movable. 

COMPANION-LADDER. The ladder by which 
the cabin-officers ascend to or descend from the 
quarter-deck. fc 

COMPANION-WAY. The staircase or berthing 
of the ladder-way to the cabin. 

Comparison. The difference between the 
chronometer and the time-piece used in an ob 
servation. To take a comparison is to ascertain 
the difference between the time-piece and the 
chronometer; this should be done just before 
and just after the observation. 

Compasant. See ST. ELMO S FIRE. 

Compass, The Mariner s. This is probably the 
most important of all the instruments employed 
by the navigator, and consists essentially of the 
card, the needle, and the bowl. It is used for the 
purpose of pointing out the direction of the 
ship s track, or the course upon which she is 



sailing, and is supposed to derive its name from 
the fact that it includes or compasses the whole 
plane of the horizon. 
The card (Fig. 1) is of a circular form, divided 

Fio. 1. 




at its circumference into thirty-two points of 
eleven degrees and fifteen minutes each, the 
points being subdivided into half and quarter 
points, and when a still smaller division is de 
sired, into degrees. It is also divided into four 
quadrants of ninety degrees each, the extremities 
marking these quadrants being called the four 
cardinal points, or north, east, south, and west 
(written N., E., S., and W.), counting from the 
top of the card and going around by the right 
hand, or in the direction "in which the hands of 
a watch move. The north point of the card is 
generally marked by & fleur-de-lis. 

The quadrants are again equally divided at 
every four points, or forty-five degrees, the points 
marking these subdivisions being given names 
compounded of the names of the two cardinal 
points between which they fall, or northeast, 
southeast, southwest, and northwest (written 
N.E., S.E., S.W., and N.W.). 

The eight points already described may be 
called the eight principal points of the compass. 

The points half-way between the four cardinal 
points and the points N.E. r S.E.,S.W., and N.W. 
are given a name composed of the nearest cardi 
nal point and the points Just named. Thus, the 
point midway between N. and N.E. is called 
north-northeast (written N.N.E.), that between 
N.E. and E. east-northeast (written E.N.E.), 
etc., the name of the cardinal point nearest 
which they fall always coming first. 

The points next the eight principal points take 
the word by between such principal point and 
the next cardinal point, the name of the princi 
pal point next which they fall coming first. For 
example, the point next to N. on the right is 
north by east (written N. by E., or N. b. E.), 
that next to N.E. on the right, northeast by east 
(written N.E. by E., or N?E. b. E.), etc. 

The quarter point next to N. on the right is 
north a quarter east (written N. \ E.), the half 
point north a half east (written N. E.), the 
same general rule being observed as in naming the 
whole points. 

In many cases the bearings of objects are given 
to eighths of a point. 



COMPASS 



156 



COMPASS 



The name of the opposite point to any given 
point is known at once by simply reversing the 
name or the letters which indicate the name of 
the given point. Thus, the opposite of N. being 
S. and that of E., W., the opposite point of N.E. 
is S.W., that opposite N.E. by E , S.W. by W., 
etc. 

If the impressions of the card are taken on 
paper, this should be done after the paper has 
been cemented to the plate forming the basis, in 
order to prevent distortion from shrinkage, and 
also to attain a more perfect centring. This 
being accomplished, the card is placed upon the 
needles, which consist of laminae, or layers, of 
hardened steel, capable of receiving and retain 
ing a high degree of magnetic power. The 
needles are fastened at equal distances to a light 
frame- work of brass, and are screwed to the card 
in a direction parallel to the line joining the 
north and south points. 

In the best form of air or dry compasses, that 
used in the English navy, and known as the Ad 
miralty pattern, these needles are four in num 
ber, the two centre ones being about 7^ inches 
long and the two outer ones about 5 inches. 
The extremities of these needles are 15 and 45 
from the extremities of the diameter of the card 
which is parallel to them. On the needles small 
brass balancing-slides are placed, so that*the card 
may be restored to its horizontal position when 
affected by dip. These slides should move freely, 
but should have sufficient friction to retain them 
in their places. 

Two cards, a light and a heavy one, marked 
respectively A and J, are supplied with this 
compass, the former being for ordinary use 
when the ship is comparatively steady, and the 
latter for use when there is a great deal of mo 
tion. The light card is balanced on a pivot 
having a point of " native alloy," which is 
harder than steel, and does not corrode on expo 
sure to the atmosphere. Two spare pivots of 
hardened steel are also furnished for the light 
card, and these are gilded by an electrical pro 
cess. The caps in which these pivots work are 
centred with ruby or agate, while the cap of the 
heavy card is centred with speculum metal and 
ruby-pointed pivots are used. 

The pivot should be screwed into the exact 
centre of the bowl, which is made of strong cop 
per, with a glass top, and fitted with gimbals, 
so that the card may always preserve a horizon 
tal position even when the motion of the ship is 
most violent. The intersecting point of the axis 
of the gimbals must coincide with the centre of 
the card and with the centre of the azimuth cir 
cle. This latter is a metal circle, graduated to 
minutes of arc, and fitted with a prism and a 
sight vane, the latter having a wide opening in 
which is placed a vertical hair-line exactly oppo 
site the centre of the prism, the line of sight 
joining the two passing over the pivot. The 
azimuth circle is made to ship on the circum 
ference of the bowl, and is used in taking bear 
ings. Colored glasses are also fitted to the circle 
to prevent the glare of the sun from blinding the 
observer when taking bearings of that body. 
The azimuth circle is only fitted to the standard 
compass, the binnacle, or steering compasses, 
being unprovided with it. 

The bowl and the compass-card are placed in 
a wooden box and the whole in a binnacle, which 



consists of a wooden case mounted on a stand, 
the top being of brass, fitted with glass, so that 
the card may be seen, and having lamps at the 
sides to light up the card at night. 

The pivots, caps, and margins of the card 
should be frequently examined to see that they 
are in good order and working freely, and when 
the card works sluggishly or injury from any 
cause occurs, a new cap or pivot should be 
screwed in, being careful when screwing the 
pivot into the bowl to preserve its point from 
injury and to place the card lightly upon it. 
When the bowl does not work freely in the 
gimbals, the axes of the latter and their bouch- 
ings should be examined, and, if necessary, 
slightly rubbed with plumbago. No oil, grease, 
or other fatty substance should be used for this 
purpose. 

In addition to the fittings already described a 
screw is fitted to the side of the bowl, by means 
of which the card may be lifted off the pivot and 
clamped. When it is necessary to move the 
compass, or when firing the heavy guns, the card 
should be raised to avoid injury to the pivot. 

The screws attached to the prism plate and to 
the sight vane receive special adjustment, and 
should not be touched. 

Ritchie 1 s -Liquid Compass (Fig. 2), which is 
used as the regulation compass in the United 

FIG. 2. 




States navy, consists of a skeleton card mounted 
on a pivot, and having the bowl filled with a 
liquid composed of thirty-five parts of alcohol 
and sixty-five parts of distilled water, the freez 
ing-point of the mixture being about 10 Fahr 
enheit. In the bowls of the compasses designed 
for use in the Arctic regions pure alcohol is used. 
The needles, which are two in number, each 
consist of six laminae of a superior quality of 
steel, known in commerce as " Stubb s sheet," 
this having been found the best for the purpose, 
not only for its uniform excellence, but for its 
magnetic capacity in both intensity and per 
manence. Each of these laminae is six and a 
half inches long, seven-sixteenths of an inch 
wide, and about one-fortieth of an inch thick, 
and each needle weighs a little less than two 
ounces. 



COMPASS 



157 



COMPASS 



These needles are inclosed in two parallel 
tubes, which serve also as air-chambers, the tubes 
being parallel to the line joining the N. and S. 
points of the card, their ends meeting the rim a 
little within 30 of this line. These tubes are 
connected at the centre by a third hollow tube at 
right angles to them, which supports the cap 
upon which the card is pivoted. The rim is 
fitted to form another air-chamber, thus giving 
great buoyancy to the card. 

Great care is exercised in hardening and tem 
pering the lamime, and, by means of a powerful 
electro-magnet, they are magnetized to satura 
tion. They are then separately tested for rela 
tive magnet power, and the angle of deflection 
marked on each. Afterwards they are thrown 
promiscuously into contact for a short time and 
again tested, any which show a sensible falling 
off being rejected. 

These compasses have given great satisfaction 
in use, and are found to possess in the highest 
degree the three great requisites of a good com 
pass, viz., directive force, sensibility, and steadi 
ness. The 7^-inch has been adopted as the regu 
lation size in the navy, and as the azimuth cir 
cle that lits one fits all, any compass may be used 
indifferently as a standard or as a steering com 
pass. 

Another great advantage possessed by these 
compasses is that the pressure on the pivot being 
only about seventy grains on an average, there 
is much less frictional error, and of course a 
much less degree of wear on the caps and pivots 
than with the card of the air compass, in which 
the pressure on the pivot with the heavier card 
may be sixty times as great. 

In the tell-tale compasses, which are mounted 
face downward, the pressure on the pivot is so 
regulated as to act upward. 

^Duchemin s Compass (Fig. 3) consists of two 
concentric circular needles with a steel traverse 

FIG. 3. 




connecting the poles. The maximum magnetiza 
tion (shown by the heavy shading) is at the N. 
and S. points, decreasing gradually to zero at E. 
and W. The circle is magnetized by a special 
process, which gives magnetic stability, and 
placed upon a pivot or suspended by a thread 
from the centre, it forms a true compass, the N. 
pole pointing to the south and the S. pole to the 
north. 



In a series of experiments made at sea with 
this compass, in which it was intentionally ex 
posed to the roughest usage, it proved so satis 
factory with regard to sensibility, steadiness, and 
fixity of the line of its poles, that it has been 
adopted as the regulation compass in the French 
navy, and is in use in several lines of merchant 
steamers. 

The magnetic needle is subject to the influ 
ences of variation or declination, dip or incli 
nation, and deviation. 

On account of the magnetic attraction of the 
earth there are but few places on the globe at 
which the compass-needle points to the true 
north, or in the direction of a terrestrial me 
ridian. The direction that the horizontal needle 
assumes when uninfluenced by local causes is 
called the magnetic meridian, hence the variation 
of the compass is the angle included between the 
terrestrial and the magnetic meridians, and is 
measured by the number of degrees between the 
true and the magnetic north. If the N. end of 
the needle is drawn to the right hand of true 
north, the variation is called easterly, and if to 
the left hand, westerly. 

The variation of the compass differs at differ 
ent places, and is constantly, though slowly, 
changing at the same place, increasing for a cer 
tain time, then slowly decreasing for a period, 
when it again commences to increase. Thus, 
at Paris, in 1550, the variation was 8 E., in 
1660, zero, and in 1769, 20 W. It is also 
subject to mensual and diurnal changes, the 
mensual change being according to the season 
of the year. It was first noticed about the year 
1756. 

In the diurnal change, a small easterly move 
ment of the needle is observed during the early 
morning hours, reaching a maximum about 7 
A.M. After that time the N. end moves rapidly 
westward, reaching its extreme westerly position 
at about 1 P.M. It then returns to the eastward, 
but more slowly, the easterly deviation becoming 
a maximum at about 10 P.M. To seamen, how 
ever, these small fluctuations are unimportant. 
The mean daily range of the magnetic needle is 
about 9.3 . 

The needle is also affected by sudden changes in 
the direction and intensity of the magnetic force. 
Eaper cites a case in which, at Greenwich ob 
servatory, the needle was observed to change its 
direction more than 2 in eight minutes of time, 
and similar effects were observed at other places. 
These sudden disturbances are called magnetic 
storms. 

If all places having the same variation be 
united by lines drawn upon the chart, these lines 
will be found to describe irregular curves, called 
lines of equal variation, or isogonic lines. The 
lines uniting places at which the needle, when 
uninfluenced by local causes, points to the true 
north are called lines of no variation, or agonic 
lines. 

The discovery of the variation of the needle 
from the true north is usually attributed to Co 
lumbus during the voyage in which he discovered 
America, but in one of" the earliest treatises on 
magnetism, written in 1269, the variation of the 
needle is spoken of. The authenticity of this 
work has, however, been questioned. 

The magnetic needle when placed on a pivot 
will not retain its horizontal position except on 



COMPASS 



158 



COMPASS 



the magnetic equator, the N. end of the needle 
dipping and the S. end rising in N. magnetic 
latitudes, and the S. end dipping and the N. 
end rising in S. magnetic latitudes. This incli 
nation of the needle to a horizontal plane or to 
the horizon is called the dip, or inclination of 
the needle, and is different at different places ac 
cording to their magnetic latitude. The dip, 
like the variation, undergoes a continual change, 
which is, however, very small in amount, the 
decrease at London in the last three hundred 
years amounting to no more than about four de 
grees. There is a diurnal change amounting to 
three or four minutes. Lines drawn on the 
chart to unite places having the same dip are 
called lines of equal dip, or isoclinal lines. On 
the magnetic equator the dip is zero, and at the 
magnetic poles it is 90. It is found by means 
of the dipping-needle, a very delicate instrument. 
The dip being in some degree a measure of the 
intensity of the earth s magnetism as well as ma 
terially modifying the directive force of tho 
needle, is a matter of great importance to the 
mariner. At the magnetic poles, where the 
needle is perpendicular, it has of course no 
directive force, although at these points the 
greatest magnetic intensity is developed. The 
dip was first observed by Robert Norman, an 
English compass-maker, in 1576. 

The Magnetic Equator, of which we have al 
ready spoken, is an irregular curve, cutting the 
terrestrial equator in three points according to 
some authorities, in four according to others. 
From the magnetic equator magnetic latitude is 
reckoned, and at any point on it the magnetic 
needle will retain its horizontal position, or there 
will be no dip. 

As this curve does not coincide throughout 
with the terrestrial equator, magnetic latitudes 
do not correspond everywhere with the common 
or geographical latitude, differing at some places 
as much as 13. 

The Magnetic Poles are two spots on the sur 
face of the earth, one in the northern and the 
other in the southern hemisphere, at which the 
needle points directly downward, or at which the 
dip is 90. The present position of the south 
magnetic pole is about lat. 70 N., Ion. 98 W., 
and of the north magnetic pole, lat. 74 S., Ion. 
148 E. The change in the variation previously 
mentioned has been ascribed to the revolution of 
these poles around the poles of the earth. 

The Deviation of the Compass may be denned 
to be the angle which the needle makes with the 
magnetic meridian, and is measured by the num 
ber of degrees between this meridian and the 
line of direction of the needle. It is marked 
east or west as the N. end of the needle is drawn 
to the right or left of the magnetic meridian. 

The deviation of the compass is caused by the 
action on the needle of the iron in a ship, whether 
employed in her construction, equipment, or 
cargo, and by the action of magnetic forces with 
out the ship, such as exist in volcanic bodies, 
iron cranes, water-pipes, or in anything that can 
exert a magnetic influence on the needle. The 
magnetic influence which one iron ship can ex 
ercise upon the compasses of another in close prox 
imity is very appreciable. Lightning may affect 
the compass needle. 

There are different methods of finding the 
error due to these causes, a description of which 



will be found in almost any work on navigation, 
but all consist in bringing the ship s head in suc 
cession to each of the thirty-two points of the 
compass, and then observing the bearing of some 
object, either celestial or terrestrial, whose true 
bearing is found either by calculation or by the 
inspection of tables prepared for the purpose. 
The difference between the true bearing so found 
and the bearing shown by compass, after the 
variation due to the place has been applied to the 
compass bearing, is the error due to local devia 
tion. 

As the local deviation differs in iron ships 
when the ship is on an even keel and when heel 
ing, it should be determined under both circum 
stances, and in steamers, if this error has been 
determined with the funnel up, a few bearings 
should be taken with it down, when, if any con 
siderable difference is observed, the errors should 
be obtained for both positions of the funnel. 

The deviation may be found by bringing the 
ship s head on every other point of the compass, 
or even on the eight principal points, the error 
on the omitted points being obtained by inter 
polation. Graphic methods of representing the 
deviation have been devised, the best being that 
of Napier and the right-line method of Archi 
bald Smith. 

After finding the deviation on all the points 
of the compass, these errors may be either tabu 
lated or the compass may be compensated by 
means of magnets placed in the deck near the 
compass. In some iron vessels, where the devia 
tion on particular courses is very large, a com 
bination of the two methods is used, the errors 
being partially compensated by magnets and the 
residual error being found by observation and 
tabulated. 

Both methods, the compensation and the tabu 
lar, have their advocates. In the United States 
navy, as well as in the navy of England, uncom- 
pensated compasses are used, and the deviations 
given from the deviation table are applied to the 
compass courses to find the correct magnetic 
course steered or to steer. Many merchant ves 
sels use compensated compasses. 

As the deviations found for the compasses of a 
vessel are only good at the place where found, 
and change, from a variety of causes, after any 
considerable lapse of time or after considerable 
change of position, it frequently becomes neces 
sary to move the magnets by which the compen 
sation is effected in order to compensate for the 
new deviations found. Great difficulty is some 
times experienced in doing this as the magnets 
are ordinarily fitted. To obviate this difficulty, 
as well as to furnish a compass possessed of great 
steadiness and small frictional error, Sir William 
Thomson has designed an instrument which, 
while possessing all the qualities of a good com 
pass, can be readily and quickly adjusted for 
changes of deviation, and which may be described 
as follows : 

The compass-card (Fig. 4) is supported on a 
thin rim of aluminium, and its inner parts on 
thirty-two silk threads or fine copper wires 
stretched from the rim to a small central boss of 
aluminium. The card itself is of thin, strong 
paper, and all the central parts of it are cut away, 
leaving only enough to show conveniently the 
points and degree divisions of the compass. 

The central boss consists of a thin disk of 



COMPASS 



159 



COMPASS 



aluminium with a hole in its centre, which rests 
on the projecting lip of a small aluminium in- 



FIG. 4. 







verted cup mounted with a sapphire cap, which 
rests on a fixed iridium point. Eight small 
needles from 3^ to 2 inches long, made of thin 
steel wire, and weighing in all 54 grains, are 
fixed like the steps of a rope ladder on two paral 
lel silk threads, and slung from the aluminium 
rim by four fine copper wires through eyes in 
the four ends of the outer pair of needles. 

The weight of the central boss, aluminium 
cup, and sapphire cap amounts in all to about 5 
grains. It need not be more for a 24-inch than 
for a 10-inch compass. For the 10-inch compass 
the whole weight on the iridium point, including 
rim, card, silk thread, central boss, and needles, 
is about 180 grains. 

By throwing the greater part of the weight of 
the card to its rim a long period of free oscilla 
tion and consequent steadiness is insured, and, 
owing to the small pressure on the pivot, due to 
the lightness of the card, there is almost absolute 
freedom from frictional error. There is a hemi 
spherical space under the compass-case, which 
being nearly filled with castor oil, serves to calm 
the vibratio ns of the bowl. 

The apparatus for correcting the error of the 
compass consists of two solid or hollow iron 
globes placed on proper supports, and attached 
to the compass on two sides of the binnacle. 
These are for the purpose of correcting the quad- 
rantal error, or that caused by the difference of 
the induced magnetism in fore-and-aft and 
thwartships horizontal iron. This adjustment 
having been once made remains correct in all 
latitudes, unless there is some change in the 
place of the iron near the compass. To make 
the correction the globes are placed at a certain 
distance from the centre of the compass, accord 
ing to the amount of the deviation to be cor 
rected. 

For correcting the semicircular deviation, or 
that caused by the magnetism of the ship and 
the induced magnetism of her vertical iron, 
which changes with lapse of time and with 
change of latitude, sets of magnets are so ar 
ranged in the binnacle as to neutralize the dis 
turbance arising from this cause, as well as that 
caused by the heeling error. For this latter a 
vertical magnet, adjustable to the proper height, 



in a line perpendicular to the deck, through the 
centre of the compass and of the binnacle, is 
used. 

The inventor has also applied to this compass 
an azimuth mirror on the principle of the camera 
lucida, by which the bearings of objects on the 
horizon can be taken, even if the highest point 
of the globes used for correcting the quadrantal 
deviation rises as high as 5 inches above the glass 
of the compass-bowl. By means of this mirror 
the readings are taken directly on the card, and 
it possesses the advantage of not requiring any 
adjustment of the instrument, such as that by 
which, in the ordinary azimuth compass, the hair- 
is made to exactly cover the object. 

The deviation of the compass-needle was ob 
served by Mr. Wales, who accompanied Capt. 
Cook as astronomer, in the latter half of the 
18th century, but no effort seems to have been 
made at that time for its correction, it having 
probably been ascribed to the imperfection of the 
instruments then employed. 

The first attempt to correct the deviation ap 
pears to have been made by Capt. Matthew 
Flinders, who observed it while on a surveying 
expedition to Australia in the beginning of the 
present century. He suggested the introduction 
of an upright iron stanchion so placed as to 
counteract the ship s attraction, and the explana 
tion which he then gave of the action on the 
needle of the ship s iron has formed the basis of 
all subsequent investigation. 

The Chinese were perhaps the first people who 
possessed a knowledge of the properties of the 
magnetized needle. We are told that as early as 
2634 B.C. these people possessed an instrument 
which would indicate the S. point, thus distin 
guishing the four cardinal points. Other allu 
sions to the compass are also made in old Chi 
nese records, proving its great antiquity among 
them. 

The Chinese compass has a distinguishing 
mark at the S. pole instead of at the N., as 
with us. The needle is seldom more than an 
inch in length, and is less than a line in thick 
ness. It is peculiarly poised, with its point of 
suspension a little below its centre of gravity, 
and is very sensitive. The card has but twenty- 
four points, reckoned from the S. pole. 

The improvement of the mariner s compass 
has been but a slow process, and during the last 
forty years it has been brought to a greater de 
gree of perfection than during all of the pre 
vious period in which it has been known. During 
the last few years the introduction of iron in 
the construction and equipment of vessels has 
stimulated investigation in order to detect the 
causes of the vagaries of the needle, and to 
apply a remedy which should make the com 
pass an instrument upon which reliance could 
be placed. 

Some of the most eminent scientific men of the 
present day have devoted their energies to the 
task, and the result is a great improvement in 
our knowledge of the laws of magnetism as 
affecting the compass-needle, and in the con 
struction of the compasses now in use. 

See the various works on Magnetism and on 
Navigation. Also, " English Philosophical 
Transactions ; Magnetism of Ships and Devia 
tion of the Compass," republished by the Bureau 
of Navigation in 1867, especially the article on 



COMPASS-TIMBEK 



160 



COMPOUND 



the Mariner s Compass from the London Quar 
terly Review for October, 1865; "Naval Sci 
ence," vol. ii., 1873, articles on Deviation of the 
Compass ; " Elementary Magnetism and Local 
Attraction of Ship s Compasses," Sunderland, 
Thomas Keed & Co. ; " Finding of the Compass 
Error," by B. F. Greene, Professor U. S. Navy; 
Towson on the " Deviation of the Compass in 
Iron Ships ;" " Encyclopaedia Britannica," arti 
cle Compass ; " Keports of the Liverpool Com 
pass Commission," republished by the Bureau 
of Navigation in 1868, etc. Charles H. Black, 
Lieutenant- Commander U, S. N. 

COMPASS, ADJUSTMENT OF. See COMPASS, 
THE MARINER S. 

COMPASS, AZIMUTH. A compass of superior 
construction fitted for taking bearings. 

COMPASS BEARING. The bearing of an object 
as taken by the compass. It is distinguished 
from the true bearing, which may be deduced 
from it by applying the corrections for variation 
and deviation. See BEARING. 

COMPASS CORRECTIONS. Those quantities 
which must be applied to directions shown by 
the needle to give the true directions. There 
are two such corrections : the variation and the 
deviation. See COMPASS, THE MARINER S. 

COMPASS COURSE. The angle which the ship s 
track makes with the direction of the magnetic 
needle of the compass. It is distinguished from 
the true course, which may be deduced from it 
by applying the corrections for variation and de 
viation. The correction for leeway is also neces 
sary to deduce the course made good from the 
course steered. See COURSE. 

COMPASS, IMPERFECTIONS OF. 1. The pivot 
must be in the centre of the graduated circum 
ference of the card. 

2. The eye-vane and object-vane must each be 
vertical. 

3. The direction of the magnetism of the 
needle must be parallel to the longitudinal line 
of the needle. 

4. The line joining the eye-vane and object- 
vane must pas s directly over the centre of the 
card. 

The effects of non-conformity with the last 
two requirements can be ascertained and allowed 
for, but a failure to meet either of the first two 
should cause the rejection of the instrument. 

COMPASS, STANDARD. One raised above the 
deck, so that the local deviation will be small 
and the compass in a good position for observing 
bearings. 

COMPASS, STEERING. The compass by which 
the vessel is steered. The course is given as 
per standard compass, and the proper allowance 
for the difference is made by the officer of the 
deck. 

Compass-timber. Curved or crooked tim 
ber. 

Complain. When the masts, timbers, blocks, 
etc., creak, and thus show that there is some in 
ternal defect, they are said to complain. 

Complement. The number of men composing 
a ship s crew. 

Composite Sailing. A combination of paral 
lel and great-circle sailing. See SAILINGS. 

Composite Ship. One having a wooden skin 
and an iron frame- work. Jordan s system is as 
follows: the whole outer skin, including stem, 
keel, stern-post, and planking, is of wood ; and 



the frames, beams, kelson, shelf-piece, braces, 
etc., are of iron. See SHEATHED SHIP. 

Compound Engine. A modification of steam- 
engine in which the steam, having performed a 
certain amount of work in one cylinder, is ad 
mitted to another cylinder of larger dimensions, 
where additional work is obtained from its re 
maining expansive force. The primitive method 
was patented by Hornblower in the year 1781, 
and improved by Wolf in 1804, by the adoption 
of higher steam-pressure applied to Watt s ex 
pired patents of the double-acting cylinder and 
separate condenser ; and the principle was first 
introduced on a large scale by Randolph, Elder 
& Co., of Glasgow, under their patents of 1856, 
in the steamships " Callao," " Lima," and " Bo 
gota," of the Pacific Steam Navigation Com 
pany. Crude as the design was, and using com 
paratively low-pressure steam, the economy ob 
served, which was 1\ pounds of coal per hour 
per indicated horse-power under circumstances 
when 3| pounds consumption was considered an 
excellent performance, caused the system to 
gradually grow into favor, and it is now almost 
universally adopted. 

In the year 1850 the average of the voyages 
of the Cunard steamships with plain engines was 
13 days outward bound, and 12 days, 16 hours 
homeward bound ; and in 1877 the average of 
the " White Star" line, with compound engines, 
was 8 days, 13 hours, 39 minutes outward bound, 
and 8 days, 10 hours, 30 minutes homeward 
bound. 

The " Gallia," the latest steamer of the Cunard 
line, made her first voyage from Queenstown to 
New York in 7 days, 19 hours, under the follow 
ing conditions : 

VESSEL. 

Length of keel 430 feet. 

Length all over.i 450 " 

Breadth of beam 44 " 

Depth of hold 36 " 

ENGINES. 

Number cylinders, one H. P. and two L. P. 3 
Diameter of H. P. cylinder 63 inches. 

" " each L. P. cylinder 80 " 

Stroke of pistons , 5 feet. 

Greatest diameter of crank-shaft journals.. 21 inches. 
Cut-off valves on high-pressure cylinder. 

Condensing surface 8,300 square feet. 

Condenser tubes, inch diameter, 9 feet 

long. 
Independent circulating pumps (Gwynne s). 

Propeller, steel-bladed ; weight 24 tons. 

BOILERS. 

Number of boilers 8 

Diameter " 14 feet 6 inches. 

Length " 9 "6 " 

Number of furnaces, each 3 

Area of grates 538 square feet. 

Diameter of boiler tubes 3J^ inches. 

Length " " " 7 feet. 

Area of heating surface 13,000 square feet. 

" superheating surface 400 " 

PERFORMANCE. 

Steam-pressure, per square inch 75 pounds. 

Indicated horse-power (mean of trip) 5,261 

Coal per day 98 tons. 

Coal per hour per I.P 1.73 pounds. 

Speed 14.3 knots. 

" at measured mile 16 

Greatest day s run 383 " 

Compound engines can be made much less 
complicated than plain engines of equal steam- 



COMPOUND 



161 



CONCLUDING-LINE 



expanding power. Expansion can readily be 
carried as far as eight times the original volume 
without the use of cut-off valves, thus dispensing 
with a great deal of troublesome machinery. 
The strains upon the running-gear and crank 
shaft are nearly ^equal throughout the stroke of 
the piston, and the parts can be made lighter than 
in the plain engine, where they must be strong 
enough to withstand the initial pressure of the 
steam, entailing a consequent increase of friction. 
Steam cannot be beneficially expanded more 
than eight times its volume ; for even supposing 
the expansion curve to be an isothermal line, or 
to follow the imaginary law of Mariotte, a con 
dition that can never be realized in practice, the 
gain by expanding to sixteen volumes is only 
four and seven-tenths per cent, more than by ex 
panding eight volumes. To expand eight vol 
umes in the plain engine an extremely compli 
cated apparatus is necessary. See EXPANSION 
OF STEAM, MARINE STEAM-ENGINE. 

When great power is required, it is customary 
to construct compound engines with three cylin 
ders, one being high pressure and two low press 
ure, on account of the inconvenient size of the 
low-pressure cylinder when only one is used. 
This arrangement also gives a more uniform 
strain to the crank-shaft. 

The ratio of volume between the low-pressure 
and high-pressure cylinders is usually between 
three and a half and four to one. 

Steam-jacketing and high-pressure steam 
two important sources 6f economy in modern 
engineering may be applied to plain engines ; 
but results thus far observed are in favor of the 
compound engine. Albert Aston, Chief Engineer 
U.S.N. 

Compound Screw. Two screws of different 
pitches acting together on the same axis. In 
some combinations one screw is within the other, 
the outer one forming the nut of the inner one, 
in which case the inner screw does not revolve ; 
or, the two threads may be cut on one continuous 
piece, one being provided with a fixed nut and 
the other witli a movable nut. Suppose both 
threads to be either right-handed or left-handed, 
the resultant motion and consequent force in 
direction of the axis is represented by the differ 
ence between the pitches of the screws. The 
object of this contrivance is to obtain a slow ad 
vance due to fine pitch, together with the strength 
of large threads. 

If one screw is right-handed and the other 
left-handed, the resultant motion is represented 
by the sum of the two pitches. The elevating 
screws of some classes of ordnance are on this 
principle. The ordinary " turn-buckle" is another 
example. Albert Aston, Chief Engineer U.S.N. 

Comprador (Sp.). In the East, one who con 
tracts to furnish meat, vegetables, etc., for a 
ship. 

Compressed-air Engine. An engine similar 
to the steam-engine, compressed air being the 
motive force instead of steam. It is especially 
adapted to locomotive purposes, such as driving 
street tramway-cars. The air is compressed to 
any desired tension by large stationary engines, 
or by water-power, and then heated to a high 
temperature. It is then received into the reser 
voirs of the locomotive or street-car, which have 
sufficient capacity to run to the next station. 

Compressor. A curved lever pivoted so as 
11 



to permit the curve to sweep the lower orifice of 
the deck-pipe. To the end is hooked a small 
tackle. When the compressor is hauled to, the 
chain is jammed between it and the deck-pipe. 
A mechanism for checking the recoil of a gun. 

Comptroller s Office, Second. A bureau of 
the Treasury Department. Established in 1817. 
It is the duty of the Comptroller to receive and 
examine all accounts settled by the Second, 
Third, and Fourth Auditors, and certify the 
balances arising thereon to the Secretary of the 
Department in which the expenditure has been 
incurred. The Comptroller s jurisdiction is re 
visory and not original, but in all cases his de 
cision is final and binding upon the Auditor who 
first passes upon the account or claim. All re 
quisitions of the Secretaries of War and of the 
Navy on the Treasury for money to be expended 
by those Departments must be countersigned by 
the Second Comptroller ; and he must report to 
those Secretaries the official forms to be used in 
the different offices for disbursing the public 
money in their respective Departments, and the 
manner and form of keeping and stating the 
accounts of the persons employed therein. In 
case of the death of any petty officer, seaman, or 
other person not an officer, on board any vessel 
in the employ of the United States, which has 
been sunk or destroyed, the Comptroller may 
prescribe rules to govern the payment of arrears 
of pay due such person to the persons designated 
by law to receive the same. The Comptroller is 
the custodian of the official bonds of all dis 
bursing officers of the War and Navy Depart 
ments, and all contracts made by virtue of any 
law, and requiring the advance of money, or in 
any manner connected with the settlement of 
public accounts, if cognizable by the Second 
Comptroller, must be deposited in his office 
within ninety days after their respective dates. 
The Second Comptroller is charged with the 
preservation of the public accounts subject to his 
revision, but in all cases such accounts after 
having been revised are returned to the Auditor 
from whom they were received, and are placed 
among his files. The office of the Second Comp 
troller consists of the Comptroller, Deputy Comp 
troller, and sixty clerks, and is organized in di 
visions, as follows: army-pay, navy-pay, quar 
termaster s, Indian, law and miscellaneous, army 
pension, and book-keepers. 

Concealment, or Suppressio Veri. Consists 
in the suppression of any fact or circumstance as 
to the state of the ship, the nature of her employ, 
and the time of sailing or expected arrival, ma 
terial to the risk of insurance, and is fatal to the 
insured. But it is held immaterial to disclose 
the secret destination of privateers, the usages 
of trade, or matters equally open to both parties. 
Concentrated Fire. See FIRE. 
Concentric Engine. An instrument used in 
scroll engraving, particularly bank-note plate 
engraving. 

Conch. A large univalve, used as a horn by 
pilots, fishermen, etc., in fogs ; a strombus, triton, 
or sometimes a murex. A name for wreckers of 
the Bahama reefs; though plunder is their _ ob 
ject, the Conchs are very~serviceable, arid evince 
both courage and address in saving the lives of 
the wrecked. A nickname for the inhabitants 
of Key West. 

Concluding-line. A small rope hitched to 



CONCITSSION-FUZE 



162 



CONN 



the middle of the steps of the stern-ladders. 
Also, a small line leading through the centre of 
the steps of a Jacob s ladder. 

Concussion-fuze. See FUZE. 

Condemn. To determine, judicially, the 
question of title to a captured vessel in favor of 
the captor. (See PRIZE.) To declare a vessel 
unseaworthy with a view to her being broken 
up. To pronounce against the physical capacity 
of an officer or enlisted man. To declare offi 
cially that stores are unfit for use. 

Condenser. In the steam-engine, the vessel or 
apparatus in which the steam is condensed when 
expelled from the cylinder after having per 
formed its work, and m which a partial vacuum 
is constantly maintained while the machinery is 
in operation, the steam being instantly deprived 
of its latent heat and a portion of its sensible 
heat, either by direct contact with cold water 
injected as a "spray," or being exposed to me 
tallic surfaces kept cold by circulating water. 
When the spray or jet is used, and the water of 
condensation mixes with the " injection," or re 
frigerating water, the apparatus is called a "jet 
condenser" ; and when the condensation is pro 
duced by contact with metallic surfaces, and tho 
purity of the water of condensation preserved, it 
is called a "surface condenser." In both cases 
the uncondensed vapor, the quantity of which 
depends upon the temperature of the water of 
condensation, and the air or other gas mixed 
with the steam, are drawn off by an nir-pump. 

The surface condenser consists of a box suffi 
ciently strong to resist the atmospheric pressure, 
usually of cast iron and of rectilinear cross-sec 
tions, filled with tubes about or f inch diam 
eter, packed water-tight at both ends, the steam 
being exposed to one surface of the tube, and the 
refrigerating water, which is generally forced 
f through by a pump, called a circulating-pump, 
to the other. 

The amount of tube-surface exposed to the 
steam should be about one square foot for each 
pound of coal consumed per hour. This will 
insure a good vacuum in any climate. The 
quantity of refrigerating water may be computed 
by the formula : 

,(H-T f ) 

-- ~ 



in which H denotes the total heat of the steam 
discharged into the condenser, 10 its weight, T 
the temperature of the sea-water, T l that of the 
discharge-water, W its weight, and T 2 the tem 
perature of the water of condensation. From this 
the volume for any given time may be easily 
computed. With a jet condenser 



The value of T may be generally considered 
about 80 Fahr. See MARINE STEAM-ENGINE. 
Albert Aston, Chief Engineer U.8.N. 

Condensing Engine. A steam-engine in 
which the steam, after having performed its 
work, instead of being expelled into the atmo 
sphere as in a locomotive-engine, is brought in 
contact with cold water or cold metallic surfaces 
in an apparatus called a condenser, where it is 
instantly condensed, thereby producing a partial 
vacuum and relieving the piston of a greater 
portion of the atmospheric pressure, andj at the 



same time, reserving the pure water of con 
densation for resupplying the boilers. See CON 
DENSER. 

An engine for condensing or compressing 
matter of any kind. 

Conder. A watcher of fishes, the same as 
balker, huer, and olpis. His employment was 
to give notice to the fishermen from an eminence 
which way the shoals of fish were going. 

Conductor. A metal rod or wire projecting 
above the truck and leading thence to the water. 
Its use is to protect the ship from lightning. 
See ELECTRICITY. 

Cone-buoy. See BUOY. 

Cone Valve. A rotating or oscillating valve, 
the bearing surfaces of which are conical, and 
which is similar in its action to a cock. The 
device has never been successfully adopted on a 
large scale, owing principally to the variable 
expansion of the metal. 

Coney-fish. A name of the burbot. 

Confederation, Argentine. The navy of the 
Confederation consists of 26 steamers, 2 of which 
are ironclads, and they are manned by 2900 sail 
ors and marines. This navy is commanded by 2 
admirals and 74 other officers. 

Configuration. Relative position or aspect of 
the planets ; or the face of the horoscope, accord 
ing to the relative position of the planets at any 
time. 

Confluent. Flowing together; meeting in a 
common current ; as, confluent streams. 

Conger. A large species of sea-eel, of the 
Anguilla family (Conger of some naturalists). 
It sometimes attains a length of 10 feet and a 
weight of 100 pounds. 

Congress. An assembly of princes or pleni 
potentiaries for the settlement of the affairs of 
peoples or states. 

Congress of the United States. The na 
tional legislature. For its constitution, powers, 
and relation to the navy, see CONSTITUTION OF 
THE UNITED STATES. 

Congreve-rocket. A powerful rocket in 
vented by Sir William Congreve. 

Conical Valve. A valve with a conical bear 
ing surface. The valve may either lift in direc 
tion of the axis of the cone or rotate about it. 

Conic Sections. That part of mathematics 
which treats .of the measurements, properties, 
etc., of the sections of a cone. The curves formed 
by the cutting of a cone by a plane are the^a- 
rabola (Gr. paraballein, to place side by side), the 
ellipse (Gr. clleipein, to fall short of), and the 
hyperbola (Gr. huperballein, to exceed). When 
the cutting plane is parallel with the generating 
line of the cone a parabola is formed ; when the 
inclination of the cutting plane to the base is 
less than that of the generating line, an ellipse is 
formed ; and when it is greater, we have a hyper 
bola. 

Conjee. Gruel made of rice. 

Conjunction. Heavenly bodies are in con 
junction when they have the same longitude. 
The inferior conjunction of a planet is its posi 
tion when in conjunction on the side of the sun 
nearest the earth ; its superior conjunction is its 
position when in conjunction on the side of the 
sun farthest from the earth. The superior planets 
have no inferior conjunction. 

Conn, Con, or Cun. This word is derived 
from the Anglo-Saxon conne, connan, to know, 



CONNAISSANCE 



163 



CONSTITUTION 



to be skillful. To direct the course of a ship. 
The quartermaster conns the ship ordinarily, hut 
on special occasions it is done by the pilot, officer 
of the deck, navigator, or commanding officer. 
At the conn, at the station for conning the ship. 

CONNINOS. Reckonings. 

Connaissance des Temps. The French work 
corresponding to the " Nautical Almanac." 

Connecting Rod. A rod connecting the re 
ciprocating parts of a machine with the rotating 
parts, such as the cross-head or beam with the 
crank of a steam-engine. The ends of the rod 
are provided with adjustable bearings fitted to 
the journals of the cross-head, or beam-centre, 
and crank-pin. When the length of the rod is 
great in comparison to its diameter, it is braced 
by light rods stretched over "struts" or "out 
riggers." 

Consign. To commit goods to a shipmaster 
for conveyance and delivery to the person to 
whom they are addressed. 

CONSIGNEE. The person to whom goods are 
sent. 

CONSIGNOR. The person who sends goods. 

Console-bracket. A bracket or ornament 
used to support any projections on the outside or 
inside of the ship. 

Consort. Any vessel in company with another. 

Constant Battery. See GALVANIC BATTERY. 

Constantinople. A celebrated city of Turkey 
in Europe, and the capital of the Ottoman Em 
pire, in lat. 41 18" N., Ion. 28 59 15" E., 
situated on a declivity or series of gentle hills at 
the eastern extremity of a triangular promon 
tory of the province of Roumelia, having the 
Sea of Marmora and the Bosphorus on the south 
and east, and the Golden Horn, an inlet of the 
latter, on the north. It is thus surrounded by 
water on all sides except the west, and has a sea 
front altogether of about 8 miles in extent. The 
city proper comprises several quarters, as those 
for the Jews, Armenians, and Greeks. The 
Greek quarter, the " Fanar," extends along the 
shore of the port, or the Golden Horn. This fine 
harbor lies between the city and its suburbs 
Pera and Galata, extending for about 4 miles 
inland in a northwesterly direction, and varying 
in breadth from 1 to 4 furlongs. It is deep 
enough to float ships of the largest size, and is 
crossed by two bridges of boats, which unite 
the Fanar with the northern suburbs. Pop. 
700,000. 

Constellation (Lat. con, together ; stellatio, a 
grouping of stars, from stella, a star). A group 
of fixed stars to which a name has been given. 
These names have mostly their origin in the 
mythology of the Greeks, derived and modified 
from the Egyptians and the East ; and the stars 
forming each configuration are ranged and 
named in order of brilliancy. The districts thus 
mapped out are entirely arbitrary, and in general 
correspond to no natural grouping of the stars. 
"Innumerable snakes twine through long and 
contorted areas of the heavens where no memory 
can follow them ; bears, lions, and fishes, large 
and small, northern and southern, confuse all 
nomenclature." The ancient system has, how 
ever, obtained a currency from which it would 
be difficult to dislodge it ; and it serves the pur 
pose of briefly naming remarkable stars, an 
important point for the navigator. The follow 
ing is a list of the principal constellations, with 



the right ascension and declination of the brightest 
star in each : 



Name. 



R. A. 



h. in. 

Andromeda, Andromeda 2.2 

Antlia, The Air-Pump 10 21.7 

Apus, The Bird of Paradise 1433 

Aquarius, The Water-Bearer 21 59.6 

Aquila, The Eagle 19 43.9 

Ara, The Altar 17 22.6 

Argo, The Ship Argo 6 21.3 

Aries, The Ram 2 0.4 

Auriga, The Wagoner 5 7.8 

Bootes, The Herdsman 14 10.2 

Cwlum, The Sculptor s Toojs 4 36.7 

Cameleopardalis, The Giraffe 442.1 

Cancer, The Crab 851.9 

Canes Venatici, The Hunting Dogs 12 50.4 

Canis Major, The Greater Dog 6 39.9 

Canis Minor, The Lesser Dog 7 33 

Capricornus, The Sea-Goat 20 11.4 

Cassiopeia, Cassiopeia 033.7 

Centaurus, The Centaur 14 81.6 

CephetUL Cepheus 21 15.7 

Cetus, The Sea-Monster 2 56 

Chameleon, The Chameleon 8 21.6 

Circiinis, The Compass 14 32.8 

Coluniha, Noah s Dove 5 35.3 

Coma Berenices, Berenice s Hair 13 4.2 

Corona Australis, The Southern Crown 19 1.3 

Corona Borealis, The Northern Crown 15 29.6 

Corvus, The Crow 12 2.2 

Crater, The Cup 10 53.9 

Crux, The Cross 12 19 9 

Cygnus, The Swan 2037.3 

Dt-lphinus, The Dolphin 20 34.1 

Dorado, The Sword-Fish 431.3 

Draco, The Dragon ....14 1.1 

Equuleus, The Little Horse 21 9.8 

Eridanus, The River Eridanus 1 33.3 

Fornax, The Furnace 244.1 

Gemini, The Twins 7 27 

Grus, The Crane 22 0.6 

Hercules, Hercules 17 9.2 

Horologium, The Clock 4 10 

Hydra, The Sea-Serpent 9 21.7 

Hydrus, The Water-Snake 1 55 

Indus, The Indian 2029.1 

Lacerta, The Lizard 22 26.4 

Leo, The Lion 10 2 

Leo Minor, The Lesser Lion 10 21 

Lepus, The Hare 5 27.4 

Libra, The Balance 14 44.2 

Lnpns, The Wolf 14 34 

Lynx, The Lynx 9 13 8 

Lyra, The Lyre 18 32.9 

Mensa, The Table Mountain 4 59.2 

Microscopinm, The Microscope 20 42.5 

Monoceros, The Unicorn 7 35.6 

Musca, The Bee 12 30 

Norma, The Rule 16 10.9 

Octans, The Octant 20 50.2 

Ophiuchus, The Serpent-Bearer 17 29.4 

Orion, Orion 5 48.7 

Pavo, The Peacock 20 16.2 

Pegasus, The Winged Horse 22 58.8 

Perseus, Perseus 3 15.8 

Phu?nix, The Phoenix 20.4 

Pictor, The Painter s Easel 6 47 

Pisces, The Fishes 1 55.9 

Piscis Australis, The Southern Fish 22 51 

Piscis Volans, The Flying-Fish 9 0.6 

Reticulmn, The Net 4 12.9 

Sagitta, The Arrow 19 34.7 

Sagittarius, The Archer 18 16.2 

Scorpio, The Scorpion 16 22.1 

Sculptor, The Sculptor s Workshop 52 8 

Serpens, The Serpent 15 38.4 

Sextans, The Sextant 10 1.8 

Taurus. The Bull 4 29 

Telescopium, The Telescope 18 18.1 

Toucan, The Toucan 22 10.3 

Triangula, The Northern Triangles 1 4G..J 

Triangulum Anstrale, The Southern Triangle..l6 36 

Ursa Major, The Greater Bear 10 56.3 

Ursa Minor, The Lesser Bear 1 I 1 *- 6 

Virgo, The Virgin 13 18.9 

Volans. See Piscis Volans. 

Vulpecula, The Fox 19 23.7 



Dec. 
o / 

28 26 N. 
30 27 S. 
78 32 S. 

54 S. 

833N. 
49 47 S. 
52 38 S. 
22 55 N. 

45 52 N. 
19 49 N. 
42 6S. 
66 8N. 
12 19 N. 
38 58 N. 

16 33 S. 
532N. 

12 55 S. 
55 53 N. 

60 20 S. 
62 5N. 

337N. 

76 32 S. 
64 278. 
34. 88. 
18 10 N. 
38 5 S. 
27 7N. 
24 38. 

17 40 S. 
62 26 S. 
44 51 N. 
15 29 N. 
55 18 S. 

64 57 N. 
445N. 

57 51 8. 
32 55 S. 
32 9 N. 
47 33 S. 
1432N. 
42 35 S. 
888. 
62 9S. 
47 43 N. 
49 40 S. 
12 33 N. 

37 19 N. 
17 55 S. 

15 32 S. 

46 52 S. 
34 54 N. 

38 40 N. 
75 88. 
34 14 S. 

9 16 S. 
68 28 S. 
49 52 S. 

77 29 S. 
12 39 N. 

724N. 
57 7S. 
14 34 N. 
49 26 N. 
42 58 S. 

61 49 S. 
2 11 N. 

30 16 S. 

65 55 S. 

62 47 S. 
17 44 N. 
34 20 S. 
26 10 S. 
30 S. 

6 48 N. 
13 N. 

16 16 N. 
46 28. 
60 51 S. 
29 ON. 
68 48 S. 
62 24 N. 
88 40 N. 
10 32 S. 

24 25 N. 



Constitution (Lat. cow, together, and statuo, 
to place). The collective body of the funda 
mental laws of a state, whether expressed in 



CONSTITUTION 



164 



CONSTITUTION 



written documents or established by prescriptive 
usage. In a certain sense, all states in which the 
power of a sovereign over his people, or classes 
of his people, is limited by law or legal usage in 
any particular, may be said to possess, to that 
extent, a constitution ; but in ordinary language 
only a government in which the power of legis 
lation, or that of granting and withholding sup 
plies to the sovereign, is vested in the people or 
a body of representatives elected by them, or by 
a class of them, is termed constitutional. 

.Constitution of the United States of America, 
with Amendments. We the people of the United 
States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, 
establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, 
provide for the common defence, promote the 
general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of 
Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do or 
dain and establish this CONSTITUTION for the 
United States of America. 

ART. 1. Sect. I. All legislative Powers here 
in granted shall be vested in a Congress of the 
United States, which shall consist of a Senate 
and House of Kepresentatives. 

Sect. 2. The House of Representatives shall be 
composed of Members chosen every second Year 
by the people of the several States, and the Elec 
tors in each State shall have the Qualifications 
requisite for Electors of the most numerous 
Braiich of the State Legislature. 

No Person shall be a Representative who shall 
not have attained to the Age of twenty-five 
Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the 
United States, and who shall not, when elected, 
be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall 
be chosen. 

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be ap 
portioned among the several States which may 
be included within this Union, according to their 
respective Numbers, which shall be determined 
by adding to the whole number of free Persons, 
including those bound to Service for a Term of 
Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three- 
fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumera 
tion shall be made within three Years after the 
first Meeting of the Congress of the United 
States, and within every subsequent Term of ten 
Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law di 
rect. The Number of Representatives shall not 
exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each 
State shall have at Least one Representative; 
and until such enumeration shall be made, the 
State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to 
chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island 
and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut 
five, New- York six, New Jersey four, Pennsyl 
vania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Vir 
ginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina 
five, and Georgia three. 

When vacancies happen in the Representation 
from any State, the Executive Authority thereof 
shall issue Writs of Election to fill such vacancies. 

The House of Representatives shall chuse their 
Speaker and other Officers ; and shall have the 
sole Power of Impeachment. 

Sect. 3. The Senate of the United States shall 
be composed of two Senators from each State, 
chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years ; 
and each Senator shall have one Vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in 
Consequence of the first Election, they shall be 
divided as equally as may be into three Classes. 



The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall 
be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, 
of the second Class at the Expiration of the 
fourth Year, and of the third Class at the ex 
piration of the sixth Year, so that one-third rnay 
be chosen every second Year ; and if Vacancies 
happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the 
Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Ex 
ecutive thereof may make temporary Appoint 
ments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, 
which shall then fill such Vacancies. 

No person shall be a Senator who shall not 
have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and 
been nine Years, a Citizen of the United States, 
and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabi 
tant of that State for which he shall be chosen. 

The Vice President of the United States shall 
be President of the Senate, but shall have no 
Vote, unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and 
also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of 
the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the 
Office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try 
all Impeachments. When sitting for that Pur 
pose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When 
the President of the United States is tried, the 
Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall 
be convicted without the Concurrence of two- 
thirds of the Members present. 

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not 
extend further than to removal from Office, and 
disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of 
honor, Trust or Profit under the United States : 
but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be 
liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judg 
ment and Punishment, according to Law. 

Sect. 4. The Times, Places and Manner of 
holding Elections for Senators and Representa 
tives, shall be prescribed in each State by the 
Legislature thereof, but the Congress may at any 
time by Law make or alter such Regulations, 
except as to the Places of chusing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in 
every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the 
first Monday in December, unless they shall by 
Law appoint a different Day. 

Sect. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the 
Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own 
Members, and* a Majority of each shall constitute 
a Quorum to do Business ; but a smaller Num 
ber may adjourn from day to day, and may be 
authorized to compel the Attendance of absent 
Members, in such Manner, and under such Pen 
alties as each House may provide. 

Each House may determine the Rules of its 
Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly 
Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two- 
thirds, expel a Member. 

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Pro 
ceedings, and from time to time publish the 
same, excepting such Parts as may in their 
Judgment require Secrecy ; and the Yeas and 
Nays of the Members of either House on any 
question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those 
Present, be entered on the Journal. 

Neither House, during the Session of Con 
gress, shall, without the Consent of the other, 
adjourn for more than three days, nor to any 
other Place than that in which the two Houses 
shall be sitting. 

Sect. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall 



CONSTITUTION 



165 



CONSTITUTION 



receive a Compensation for their services, to be 
ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treas 
ury of the United States. They shall, in all 
Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of 
the Peace, be Privileged from Arrest during 
their Attendance at the Session of their respec 
tive Houses, and in going to and returning from 
the same ; and for any Speech or Debate in either 
House, they shall not be questioned in any other 
Place. 

No Senator or Kepresentative shall, during 
the Time for which he was elected, be appointed 
to any civil Office under the Authority of the 
United States, which shall have been created, or 
the Emoluments whereof shall have been en- 
creased during such time ; and no Person hold 
ing any Office under the United States, shall be 
a Member of either House during his Contin 
uance in office. 

Sect. 7. All Bills for raising Kevenue shall 
originate in the House of Representatives ; but 
the Senate may propose or concur with Amend 
ments as on other Bills. 

Every Bill which shall have passed the House 
of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before 
it become a Law, be presented to the President 
of the United States ; If he approve he shall 
sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his 
Objections to that House in which it shall have 
originated, who shall enter the Objections at 
large on their Journal, and proceed to recon 
sider it. If after such Reconsideration two 
thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, 
it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to 
the other House, by which it shall likewise be 
reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of 
that House, it shall become a Law. But in all 
such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be 
determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names 
of the Persons voting for and against the Bill 
shall be entered on the Journal of each House 
respectively. If any bill shall not be returned 
by the President within ten Days (Sundays ex- 
cepted) after it shall have been presented to him, 
the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if 
he had signed it, unless the Congress by their 
Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case 
it shall not be a Law. 

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which 
the Concurrence of the Senate and House of 
Representatives may be necessary (except on a 
question of Adjournment) shall be presented to 
the President of the United States ; and before 
the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by 
him, or being disapproved by him, shall be re- 
passed by two-thirds of the Senate and House 
of Representatives, according to the Rules and 
Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. 

Sect. 8. The Congress shall have Power To 
lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Ex 
cises, to pay the Debts and provide for the com 
mon Defence and general Welfare of the United 
States ; but all duties, Imposts and Excises shall 
be uniform throughout the United States; 

To borrow Money on the credit of the United 
States ; 

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, 
and among the several States, and with the In 
dian Tribes ; 

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturaliza 
tion, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bank 
ruptcies throughout the United States ; 



To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and 
of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of "Weights 
and Measures ; 

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeit 
ing the Securities and current Coin of the United 
States ; 

To establish Post Offices and post Roads ; 

To promote the Progress of Science and useful 
Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors 
and Inventors the exclusive Right to their re 
spective Writings and Discoveries ; 

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme 
Court ; 

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies 
committed on the high Seas, and Offences against 
the Law of Nations ; 

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and 
Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures 
on Land and Water ; 

To raise and support Armies, but no Appro 
priation of Money to that Use shall be for a 
longer Term than two Years ; 

To provide and maintain a Navy ; 

To make Rules for the Government and Regu 
lation of the land and naval Forces ; 

To provide for calling forth the Militia to ex 
ecute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrec 
tions and repel Invasions ; 

To provide for organizing, arming, and dis 
ciplining, the Militia, and for governing such 
Part of them as may be employed in the Service 
of the United States, reserving to the States re 
spectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and 
the Authority of training the Militia according 
to the discipline prescribed by Congress ; 

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases 
whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding 
ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particu 
lar States, and the Acceptance of Congress, be 
come the Seat of the Government of the United 
States, and to exercise like Authority over all 
Places purchased by the Consent of the Legisla 
ture of the State in which the Same shall be, for 
the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, 
dock- Yards, and other needful Buildings ; 
And 

To make all Laws which shall be necessary 
and proper for carrying into Execution the fore 
going Powers, and all other Powers vested by 
this Constitution in the Government of the 
United States, or in any Department or Officer 
thereof. 

Sect. 9. The Migration or Importation of such 
Persons as any of the States now existing shall 
think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited 
by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand 
eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may 
be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding 
ten dollars for each Person. 

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus 
shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of 
Rebellion or Invasion the Public Safety may 
require it. 

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law 
shall be passed. 

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be 
laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or 
Enumeration herein before directed to be taken. 

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles ex 
ported from any State. 

No Preference shall be given by any Regula 
tion of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of 



CONSTITUTION 



166 



CONSTITUTION 



one State over those of another ; nor shall Vessels 
bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, 
clear, or pay Duties in another. 

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, 
but in Consequence of Appropriations made by 
Law ; and a regular Statement and Account of 
the Receipts and Expenditures of all public 
Money shall be published from time to time. 

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the 
United States ; And no Person holding any 
Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, with 
out the Consent of the Congress, accept of any 
present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any 
kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or for 
eign State. 

Sect. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, 
Alliance, or Confederation ; grant Letters of 
Marque and Reprisal ; coin Money ; emit Bills 
of Credit ; make any Thing but gold and silver 
Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts ; pass any 
Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law 
impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant 
any Title of Nobility. 

No State shall, without the Consent of the 
Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports 
or Exports, except what may be absolutely neces 
sary for executing its inspection Laws ; and the 
net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by 
any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for 
the Use of the Treasury of the United States ; 
and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revis 
ion and Controul of the Congress. 

No State shall, without the Consent of Con 
gress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or 
Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any 
Agreement or Compact with another State, or 
with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless 
actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger 
as will not admit of delay. 

ART. II. Sect. 1. The executive Power shall 
be vested in a President of the United States of 
America. He shall hold his Office during the 
Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice 
President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, 
as follows. 

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as 
the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number 
of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Sena 
tors and Representatives to which the State may 
be entitled in the Congress : but no Senator or 
Representative, or Person holding an Office of 
Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be 
appointed an Elector. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective 
States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of 
whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of 
the same State with themselves. And they shall 
make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of 
the Number of Votes for each ; which List they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the 
Seat of the Government of the United States, 
directed to the President of the Senate. The 
President of the Senate shall, in the Presence 
of the Senate and House of Representatives, open 
all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be 
counted. The Person having the greatest Num 
ber of Votes shall be the President, if such Num 
ber be a Majority of the whole Number of Elec 
tors appointed ; and if there be more than one 
who have such Majority, and have an equal 
Number of Votes, then the House of Represen 
tatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of 



them for President ; and if no Person have a 
Majority, then from the five highest on the List 
the said House shall in like Manner chuse the 
President. But in chusing the President, the 
Votes shall be taken by States, the Representa 
tion from each State having one Vote ; A quo 
rum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member 
or Members from two thirds of the States, and a 
Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a 
Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the 
President, the Person having the greatest Num 
ber of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice 
President. But if there should remain two or 
more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall 
chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President. 

The Congress may determine the Time of 
chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they 
shall give their Votes ; which Day shall be the 
same throughout the United States. 

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a 
Citizen of the United States, at the time of the 
Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible 
to the Office of President ; neither shall any per 
son be eligible to that Office who shall not have 
attained the Age of thirty five Years, and been 
fourteen Years a Resident within the United 
States. 

In Case of the Removal of the President from 
Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability 
to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said 
Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice Presi 
dent, and the Congress may by Law provide for 
the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or In 
ability, both of the President and Vice President, 
declaring what Officer shall then act as Presi 
dent, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until 
the Disability be removed, or a President shall 
be elected. 

The President shall, at stated Times, receive 
for his Services, a Compensation, which shall 
neither be encreased nor diminished during the 
Period for which he shall have been elected, and 
he shall not receive within that Period any other 
Emolument from the United States, or any of 
them. 

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, 
he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation : 
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will 
faithfully execute the Office of President of the 
United States, and will to the best of my Abil 
ity, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution 
of the United States." 

Sect. 2. The President shall be Commander in 
Chief of the Army and Navy of the United 
States, and of the Militia of the several States, 
when called into the actual Service of the 
United States ; he may require the Opinion, in 
writing, of the principal Officer in each of the 
executive Departments, upon any Subject re 
lating to the Duties of their respective Offices, 
and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and 
Pardons for Offences against the United States, 
except in Cases of Impeachment. 

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice 
and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, 
provided two thirds of the Senators present con 
cur; and he shall nominate, and by and with 
the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall ap 
point Ambassadors, other public Ministers and 
Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all 
other Officers of the United States, whose Ap 
pointments are not herein otherwise provided 



CONSTITUTION 



167 



CONSTITUTION 



for, and which shall be established by Law ; but 
the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment 
of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in 
the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in 
the Heads of Departments. 

The President shall have power to fill up all 
Vacancies that may happen during the Recess 
of the Senate, by granting Commissions which 
shall expire at the End of their next Session. 

Sect. 3. He shall from time to time give to the 
Congress Information of the State of the Union, 
and recommend to their Consideration such 
Measures as he shall judge necessary and expe 
dient ; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, con^ 
vene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case 
of Disagreement between them, with Respect to 
the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them 
to such Time as he shall think proper ; he shall 
receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers ; 
he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully 
executed, and shall Commission all the Officers 
of the United States. 

Sect. 4. The President, Vice President and all 
civil Officers of the United States, shall be re 
moved from Office on Impeachment for, and 
Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high 
Crimes and Misdemeanors. 

ART. III. Sect. 1. The judicial Power of the 
United States, shall be vested in one supreme 
Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Con 
gress may from time to time ordain and estab 
lish. The Judges, both of the supreme and in 
ferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during 
good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, re 
ceive for their Services, a Compensation, which 
shall not be diminished during their Continuance 
in Office. 

Sect. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all 
Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this 
Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and 
Treaties made, or which shall be made, under 
their authority ; to all Cases affecting Ambas 
sadors, other public Ministers and Consuls ; 
to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Juris 
diction ; to Controversies to which the United 
States shall be a Party ; to Controversies be 
tween two or more States ; between a State and 
Citizens of another State ; between Citizens of 
different States, between Citizens of the same 
State claiming Lands under Grants of different 
States, and between a State, or the Citizens 
thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects. 

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other pub 
lic Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a 
State shall be a Party, the supreme Court shall 
have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases 
before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have 
appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, 
with such Exceptions, and under such Regula 
tions as the Congress shall make. 

The Trial of "all Crimes, except in Cases of 
Impeachment, shall be by Jury ; and such Trial 
shall be held in the State where the said Crimes 
shall have been committed ; but when not com 
mitted within any State, the Trial shall be at 
such Place or Places as the Congress may by 
Law have directed. 

Sect. 3. Treason against the United States, 
shall consist only in levying War against them, 
or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them 
Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted 
of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Wit 



nesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in 
open Court. 

The Congress shall have Power to declare the 
Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of 
Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or 
Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person 
attainted. 

ART. IV. Sect. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall 
be given in each State to the public Acts, Rec 
ords, and judicial Proceedings of every other 
State. And the Congress may by general Laws 
prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Rec 
ords and Proceedings shall be proved, and the 
Effect thereof. 

Sect. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be 
entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of 
Citizens in the several States. 

A Person charged in any State with Treason, 
Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from 
Justice, and be found in another State, shall on 
Demand of the executive Authority of the State 
from which he fled, be delivered up, to be re 
moved to the State having Jurisdiction of the 
Crime. 

No Person held to Service or Labour in one 
State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into 
another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or 
Regulation therein, be discharged from such 
Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on 
Claim of the party to whom such Service or La 
bour may be due. 

Sect. 3. New States may be admitted by the 
Congress into this Union ; but no new State 
shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdic 
tion of any other State ; nor any State be formed 
by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts 
of States, without the Consent of the Legisla 
tures of the States concerned as well as of the 
Congress. 

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of 
and make all needful Rules and Regulations re 
specting the Territory or other Property belong 
ing to the United States ; and nothing in this 
Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice 
any Claims of the United States, or of any par 
ticular State. 

Sect. 4. The United States shall guarantee to 
every State in this Union a Republican Form of 
Government, and shall protect each of them 
against Invasion ; and on Application of the 
Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Leg 
islature cannot be convened) against domestic 
Violence. 

ART. V. The Congress, whenever two thirds 
of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall 
propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on 
the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds 
of the several States, shall call a Convention for 
proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, 
shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as 
Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the 
Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, 
or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as 
the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be 
proposed by the Congress ; Provided that no 
Amendment which may be made prior to the 
Year One thousand eight hundred and eight 
shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth 
Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article ; 
and that no State, without its Consent, shall be 
deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate. 

ART. VI. All Debts contracted and Engage- 



CONSTITUTION 



168 



CONSTITUTION 



merits entered into, before the Adoption of this 
Constitution, shall be as valid against the United 
States under this Constitution, as under the 
Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United 
States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; 
and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, 
under the Authority of the United States, shall 
be the supreme Law of the Land ; and the Judges 
in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing 
in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the 
Contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Kepresentatives before men 
tioned, and the Members of the several State 
Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Offi 
cers, both of the United States and of the several 
States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to 
support this Constitution ; but no religious Test 
shall ever be required as a Qualification to any 
Office or public Trust under the United States. 

ART. VII. The Katification of the Conven 
tions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the 
Establishment of this Constitution between the 
States so ratifying the Same. 

AMENDMENTS. 

ART. I. Congress shall make no law respect 
ing an establishment of religion, or prohibiting 
the free exercise thereof; or abridging the free 
dom of speech, or of the press ; or the right of 
the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition 
the Government for a redress of grievances. 

ART. II. A well regulated Militia, being 
necessary to the security of a free State, the right 
of the people to keep and bear Arms shall riot be 
infringed. 

ART. III. No Soldier shall, in time of peace, 
be quartered in any house, without the consent 
of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a man 
ner to be prescribed by law. 

ART. IV. The right of the people to be secure 
in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, 
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall 
not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but 
upon probable cause, supported by Oath v or affir 
mation, and particularly describing the place to 
be searched, and the persons or things to be 
seized. 

ART. V. No person shall be held to answer 
for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless 
on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, 
except in cases arising in the land or naval 
forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service 
in time of War or public danger ; nor shall any 
person be subject for the same offence to be 
twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall 
be compelled in any Criminal Case to be a wit 
ness against himself, nor to be deprived of life, 
liberty, or property, without due process of law ; 
nor shall private property be taken for public 
use, without just compensation. 

ART. VI. In all criminal prosecutions, the 
accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and 
public trial, by an impartial jury of the State 
and district wherein the crime shall have been 
committed, which district shall have been pre 
viously ascertained by law, and to be informed 
of the nature and cause of the accusation ; to be 
confronted with the witnesses against him ; to 
have compulsory process for obtaining Witnesses 
in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Coun 
sel for his defence. 



ART. VII. In suits at common law, where 
the value in controversy shall exceed twenty 
dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be pre 
served, and no fact tried by a jury shall be 
otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United 
States, than according to the rules of the com 
mon law. 

ART. VIII. Excessive bail shall not be re 
quired, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and 
unusual punishments inflicted. 

ART. IX. The enumeration in the Consti 
tution, of certain rights, shall not be construed 
to deny or disparage others retained by the 
people. 

ART. X. The powers not delegated to the 
United States by the Constitution, nor prohib 
ited by it to the States, are reserved to the States 
respectively, or to the people. 

ART. XI. The Judicial power of the United 
States shall not be construed to extend to any 
suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted 
against one of the United States by Citizens of 
another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any 
Foreign State. 

ART. XII. The Electors shall meet in their 
respective States, and vote by ballot for Presi 
dent and Vice-President, one^of whom, at least, 
shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with 
themselves, they shall name in their ballots the 
person voted for as President, and in distinct 
ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, 
and they shall make distinct lists of all persons 
voted for as President, and of all persons voted 
for as Vice-President, and of the number of 
votes for each, which lists they shall sign and 
certify; and transmit sealed to the seat of the 
government of the United States, directed to 
the President of the Senate ; The President of 
the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate 
and House of Representatives, open all the cer 
tificates and the votes shall then be counted ; 
The person having the greatest number of votes 
for President, shall be the President, if such 
number be a majority of the whole number of 
Electors appointed ; and if no person have such 
majority, then from the persons having the high 
est numbers not exceeding three on the list of 
those voted for as President, the House of Kepre 
sentatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, 
the President. But in choosing the President, 
the votes shall be taken by States, the repre 
sentation from each State having one vote ; a 
quorum for this purpose shall consist of a mem 
ber or members from two-thirds of the States, 
and a majority of all the States shall be neces 
sary to a choice. And if the House of Repre 
sentatives shall not choose a President whenever 
the right of choice shall devolve upon them, be 
fore the fourth day of March next following, 
then the Vice-President shall act as President, 
as in the case of the death or other constitutional 
disability of the President. The person having 
the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, 
shall be the Vice-President, if such number be 
a majority of the whole number of Electors 
appointed, and if no person have a majority, 
then from the two highest numbers on the list, 
the Senate shall choose the Vice-President ; a 
quorum for the purpose shall consist of two- 
thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a 
majority of the whole number shall be neces 
sary to a choice. But no person constitution- 



CONSTITUTION 



169 



CONTINENTAL 



ally ineligible to the office of President shall be 
eligible to that of Vice-President of the United 
States. 

ART. XIII. Sect. 1. Neither slavery nor in 
voluntary servitude, except as a punishment for 
crime whereof the party shall have been duly 
convicted, shall exist within the United States, 
or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

Sect. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce 
this article by appropriate legislation. 

ART. XIV. Sect. 1. All persons born or nat 
uralized in the United States, and subject to the 
jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United 
States and of the State wherein they reside. No 
State shall make or enforce any law which shall 
abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens 
of the United States ; nor shall any State de 
prive any person of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law ; nor deny to any 
person within its jurisdiction the equal protec 
tion of the laws. 

Sect. 2. Eepresentatives shall be apportioned 
among the several States according to their re 
spective numbers, counting the whole number 
of persons in each State, excluding Indians not 
taxed. But when the right to vote at any elec 
tion for the choice of electors for President and 
Vice President of the United States, Representa 
tives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial 
officers of a State, or the members of the Legis 
lature thereof, is denied to any of the male in 
habitants of such State, being twenty-one years 
of age, and citizens of the United States, or in 
any way abridged, except for participation in re 
bellion, or other crime, the basis of representa 
tion therein shall be reduced in the proportion 
which the number of such male citizens shall 
bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty- 
one years of age in such State. 

Sect. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Repre 
sentative in Congress, or elector of President and 
Vice President, "or hold any office, civil or mili 
tary, under the United States, or under any 
State, who, having previously taken an oath, as 
a member of Congress, or as an officer of the 
United States, or as a member of any State legis 
lature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any 
State, to support the Constitution of the United 
States, shall have engaged in insurrection or re 
bellion against the same, or given aid or comfort 
to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a 
vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such 
disability. 

Sect. 4. The validity of the public debt of the 
United States, authorized by law, including 
debts incurred for payment of pensions and 
bounties for services in suppressing insurrection 
or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither 
the United States nor any State shall assume or 
pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of in 
surrection or rebellion against the United States, 
or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any 
slave ; but all such debts, obligations and claims 
shall be held illegal and void. 

Sect. 5. The Congress shall have power to en 
force, by appropriate legislation, the provisions 
of this article. 

ART. XV. Sect. 1. The right of citizens of 
the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or by any State on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of 
servitude. 



Sect. 2. The Congress shall have power to en 
force this article by appropriate legislation. 

Construction and Repair, Bureau of. The 
bureau of the Navy Department which has 
charge of dry-docks, of all vessels undergoing 
repairs, and of the designing, building, and 
fitting out of vessels. The head of the bureau 
is the chief constructor of the navy and ranks 
with a commodore. 

Consuls. Commercial agents appointed to 
reside in the seaports of foreign countries with 
a commission to watch over the commercial 
rights and privileges of the nation deputing them. 
Such officers appear to have been first employed 
by the Italian republics to protect their mer 
chants engaged in trade in the cities of the 
Levant. They have been multiplied and ex 
tended to every part of the world where naviga 
tion and commerce can successfully penetrate, 
and their duties and privileges are now generally 
limited and defined in treaties of commerce, 
or by the statute regulations of the country 
which they represent. The laws of the United 
States respecting consuls authorize them to re 
ceive the protests of masters and others relating 
to American commerce, and they declare that 
consular certificates under seal shall receive faith 
and credit in the courts of the United States. It 
is made their duty, where the laws of the coun 
try permit, to administer on the personal estates 
of American citizens dying within their con 
sulates and leaving no legal representative, and 
to take charge of and secure the effects of stranded 
American vessels, in the absence of the master, 
owner, or consignee ; and they are bound to 
provide for destitute seamen within their con 
sulates, and to send them at the public expense 
to the United States. It is also made their duty 
to reclaim deserters, to discountenance insub 
ordination and to lend their aid to the local 
authorities for that purpose, and to discharge 
seamen cruelly treated. No representative or 
diplomatic character attaches to consuls except 
by treaty, nor can they be invested with judicial 
powers except with the consent of the govern 
ment of the country in which they reside. 

CONSULAR AGENTS. Subordinates of consuls, 
who exercise their powers at ports or places dif 
ferent from those at which their principals are 
located. 

CONSUL-GENERAL. A consul having jurisdic 
tion in several places, or over several consuls. 

DEPUTY-CONSULS. Subordinates of consuls, 
who exercise their powers and perform their 
duties at the same ports or places in which their 
principals are located. See COMMERCIAL 
AGENT. 

VICE-CONSULS. Consular officers temporarily 
holding the place of consuls during the absence 
of the latter, or when they have been relieved. 
The vice-consul has no powers or functions when 
the consul is present at his post. 

Census. A title of Neptune. 

Contact. A touching or meeting of bodies. 

Contents. A document which the master of 
a merchantman must deliver to the custom-house 
searcher before he can clear outwards ; it de 
scribes the vessel s destination, cargo, and all 
necessary particulars. 

Continental System. In modern history, the 
celebrated plan of the Emperor Napoleon for 
excluding the merchandise of England from all 



CONTINENTS 



CONTINENTS 



parts of the continent of Europe. It was com 
menced by the decree of Berlin, issued Novem 
ber 21, 1806, which declared the British islands 
in a state of blockade, and made prisoners of war 
all Englishmen found in the territories occupied 
by France and her allies. The blockade thus 
instituted was far from complete ; and in the 
course of events licenses were expressly granted 
by the government for its evasion, and became a 
source of revenue. Some writers have affirmed 
that British commerce lost by this decree and 
those whicli followed it more than sixty millions 
sterling in eighteen months, but this is an enor 
mous exaggeration. 

Continents. Continents are the natural grand 
divisions of the earth s surface. There are six 
continents; viz., Asia, Africa, Europe, North 
America, South America, and Australia. To 
these may be added, provisionally, the Antarctic 
Continent, lying about the s outh pole. 

1. Asia is the largest, and was the first civilized 
portion of the globe. It extends from Singapore, 
in lat. 1 IT N., to Cape Severo, in 78 N., and 
from East Cape, in Ion. 169 W., to Cape Baba, 
in 26 E. Ion., covering an area of 17,500,000 
square miles. It is nearly square, with many 
outlying peninsulas. Its shores are washed by 
3 oceans, and it has numerous gulfs, bays, and 
seas, there being no less than 13 large seas wash 
ing its shores. Many islands also line its coast. 
Its mountains are the highest in the world, the 
Himalaya, Hindoo Koosh, Thian-Shan, and 
Yablonoi ranges being the principal ones. Its 
many rivers are large, the Obi, Yenisei, Lena, 
Amoor, Hoang-Ho, Yang-tse-Kiang, Cambodia, 
Irrawaddy, Burramapootra, Ganges, Indus, Ti 
gris, and Euphrates being chief among them. 
The northern part consists of extensive plateaus, 
sloping to the Arctic, the central of elevated 
table-lands, surrounded by high mountain chains, 
and the eastern and southern portions of alluvial 
plains. 

The great desert of Gobi extends through the 
centre, and much of Arabia is also desert land. 
The predominating races that inhabit Asia are 
of the Caucasian and Mongolian families. There 
are 780,500,000 people, or about 44 to the square 
mile. China, Kussia, Persia, Turkey, and Great 
Britain are the predominating powers. The en 
tire coast of Asia has been explored, but much 
of the interior is yet unknown. 

2. Africa is a vast peninsula, connected to Asia 
by the Isthmus of Suez, and separated from 
Europe by the Mediterranean and the Straits of 
Gibraltar. Its northern cape is Blanco, in lat. 
37 21 N., its southerly, Agulhas Cape, in 34 
53 S. ; its easterly point, Cape Guardafui, in 51 
30 E., and its westerly, Cape Verde, in 17 33 
W. Ion. It contains some 12,000,000 square 
miles, inhabited by 80,000,000 people, or about 7 
to the mile. It is a solid mass, with an uninter 
rupted coast-line, there being few indentations 
and no peninsulas. The Mediterranean, the Red 
Sea, Indian Ocean, and Atlantic wash its coasts. 
Long an unknown land, it is the field of modern 
exploration, and is becoming better known. Its 
uniform coast-line corresponds with its uni 
formity of surface. The southern table-land, 
from 3000 to 4000 feet high, is separated from 
the coast by ranges of mountains. From 15 S. 
to 15 N. is a vast table-land with a depressed 
lake region, and north of 15 is the great Sahara 



Desert, only varied by the fertile lands near the 
coast and the alluvial plain of Egypt. The 
principal rivers are the Nile, Zambesi, Orange, 
Congo, Niger, and Senegal. The chief moun 
tain ranges are the Atlas, the Kong, Drachen- 
berg, and the Sarnen ranges. Many large lakes 
exist, the Victoria and Albert Nyanza,. Ngami, 
and Tchad being the largest. The inhabitants 
belong to 7 races, negroes predominating. The 
most powerful rulers are the Sultans of Morocco, 
Tunis, and Zanzibar, the king of Abyssinia, 
pacha of Egypt, and Great Britain and France 
in their colonies of Cape Colony and Algiers. 

3. Europe is the most populous, but, next to 
Australia, the least continent of the globe. 
It extends from Cape Tarifa, lat. 36 N., to 
Nordkyn, in 71 N. lat., and from Cape Da 
Koca, 9 30 W. Ion., to 66 E. Ion., containing 
3,767,222 square miles, inhabited by 280,000,000 
people, or 75 to the mile. These are of the Cau 
casian race, and are far in advance of others in 
progress and civilization. 

Europe is penetrated by many seas and gulfs, 
and has many outlying peninsulas, giving her 
an extended coast-line. Many large and im 
portant islands lie near the coasts, Great Britain 
chief among them. By far the greater part of 
the country, including Russia, North Germany, 
Belgium, and Holland, is a fertile plain sloping 
to the ocean. The principal mountain ranges 
are the Alps, Pyrenees, Caucasus, Ural, and 
Scandinavian Mountains. There are no deserts, 
but the arid steppes of Russia and the puztas of 
Hungary approach them in character. The Vol 
ga, Danube, Dnieper, Don, Rhine, Elbe, Vis 
tula, Loire, Rhone, Tagus, and Po are the prin 
cipal rivers, and there are numerous large lakes. 

4. North America extends from Point Barrow, 
in lat. 72 N., to Cape Mariato, in lat. 8 30 
N., and from York Point, Ion. 56 W., to Cape 
Prince of Wales, 156 W. Ion., containing 
7,400,000 square miles, with a population of 
74,000,000, or 10 to a mile. Three oceans wash 
the coasts, and numerous large seas, gulfs, and 
bays indent them. All the natural features are 
on a large scale. The rivers are the largest in 
the world. The chief ones are the Yukon, Mac 
kenzie, St. Lawrence, Mississippi and its tribu 
taries, Eio Grande del Norte, Colorado, and 
Columbia. More lakes, and larger ones, are found 
in North America than in any other country. 
The chief ones are those of the great St. Law 
rence basin, but the country north of this con 
tains great numbers of very large ones. The great 
mountain chains are the Rocky Mountains in the 
west and the Alleghanies in the east. There are 
many volcanoes. A great part of the country 
consists of fertile plains, well watered and fruit 
ful. North America is divided between the 
United States, Great Britain, Denmark, Mexico, 
and the Central American States. 

5. South America extends from the southern 
limit of North America, to which it is connected 
by the Isthmus of Panama, to Cape Fro ward, 
54 S., and from Ion. 35 W. to 83 W., contain 
ing 6,500,000 square miles. It much resembles 
Africa in being a solid mass, with few indenting 
bays and outlying islands. It possesses many 
large rivers, the Amazon, La Plata, Para, San 
Francisco, Orinoco, Negro, and Magdalena 
being the principal ones. It has a high range 
of mountains, the Andes traversing it from 



CONTINGENT 



in 



CONYNGHAM 



north to south, leaving a narrow coast on the 
west side, and other ranges near the coast of Bra 
zil. The interior consists of vast well-watered 
plains, called pampas and llanos. Much of it 
has not been explored. The continent is sparsely 
inhabited by 30,000,000, or 5 to a mile, of Indians 
and Europeans, with half-breeds. 

6. Australia, the smallest continent, extends 
from Cape York, 10 39 S., to Wilson s pro 
montory, 39 12 / S., and from Cape Byron, Ion. 
113 5 E., to Steep Point, 153 16 E., contain 
ing some 3,000,000 square miles, inhabited by 
1,336,000 people, natives of the peculiar Papuan 
race, and European settlers. It belongs to Great 
Britain. The largest river is the Murray. A 
range or two of mountains exist, but most of 
the elevations are detached. Few lakes exist, 
and they are of a peculiar nature, very shal 
low, and disappearing quickly in warm seasons. 
Much of the interior "is unexplored. A few large 
cities are built on the continent, mostly in the 
southern part. 

7. Antarctic Continent. A name given to the 
tracts of land seen about the South Pole, named 
Adelie, Enderby, Ballemny, Sabrina, Victoria, 
Louis Philippe, Graham, and Wilkes Lands. 
First seen by Wilkes in 1842 ; its highest latitude 
yet found was 78 S., by Sir James Koss, a high 
mountainous land, fringed by ice. F. S. Bassett, 
Lieutenant U.S.N. 

Contingent. The quota of armed men, or 
pecuniary subsidy which one nation gives to an 
other in pursuance of an agreement. 

Continuous-service Certificate. All men who 
enlist for three years, except officers cooks, 
stewards, and servants, will receive, upon the 
expiration of their enlistments, if they shall so 
elect, continuous-service certificates in lieu of 
the ordinary or honorable discharges. 

All persons holding continuous-service cer 
tificates will be entitled to receive for each con 
tinuous re-enlistment for three years, within 
three months from the dat.e of their discharge, 
one dollar per month in addition to the pay pre 
scribed for their several ratings ; but a person 
failing to re-enlist within three months from the 
date of his discharge will cease to derive any 
advantage from his previous continuous enlist 
ments. 

The continuous-service certificate will embrace 
all the advantages of an honorable discharge in 
cases where persons are recommended for the 
same, and must always show, in the column for 
the purpose, whether or not the person is entitled 
to an honorable discharge. 

Cont-line. The space between the bilges of 
two casks stowed side by side. The space be 
tween the strands of a rope ; when a rope is 
served this space is filled up with the worming 
so that the service will be smooth. 

Contraband (It. contra, against; bando, an 
edict or proclamation). In commercial lan 
guage, goods exported from or imported into a 
country against its laws. 

CONTRABAND OF WAR. Such articles as a 
belligerent has by the law of nations the right 
of preventing a neutral from furnishing to his 
enemy. See INTERNATIONAL LAW. 

Contract. Supplies for the navy are, as far as 
practicable, purchased by contract. The Secre 
tary of the Navy is forbidden by law to make 
any contract except under a law authorizing the 



same, or under an appropriation adequate to its 
fulfillment, and excepting also contracts for sub 
sistence and clothing. All persons employed in 
the navy are prohibited from having any interest 
whatever in purchases or contracts for supplies 
for the navy, and from receiving, directly or in 
directly, any emolument or gratuity from any 
contractor or other person furnishing supplies, 
and from acting as agent or attorney for any 
such persons. No action will lie against an 
officer upon contracts made by him in his official 
capacity for public purposes, and within the 
legitimate scope of his duties. 

CONTRACT OF AFFREIGHTMENT. See CHAR 
TER-PARTY. 

Contribution. A tax levied upon a conquered 
country in lieu of confiscation of property, and 
as some indemnity for the expenses of maintain 
ing order and affording protection. General 
average (which see). The ratable proportion 
which each of several underwriters pays when 
more than one insurance has been effected on the 
same risk. 

Controller. A cast-iron block with depres 
sions on the upper surface which fit the links of 
the cable and prevent its running out. It can be 
thrown out of gear by means of a short lever. 

Convict-ship. A ship appropriated to the 
use of convicts, or one chartered to convey con 
victs to their destination. 

Convoy. A merchant vessel or fleet of mer 
chant vessels protected by an armed force. The 
ship or ships which conduct and defend merchant 
vessels while proceeding to their destination. 

CONVOY-INSTRUCTIONS. The written or printed 
regulations supplied by the senior officer to each 
ship of the convoy. 

CONVOY-LIST. A register of the ships com 
posing the convoy. 

Conyngham, Gustavus, Captain. A native 
of Ireland, emigrated to the United Colonies 
about the year 1767 ; became an apprentice to 
Capt. Henderson, then in the Antigua trade, and 
continued with him as sailor and mate until, by 
Capt.. Henderson s death, he was promoted to 
the command of the vessel in which he had been 
serving, the "Molly." Capt. Conyngham con 
tinued in the same trade until the commence 
ment of our Kevolutionary war, when he went 
to Europe with Mr. Jonathan Nesbit, who ob 
tained for him a commission for a privateer from 
Dr. Franklin and Silas Deane. Having re 
ceived his commission he proceeded to Dunkirk, 
where a vessel was purchased and fitted out for 
a cruise in the British Channel. This was one 
of the first privateers that appeared in those seas 
under our flag. She was so successful in cap 
turing British vessels that the name of Conyng 
ham became a terror in the Channel. He gen 
erally burnt or destroyed his prize-vessels. In 
1778 he was captured, and treated with such sev 
erity that Congress, by resolution (July 17, 
1779), directed their Secretary to write in their 
name to the admiral or commanding officer of 
the British fleet lying in the harbor of New 
York to demand the reasons of his being treated 
" in a manner contrary to the dictates of human 
ity and the practice of Christian civilized na 
tions;" and they directed, in the event of a 
satisfactory answer not being given, that the 
Marine Committee should "immediately cause 
to be confined, in close and safe custody, such 



COOK 



172 



COOPEK 



and so many persons as they may think proper, 
in order to abide the fate of the said Gustavus 
Conyngham." On the 13th of December follow 
ing Congress refused to allow Christopher Hele, 
then a prisoner, to be exchanged or to go upon 
his parole, declaring, by resolution, that he must 
abide the fate of Capt. Conyngham. After Capt. 
Conyngham was captured a print was exhibited 
in London as his exact likeness, and thousands 
flocked to see it. This print represented him as 
a man of gigantic stature, with shoulders of 
extraordinary breadth, and his whole person in 
dicating great strength, with a countenance fero 
cious in the extreme, holding in his right hand a 
drawn sword at least six feet in length. Under 
neath the print was painted in large letters, 
" The Arch Kebel." Admirable likeness ! Con 
yngham was short, very slender, and his visage 
remarkably thin, but he was very active and full 
of spirit. His health suffered greatly during his 
confinement, of which he complained until his 
death. 

Cook, James, Captain. One of the most scien 
tific and adventurous officers in the British navy. 
Deputed to the South Pacific, in 1768, to observe 
the transit of Venus, he seized the opportunity 
of exploring the coast of New South Wales. 
Four years later he was sent to find a land sup 
posed to exist in high southern latitudes ; but he 
did not discover any territory as high as 70 S. 
lat. He, however, came on an island which 
stands on the charts as New Caledonia. In 1776, 
Cook explored Behring s Strait, and in the fol 
lowing year, sailing into the Pacific, he discov 
ered the Sandwich Islands. At Hawaii he was 
set upon by the savages and killed. 

Cook. To concoct or prepare ; hence to tam 
per with or alter ; as, to cook a sight, that is, to 
so change the data as to make the final result 
coincide with the observer s wishes. 

COOK, MESS. A man detailed from each mess 
whose duty is to draw from the paymaster the 
food to which his mess is entitled, to prepare it 
for cooking and deliver it to the ship s cook, to 
receive it from the galley when it is cooked, and 
to attend to the cleaning and arranging of the 
mess-gear. He is generally selected from the 
landsmen of the mess, and ordinarily receives 
from the members of his mess a compensation 
equal to the value of one ration. 

COOK, OFFICER S. The cook to the comman- 
der-in-chief, cabin cook, wardroom cook, steer 
age cook, and warrant-officer s cook do the cook 
ing for their respective messes. They are not 
entitled to continuous-service certificates, nor to 
the benefit of an honorable discharge. 

COOK, SHIP S. A petty officer who has charge 
of the galley and superintends the cooking for 
the whole ship s crew. He brings a sample of 
the dinner for the day to the mast at seven bells, 
where it is inspected by the officer of the deck. 
In early days the position of ship s cook was a 
lucrative one ; he was entitled to a share of the 
slush-money, and received an allowance for 
extra cooking ; as, scouse, early coffee, etc. At 
present the early coffee is authorized by the gov 
ernment, and the slush-money is devo ted to the 
ship s use. 

COOK-HOUSE. The caboose containing the 
cooking apparatus. 

Coom. The crest or comb of a wave. See 
COMB. 



Cooming. See COAMING. 

Cooper, George H., Commodore U.S.N. Born 
in New York. Appointed from New York, Au 
gust 14, 1837 ; attached to fleet operating on 
coast of Florida, 1837, and was constantly em 
ployed co-operating with the army in boat ex- 
ped itions against the Seminole Indians ; frigate 
"Constitution," Pacific Squadron, 1838-42; 
Naval School, Philadelphia, 1843. 

Promoted to passed midshipman, June. 23, 
1843; schooner "Flirt," Home Squadron, 1846 

The " Flirt" reported for duty to Gen. Zachary 
Tajdor in March, 1846. Passed Midshipman 
Cooper commanded a detachment of men at 
Point Isabel, Texas, under Major Monroe, of 
the U. S. army, previous to and after the battles 
of May 8 and 9. After the capture of Mon 
terey, was transferred to Commodore Connor s 
squadron, and was in both attacks on Tabasco, 
and attacks on Alvarado and Tuspan. Served 
in the squadron until the reduction of the capi 
tal. Receiving-ship, Norfolk, 1847-48; naval 
station, Norfolk, 1849-50; steam-frigate " Sus- 
quehanna," East India Squadron, 1850-55. 

Commissioned as lieutenant, May 8, 1851 ; 
rendezvous, Norfolk, 1856 ; ordnance duty, Nor 
folk, 1857; steam-frigate "Roanoke," Home 
Squadron, 1859-60; navv-